Фондові лекції викладачів факультету іноземної філології - Частина І - 2013
РОЗДІЛ 1. Фондові лекції з дисциплін циклу професійної та практичної підготовки для студентів ОКР «Бакалавр» з галузі знань 0203 Гуманітарні науки
за напрямами підготовки 6.020303 Філологія*Мова і література (англійська); 6.020303 Філологія* Мова і література (німецька); 6.020303 Філологія* Мова і література (російська)
Т.В. Мітроусова, кандидат філологічних наук, старший викладач
Phonostylistics and phonetic expressive means and devices
Вид лекції: тематична
Навчальні: сформувати у студентів цілісну картину розвитку наукових знань з фоностилістики; спонукати до розвитку риторичних навичок мовленнєвої діяльності, враховуючи ресурси фонетичного рівня мовної системи.
Розвиваючі: розвивати інтерес до лінгвістичних питань, процесів, що відбуваються у мові.
Виховні: виховання позитивної мотивації до організації наукових досліджень.
Міжпредметні та міждисциплінарні зв'язки: фонетика, фонологія, стилістика, діалектологія, психолінгвістика.
Основні поняття: звуковий символізм, ономатопея, алітерація, асонанс.
Навчально-методичне забезпечення: підручники, словники.
1. Phonostylistics: The subject-matter.
2. Phonetic expressive means and devices.
2.1. Euphony and cacophony.
2.3. Onomatopoeia in J. Joyces «Ulysses».
2.4. Rhythm-forming figures of speech.
1. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка / И.Р. Гальперин. — М., 1997. — 335 с.
2. ГуревичВ.В. EnglishStylistics. Стилистика английского языка: учеб.пособие / В.В. Гуревич. - 2-е изд., испр. - М.: Флинта: Наука, 2007. - 72 с.
3. Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник / В.А. Кухаренко. - Вінниця: Нова книга, 2000. - 160 с.
4. Derek Attridge, Peculiar Language: Literature as Difference from the Renaissance to James Joyce London: Methuen, 1988.- 262 p.
5. Simpson Paul. Stylistics: A resource Book for Students / Paul Simpson. - Routledge: London, 2004. - 247 p.
1. Phonostylistics: The subject-matter
Phonostylistics studies variation in the use of sounds of a language as well as typical prosodic features of different types of discourse. As the term suggests, phonostylistics is concerned with the study of phonetic phenomena from the stylistic point of view. Some scholars consider it a branch of phonetics while others grant it an independent status. Phonostylistics is interconnected with many linguistic and non-linguistic disciplines such as paralinguistics, psychology and psycholinguistics, sociology and sociolinguistics, dialectology, aesthetics, information theory, etc. A wide range of issues are integral to phonostylistics: the phonetic norm and deviations from norms, phonetic synonyms, euphony, sound symbolism, stylistic devices coded or carried by phonetic expressive means, phonetic functional styles.
2. Phonetic expressive means and devices
The sound of most words taken separately will have little or no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word may acquire a desired phonetic effect. The way a separate word sounds may produce a certain euphonic effect, but this is a matter of individual perception and feeling and therefore subjective.
Independence of separate sounds is based on a subjective interpretation of sound associations and has nothing to do with objective scientific data. However, the sound of a word, or more exactly the way words sound in combination, cannot fail to contribute something to the general effect of the message, particularly when the sound effect has been deliberately worked out. This can easily be recognized when analyzing alliterative word combinations or the rhymes in certain stanzas or from more elaborate analysis of sound arrangement. The phonemic structure of the word proves to be important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations. The acoustic form of the word foregrounds the sounds of nature, man and inanimate objects, emphasizing their meaning as well.
2.1. Euphony is a harmony of form and contents, an arrangement of sound combinations, producing a pleasant effect. Euphony - (евфонія) is 56a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing: « The moan of doves in immemorial elms, and murmuring of innumerable bees» (Tennyson).
Cacophony is a disharmony of form and contents, an arrangement of sounds, producing an unpleasant effect. Cacophony is a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing:
«Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul»(R.Browning).
Separate sounds due to their specific features are able to evoke certain ideas, emotions, perceptions and images. For instance, it has been suggested that the English vowel [u:] generally conveys sorrow and seriousness, while [i:] produces the feeling of joy. The experiment shows that people associate some separate sounds with certain properties of things, such as size, color and the noise produced. When a group of children between the ages of 3 and 5 are shown two boxes of large and small sizes and asked to symbolize them «a» and «i», they called the large box «a», and the small one «i», because the sound «a» in all the language of the world is an open vowel according to the vertical position of the tongue.
