Фондові лекції викладачів факультету іноземної філології - Частина І - 2013

РОЗДІЛ 2. Фондові лекції з дисциплін спеціальної підготовки для студентів ОКР «Спеціаліст» з галузі знань 0203 Гуманітарні науки за спеціальностями 702030302 Мова і література (англійська); Мова і література (німецька); Мова і література (російська)

Н.В. Ситник, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент

Translation and style

Дисципліна: теорія і практика перекладу

Вид лекції: тематична (комплексна)

Дидактичні цілі:

Навчальні: створити теоретичну базу для формування та подальшого розвитку навичок перекладу стилістичних засобів (з англійської мови на українську і навпаки), підготувати студентів до самостійної розробки окремих питань стилістичних аспектів перекладу та ведення науково-дослідницької роботи; ознайомити студентів з типовими проблемами, що виникають під час перекладу, з типами і видами перекладу та засобами досягнення передачі змісту повідомлення англійською мовою засобами рідної мови і навпаки.

Розвиваючі: формувати пізнавальну активність аудиторії, розвивати у студентів практичні навички і вміння двостороннього усного і письмового перекладу стилістичних засобів.

Виховні: виховувати у студентів-філологів моральні принципи, які лежать в основі перекладацької етики, ознайомити з нормами професійної поведінки і вимогами до фахової придатності, сприяти усвідомленню студентами необхідності ґрунтовної і всебічної підготовки до професії перекладача та його відповідальності за якість власної праці.

Міжпредметні та міждисциплінарні зв'язки: культурологія, мовознавство, літературознавство, лексикологія, стилістика, практика усного і писемного мовлення англійської мови, практична граматика і практична фонетика, лінгвокраїнознавство.

Основні поняття: major styles: belles-lettres (prose, poetry, drama); publicistic style; newspaper style; scientific style; official documents style; stylistic devices and expression means (metaphor, metonymy, pun, irony, transferred qualifier, zeugma, paraphrase, overt and covert quotations).

Навчально-методичне забезпечення: мультимедійна презентація.

План

1. The relation between translation equivalence and style.

2. Functional style: definition. Functional styles distinguished by modern linguistics.

3. The stylistic devices and expression means.

4. Metaphor, metonymy, irony, transferred qualifier, zeugma, paraphrase, idioms, quotation: definitions, translation approaches.

5. Pun: the ways of translating a pun.

Рекомендована література:

1. Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): підручник / Корунець І.В. - Вінниця: Нова Книга, 2001. - 448 с.

2. Виноградов В.С. Введение в переводоведение / Виноградов В.С. - М.: ИОСОРАО, 2001. - 194 с.

3. Казакова Т.А. Практические основы перевода / Казакова Т.А. - СПб.: «Издательство Союз», 2001. - 320 с.

4. Карабан В.І. Переклад з української мови на англійську мову: навчальний посібник-довідник для студентів вищих закладів освіти / В.І. Карабан, Дж. Мейс Дж. - Вінниця: Нова книга, 2003. - 608 с.

5. Комиссаров В.Н. Современное переводоведение: курс лекций / Комиссаров В.Н. - М.: ЭТС, 1999. - 189 с.

6. Основи перекладу. Курс лекцій: навчальний посібник / [Г.Е. Мірам, В.В. Дайнеко, Л.А. Тарануха, М.В. Грищенко, О.М. Гон]. - Київ: Ельга, Ніка-Цешр. 2002. - 240 с.

7. Карабан В.І. Попередження інтерференції мови оригіналу в перекладі (вибрані та лексичні проблеми перекладу з української мови на англійську): навчальний посібник / В.І. Карабан, О.В. Борисова. - Вінниця: Нова книга, 2003. - 208 с.

8. Чернов Г.В. Основы синхронного перевода / Чернов Г.В. - М.: Наука, 2007. - 342 с.

9. Черноватий Л.М. Методика викладання перекладу як спеціальності: підручник / Черноватий Л.М. - Вінниця: Нова книга, 2013. - 376 с.

Текст лекції

1. The relation between translation equivalence and style.

The problem of translation equivalence is closely connected with the stylistic aspect of translation - one cannot reach the required level of equivalence if the stylistic peculiarities of the source text are neglected. Full translation adequacy includes as an obligatory component the adequacy of style, i. e. the right choice of stylistic means and devices of the target language to substitute for those observed in the source text. This means that in translation one is to find proper stylistic variations of the original meaning rather than only meaning itself.