Besides, the so called sound symbolism manifests itself in a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature, by people, by things or by animals. For example, giggle: laugh lightly in a nervous or silly way; clash: metals' striking together; bang: something striking violently; sough: murmuring sound of wind in trees.
Onomatopoeia is explained in Oxford Dictionary as «Formation of words in imitation of the sounds associated with the thing concerned». The other definitions are: «Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action»; ‘onomatopoeia' is a combination of speechsounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder, etc.), by things (machines or tools, etc.) by people (sighing, laughter, patter of feet, etc.) and by animals. A use of onomatopoeia gives readers stimulations on hearing. To onomatopoeia may also belong the words in which certain combination of speech sounds can be associated with some meaning in the mind of the speaker. The initial combinations of consonants [fl] can show quick movement: fly, flee, flood, flow, flopand combination of [sk] can convey creaking sounds: squeak, squeal, scratch, squawk, screech, scream.
Sound symbolism can be classified into three types according to the different sound makers. So we may have sounds produced by animals, human beings and objects in broad sense. It is a device that uses words which imitate the sounds made by an object (animate or inanimate), or which are associated with or suggestive of some action or movement. This is the most primitive word formation method.
Words imitating animal sounds:
1. Onomatopoeia of animals is frequently used on domestic animals, especially for pets, because dogs, cats, cattle, chicken, horses and some other domestic animals have a very close intimate relationship with human beings. Historically, words which are used to describe those close friends of ours are rich and abundant in almost all languages. Let us take the dog for an example. The following is a list of vocabulary used to describe different sounds uttered by the dog: bark: to make a short and loud cry; bay: to bark with prolonged tones; bowwow: to bark, used imitatively; chide: to bark angrily; gnarl: to snarl, growl;
growl: to utter a usually threatening gnarl; howl: to make a loud sustained doleful cry; quest: to bay;
mart: to growl with bared teeth;
whine: to utter a high-pitched plain true cry;
woof: to make a low gruff;
yap: to bark snappishly;
yelp: to utter a sharp,quick,shrill cry;
From the above words, it is found that we have so many words in English to indicate different sounds produced by a certain kind of animal. In fact, these are only a part of the vocabulary used for dogs, many other words of this kind are used and still quite a few new ones are coming into use. Furthermore, onomatopoeia of other common domestic animals such as chicken, horse, pig, cattle, sheep, duck, cat is also abundant.
So cats:meow, mew, miaow, meow, purr, and caterwaul.
Horses: snicker, neigh, snort, snigger, whicker and whinny.
Cattle: moo, low, bellow, bleat, and baa.
Hens: cackle, gabble, chuck and chuckle.
Other examples:croaks (frog), gaggles (goose), roars (lion), hisses (snake), partridge (churr), crows (cock) , hums (fly), buzzes (bee), quack (duck), howl (wolf), coo (pigeon), jabber (monkey), pips (chick), chirps (bird), squeaks (rat), elephant (bellow), brays (donkey), craoks(crow), whoops (crane), chatters (magpie). It is noteworthy that members of different language communities may perceive and imitate these sounds differently, in accordance with the phonological systems of their languages. The following table exemplifies the use of words to imitate sounds produced by animals in English, Kazakh and Russian:
Words that imitate human's voice: titter, short nervous laugh of people; murmur, low continuous indistinct sound;
babble: talk in a way that is difficult or impossible to understand.
Words that imitate sounds of objects:
clash: metals' striking together;
pop: the sound from a gun;
thump: somebody knocks heavily, esp. with a fist;
sough: murmuring sound of wind in the trees;
whirr, continuous vibrating sound of a planepatter, sound of quick steps of taps
clip-clop: the sound of a horse running; tick-tack: the sound of a clock; dub-a-dub: the sound of a drum; zip: the sound of bullet; toot: the sound of car's trumpet.
Some onomatopoeia words come from certain musical instruments or other nouns, having the same features of the instruments or these nouns. The word drum is originally a noun, indicating a certain musical instrument. When it is used in the sense of onomatopoeia, the word implies the sound uttered by bitterns which is like the sound of a drum. Trumpet refers to the shout of an elephant, meaning the sound like that of a trumpet.Music is not understood as what it usually is, it is explained as the soft and harmonic sound uttered by birds, which is pleasant to one's ears. It is just like a piece of soft music. Carol is another word similar as music. Still, whistle is used with thrushes to show the similarity of the same sound produced from a whistle.
There are two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect.
Indirect onomatopoeiais a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense. It is sometimes called «echo writing»: «And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain» (E.A.Poej, where the repetition of the sound [s] actually
produces the sound of the rustling of the curtain or the imitation of the sounds produced by the soldiers marching over Africa:
«We are foot-slog-slog-slog-slogging
Foot-foot-foot-foot-slogging over Africa.
Boots- boots- boots- boots - moving up and down again» (Kipling).
2.3. Onomatopoeia in J. Joyces «Ulysses»
The sound system of language offers numerous resources for linguistic creativity in style, with metrical and rhythmic structure on the one hand, and phonetic and phonological patterning on the other. A distinction was drawn, echoing Attridge (1988), between lexical and nonlexical onomatopoeia.
Nonlexical onomatopoeia is perhaps the most direct form of verbal imitative art insofar as patterns of sound are crafted to represent the real world without the intercession of grammatical or lexical structures. Attridge's is a slightly irreverent yet hugely entertaining account of this principle at work in a passage from James Joyce's Ulysses.
‘Fff! Oo!': nonlexical onomatopoeia
Joyce's dexterity in handling the sounds and patterns of English is evident on every page of his published work, but one episode of Ulysses is explicitly concerned with music and imitative sound, the chapter known from the Odyssean scheme as ‘Sirens'. We can expect to find here not only Joyce's customary linguistic agility and ingenuity but also some consideration - if only by example - of the whole question of language's capacity to imitate directly the world of the senses. In the well- known closing passage of the chapter, we find a very rudimentary type of onomatopoeia: the use of the phonetic characteristics of the language to imitate a sound without attempting to produce recognisable verbal structures, even those of traditional ‘onomatopoeic' words(nonlexical onomatopoeia). In its naked ambition to mimic the sounds of the real world, however, nonlexical onomatopoeia exposes sharply some important but easily overlooked features of more sophisticated imitative figures.
Leopold Bloom, having imbibed a glass of burgundy at lunch and a bottle of cider at four o'clock, is walking along the Liffey quay uncomfortably aware that the aftereffects of this indulgence will be embarrassing for him should they be heard by any passer-by. Just at that moment a tram passes, providing an acoustic cover under whichhe can achieve the desired release without fear of detection:
«Seabloom, greaseabloom viewed last words. Softly. When my country takes her placeamong.Prrprr.Must be the bur.Fff! Oo. Rrpr.Aations of the earth. No-one behind. <..>. Tram kran kran kran. Good oppor. Coming. Krandikrankran. I'm sure it's the burgund. Yes. One, two. Let my epitaph be. Kraaaaaa. Written. I have. Pprrpffrrppffff. Done».
Several noniexicai onomatopoeic sequences occur here, proffering with a vivid and comic directness the sounds and sensations of tram and fart and contributing to the undoubted memorability of the writing.
Although these are not words and sentences, they mimic words and sentences - and it is this mimicry that permits us to pronounce them at aii. In reading ‘Fff! Oo. Rrpr,' for instance, we give a specific phonetic interpretation to the sequence exciamation mark (or fuii stop)/space/capitai ietter and treat it quite differentiy from the rhythmic repetitions of ‘Tram kran kran kran,' with its absence of punctuation and its iower case, or the continuous ‘Krandikrankran,' which has the graphic form of a singie word. Even if the normai phonoiogicai restrictions are breached, as in the ciimactic string of ietters (‘Pprrpffrrppffff '), the resuiting articuiatory awkwardness heips draw attention to the sounds themseives, an effect that is equaiiy dependent on the reader's prior famiiiarity with ruies of graphoiogy and phonoiogy. Eisewhere in Ulysses Joyce goes even further in the direction of unpronounceabiiity within the conventions of Engiish: the Biooms' cat goes ‘Mkgnao!' ‘Mrkgnao!', and ‘Mrkrgnao!', and in ‘Circe' the ‘dummymummy' produces the sound ‘Bbbbbiiiiibibibibiobschb!' as it faiis into Dubiin Bay. The difficuity of pronunciation is obviousiy part of the comic point (when Bioom imitates the cat in repiy he goes, conventionaiiy, ‘Miaow!'.