For example, if the text You'll see... everything will be hunky-dory is translated in neutral style (say, Побачиш...усе буде добре) the basic meaning will be preserved but colloquial and a bit vulgar connotation of the expression hunky-dory will be lost. Only the stylistically correct equivalent of this expression gives the translation the required adequacy: (e. g., Побачиш...усе буде тіп-топ).

The expression of stylistic peculiarities of the source text in translation is necessary to fully convey the communication intent of the source text.

2. Functional style: definition. Functional styles distinguished by modern linguistics.

Stylistic peculiarities are rendered in translation by proper choice of the target language translation equivalents with required stylistic coloring. This choice will depend both on the functional style of the source text and the individual style of the source text author.

The types of texts distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of communication are called functional styles. Modern stylistics distinguishes the following varieties of functional styles (Galperin I.R.):

1. belles-lettres (prose, poetry, drama);

2. publicistic style;

3. newspaper style;

4. scientific style;

5. official documents.

Any comparison of the texts belonging to different stylistic varieties listed above will show that the last two of them (scientific style variety and official documents) are almost entirely devoid of stylistic coloring being characterized by the neutrality of style whereas the first three (belles-lettres (prose, poetry, drama), publicistic and newspaper style) are usually rich in stylistic devices to which a translator ought to pay due attention.

3. The stylistic devices and expression means.

Special language media securing the desirable communication effect of the text are called stylistic devices and expression means.

First of all a translator is to distinguish between neutral, bookish and colloquial words and word combinations, translating them by relevant units of the target language. Usually it is a routine task. However, it sometimes is hard to determine the correct stylistic variety of a translation equivalent, then - as in almost all instances of translation - final

decision is taken on the basis of context, situation and background information.

For example, it is hard to decide without further information, which of the English words - disease, illness or sickness - corresponds to the Ukrainian words хвороба and захворювання. However, even such short contexts as infectious disease and social disease already help to choose appropriate equivalents and translate the word disease as інфекційне захворювання and соціальна хвороба, accordingly.

This example brings us to a very important conclusion that style is expressed in proper combination of words rather than only in stylistic coloring of the individual words.

Stylistic devices are based on the comparison of primary (dictionary) meaning and that dictated by the contextual environment; on the contradiction between the meaning of the given word and the environment; on the association between words in the minds of the language speakers and on purposeful deviation from accepted grammatical and phonetic standards.

The following varieties of stylistic devices and expression means are most common and frequently dealt with even by the translators of nonfiction texts.

4. A. Metaphor: definition, translation approaches.

Metaphor is the transfer of some quality from one object to another.

Usually the metaphors (especially trite ones - commonplace, not new) are rather easy for translation. Metaphors can be translated in the following ways:

1. by keeping to semantic similarity & preserving the same imagery: a ray of hope - промінь надії

black book / black list - чорний список чорний ринок - black market

2. with a metaphor in the TL with different imagery:

It's Greek to me. - Для мене це - китайська грамота. біла ворона - black sheep

зима на носі - winter is near at hand

ложка дьогтю в бочці меду - a fly in the ointment

ком у горлі - butterfly in one's stomach

3. with a non-metaphorical imagery-free unit: чорна робота - unskilled labour white-collar job - високооплачувана робота blue-collar job - низькооплачувана робота

4. B. Metonymy: definitions, translation approaches.

Metonymy is similarity by association, when usually one of the constituents of an object replaces the object itself.

Ukrainian metonymic units are usually translated into English in the following way:

1. with the corresponding metonymic unit with the same imagery. In this case as a rule translators keep to literal translation. For example, crown (meaning the royal family) is usually translated as корона, hand - рука (e.g. in: He is the right hand of the president. Він сильною рукою розправився з опозицією. He took care of the opposition with a strong hand. В Києві зрозуміли, що ...Kyiv has realized that...), etc.

2. with a metonymic unit with different imagery:

Витік слуху відбувся з урядових кіл. The rumor was leaked from the Government corridors.

3. by substituting a metonymic unit for a metonymy-free unit:

- Втім, українській владі незабаром прийдеться точніше позначити свої позиції. - But Ukrainian leaders will soon have to define their position more clearly.

Закрити двері від сторонніх очей. - To close the door to outsiders.

- «Всі ці пусті статті та статейки пишуться то французькими Маніловими, то американськими Чічіковими». The names which are well-known within one culture may be not salient within a different culture. “Манілов”, “Чічіков” - the last names of Russian literary characters became common names for a definite social type. In such cases the translator may use the quality which is characteristic of Manilov or Chichikov to convey the implied meaning, but it may lead to the loss of the metonymy. For example: Some of these idle, shallow writings belong to fuzzy French dreamers, some to pushing American wheeler-dealers.