The sequences we are iooking at do not constitute iexicai items, but they do not function pureiy as phonetic chains either, without reference to the morphoiogicai system of the ianguage and its semantic accompaniment. (It wouid be difficuit to find a string of ietters that had no semantic coiouring, given a specific fictionai setting and the eagerness of readers to find meanings in what they read.) The ietter ‘f ' hints at the word ‘fart,' and ‘kran' is not very far from ‘tram.' ‘Krandi-' evokes phoneticaiiy reiated verbs of movement and noise such as ‘trundie,' ‘rumbie,' ‘grumbie,' ‘shambie,' ‘scrambie' - what has been caiied a ‘phonesthetic consteiiation' (Boiinger 1965, Graham 1981).
The reader might aiso be induced to make a connection with another sign system, that of musicai dynamics, where ‘ppffff' wouid signai ‘very soft' and ‘very ioud indeed'. (When Moiiy breaks wind in ‘Peneiope', and aiso does her best to be quiet about it, she addresses the words ‘piano' and ‘pianissimo' to herseif at the criticai moment. The onomatopoeic effect aiso reiies on an avoidance of certain morphoiogicai associations where these wouid be irreievant or distracting.
We should rely on our knowledge not only of the conventions of graphology, phonology, and morphology, but also of those of the rhetorical device of onomatopoeia itself. To take one example, the convention that a repeated letter automatically represents a lengthened sound is not to be found among the rules of the English language; the spelling of gaffer, for instance, does not imply that the medial consonant is pronounced at greater length than that of loafer. The rules cannot handle a succession of more than two repeated letters at all. But we have no difficulty with Joyce's triple Fff, which we interpret as an indication of marked duration, and such breaches of the graphological rules function, in fact, as strong indicators that we are in the presence of an onomatopoeic device. The conventions of onomatopoeia relate not just to spelling, however, but also to the associations evoked by sounds and letters. Within the tradition of English poetry, the onomatopoeic associations of /s/ and /1/ are more appealing than those of /f/, though there is nothing intrinsically beautiful about the former or ugly about the latter.
The same letters can in fact perform very different onomatopoeic tasks: in Ulysses a sequence of es stands not only for a release of wind, as in ‘A wee little wind piped eeee,' but for a stick trailing along a path (‘Steeeeeeeeeeeephen!' [1.629]), a creaking door (‘ee: cree' [7.50] and ‘ee' [11.965]), a turning doorhandle ([‘Theeee!' [15. 2694]), and a distant trainwhistle (‘Frseeeeeeeefronnnng' [18.595], ‘Frseeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeefrong' [18.874], ‘sweeeee . . . eeeee' [18.908]). In the last example the context does not allow us to distinguish that trainwhistle from Molly's own anal release.
Onomatopoeia is not a means of gaining knowledge about the world; after all, we can praise a literary text for the precision of its descriptions only if we are already fully acquainted with what the text purports to be describing.
Even when these two conditions, an unambiguous situating context and prior familiarity with the sound, are met, the imitative effects of onomatopoeia - even of this very direct type - remain extremely imprecise. What, for instance, are we to make of ‘Oo'? Is this a voiced (or thought) exclamation of Bloom's? An accompanying burp? A noisy passage in the anal performance? (As every actor knows, the letter ‘O' can represent a wide variety of speech sounds).The only fully successful onomatopoeia occurs when the human voice is imitated, which is what written language, in a sense, does all the time - except, that is, when it is attempting nonlexical onomatopoeia.
2.4. Rhythm-forming figures of speech.
Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, as a rule, consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words: «Thepossessive instinct never stands still»(J.Galsworthy) or, «Deep into the darkness peering, /long I stood there wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming /dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before»(E.A.Poe).
Alliteration, like most phonetic expressive means, does not bear any lexical or other meaning unless we agree that a sound meaning exists as such. But even so we may not be able to specify clearly the character of this meaning, and the term will merely suggest that a certain amount of information is contained in the repetition of sounds, as is the case with the repetition of lexical units.
It is a phonetic stylistic device, which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. Ex.: Welling waters, winsome words' (Swinborne); ‘The winnowing wind (Keats); «Dead Dufton, I muttered to myself. Dirty Dufton, Dreary Dufton, Dispicable Dufton» - then stopped»(J.Braine).
Alliteration also serves as a linguistic rhetorical device more commonly used in persuasive public speaking. Rhetoric is broadly defined as the «Art of Persuasion», which has from the earliest times been concerned with specific techniques for effective communication. Alliteration serves to «intensify any attitude being signified». Its significance as a rhetorical device is that it adds a textural complexity to a speech, making it more engaging, moving, and memorable. The use of alliteration in a speech captivates a person's auditory senses that assists in creating a mood for the speaker. The use of a repeating sound or letter forces an audience's attention because of their distinct and noticeable nature. The auditory senses, hearing and listening, seem to perk up and pay attention with the constant sounds of alliteration. It also evokes emotion which is key in persuading an audience. The idea of pathos solidifies that playing to a person's emotions is key in persuading them and connecting them to the argument that is being made. For example, the use of a «H» sound can produce a feeling of calmness. Other sounds can create feelings of happiness, discord, or anger, depending on the context of the alliteration. These feelings become memorable to a listener, which have been created by alliteration.
The most common example of this is in John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, where he uses alliteration twenty-one times throughout his speech.Other examples of alliteration in some famous speeches:
«I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character»(Martin Luther King, Jr.);
«We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths — that all of us are created equal — is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls, and Selma, and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great Mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on Earth»(Barack Obama).
Assonance-(acoнанс, або вокалічна алітерація) - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables:
«Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden, //1 shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the angels name Lenore // Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels name Lenore?» (E.Poe -«Raven»)
1) повтор приголосних або голосних звуків на початку близько розташованих ударних складів: e.g. Doom is dark and deeper than any seadingle. (W.Auden)
2) повтор першихбукв: e.g. AptAlliteration'sartfulaid. (W.Auden)
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words. Rhyming words are generally placed at a regular distance from each other. In verses they are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines.
Identity and similarity of sound combinations may be relative. For instance, we distinguish between full rhymes and incomplete rhymes. The full rhyme presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable, including the initial consonant of the second syllable (in polysyllabic words), we have exact or identical rhymes.
Incomplete rhymes present a greater variety. They can be divided into two main groups: vowel rhymes and consonant rhymes. In vowel-rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different as in flesh - fresh - press. Consonant rhymes, on the contrary, show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels, as in worth - forth, tale - tool - treble - trouble; flung - long.
Modifications in rhyming sometimes go so far as to make one word rhyme with a combination of words; or two or even three words rhyme with a corresponding two or three words, as in «upon her honour – won her»,«bottom -forgot them - shot him». Such rhymes are called compound or broken. The peculiarity of rhymes of this type is that the combination of words is made to sound like one word - a device which inevitably gives a colloquial and sometimes a humorous touch to the utterance. Compound rhyme may be set against what is called eye - rhyme, where the letters and not the sounds are identical, as in love - prove, flood - brood, have - grave. It follows that compound rhyme is perceived in reading aloud, eye- rhyme can only be perceived in the written verse.
Full rhymes: Might - Right Incomplete rhymes: worth - forth Eye-rhyme: love - prove Types of rhymes:
1) Couplet: aa: The seed ye sow, another reaps; (a)
The wealth ye find, another keeps; (a)
2) Triplet: aaa: And on the leaf a browner hue, (a)
And in the heaven that clear obscure, (a)
So softly dark, and darkly pure, (a)
3) Cross rhymes: abab:
It is the hour when from the boughs (a)
The nightingales' high note is heard;( b)
It is the hour when lovers' vows (a)
Seem sweet in every whispered word, (b)
4) Frame (ring): abba:
He is not here; but far away (a)
The noise of life begins again, (b)
And ghastly thro 'the drizzling rain (b)
On the bald streets breaks the blank day (a)
5) Internal rhyme
«I dwelt alone (a) in a world of moan, (a)
And my soul was a stagnant tide.»
Conclusions. Sound symbolism generally appears in literary works instead of oral speeches. This is because it is easy and convenient to use the simpler words like cry, shout, sing and call in oral speeches. The second reason is because not many people are familiar with these special words, and maybe they are afraid they might not be understood.Sound symbolism came into being by imitating the sound of the nature from the perspective of word forming or creation. But it is also a rhetoric method with particular lingering charm from the perspectives of rhetoric. Since sound symbolism is not merely the simple and mechanic imitation of nature, it is also a recreation and sublimation of natural sound.