- Він попросив мене купити “Мальборо”. (the metonymy will be preserved as brand “Marlboro” is known all over the world. But if the brand is not known to the target language speakers, the translator won't be able both to keep the metonymy and preserve the meaning in the source text using the brand's name as the metonymy.

4. by substituting a metonymic unit for a different stylistic device.

Advertisement: “These wheels will drive you at your pleasure” (“these

wheels” is used as metonymy (synecdoche) instead of “this car”. If we

translate this ad as „Ці колеса гарантують вам їзду із задоволенням”, we lower the style, as in Ukrainian „колеса” (as in „Бери якісь колеса і їдь за нами” is typical of colloquial style and expresses careless attitude of the speaker. Besides, in Ukrainian it sounds like we are talking about some wheels proper, not the car itself. Thus more appropriate is the paraphrase: «Ваш чудовий друг на колесах...» or the following paraphrase with addition: «Ці чудові колеса, сучасний дизайн, і автоматичне управління гарантують.»

4. C. Irony: definitions, translation approaches.

Irony is expressed through words contradicting close text environment.

Cases of irony do not present serious problems for translation and the approaches similar to those mentioned above (semantic or pragmatic equivalence) are commonly used. For example, the ironical expression paper war may be translated as паперова війна or війна паперів.

Very often the irony can be rendered into the TL with help of quotation marks: “When I left my public school I had an extensive knowledge of Latin Greek literature, knew a certain amount of Greek and Latin history and French grammar, And had “done” a little matematics”. - “Закінчивши приватну гімназію, я непогано знав античну літературу, мав уявлення про античну історію та французьку мову, а також “пройшов” ази математики”

4. D. Transferred qualifier, zeugma: definitions, translation approaches.

Semantic and syntactic irregularities of expression used as stylistic devices are called transferred qualifier and zeugma, respectively.

A good example of a transferred qualifier is he paid his smiling attention to... - here the qualifier smiling refers to a person, but is used as an attribute to the state (attention). Translator's task in this case consists in rendering the idea in compliance with the lexical combination rules of the target language. For instance, in Ukrainian it may be expressed as Посміхаючись, він звернув увагу...

Zeugma is also a semantic irregularity, e. g. if one and the same verb is combined with two or more nouns and acquires a different meaning in each of such combinations. For example, He has taken her picture and other cup of tea. Here again the translator's task is to try to render this ironical comment either by finding a similar irregularity in the target language or, failing to show a zeugma (and irony of the author), stick to regular target language means (i. e. separate the two actions Він зробив її фото і випив

ще одну чашку чаю or try to render them as a zeugma as well Він зробив її фото і ще один ковток чаю з чашки).

4. E. Paraphrase: definitions, translation approaches.

Another stylistic device is a paraphrase. Its frequent use is characteristic of the English language. Some of the paraphrases are borrowed from classical sources (myths and the Bible); others are typically English. To give an example, the paraphrases of the classical origin are «Beware Greeks...», «Prodigalson» (Бійтеся данайців...», «Блудний син») whereas «Lake Country» («Озерна країна») is a typically English paraphrase. As a rule paraphrases do not present difficulties for translation, however, their correct translation strongly depends on situation and appropriate background information.

4. F. Idioms: definitions, translation approaches.

Idioms are frozen patterns of language which allow little or no variation in form and often carry meanings which cannot be deduced from their individual components (to bury the hatchet - закопати сокиру війни, припинити ворожнечу; the long and short of it - коротше кажучи, суть у тому, що...).

Some idioms are “misleading”; they seem to be transparent because they offer a reasonable literal interpretation and their idiomatic meanings are not necessarily signaled in the surrounding text. A large number of idioms have both a literal and an idiomatic meaning (to go out with somebody - гуляти з ким-небудь; зустрічатися; to take somebody for a ride - підвезти когось (кудись); обдурити). In this case, a translator who is not familiar with the idiom in question may easily accept the literal interpretation and miss the play on idiom.

To translate idioms, we may follow several strategies:

1. using an idiom of the TL with a similar meaning or form (the sword of Damocles - дамоклів меч, to breathe new life into something - вдихнути нове життя; to cast pearls before swine - кидати (розсипати) перли перед свинями, lame duck - “кривенька качечка”, невдаха; to play with fire - гратися з вогнем; to pay back with the same coin - відплатити тією ж монетою; гірка правда - bitter truth);

2. translating idiom by paraphrase (to take something in your stride - сприймати неприємності спокійно, stiff upper lip - витримка);

3. translating idiom by omission (to add something for good measure - додавати, доповнювати). The interpreter can resort to

some description while losing the imagery of the phraseological unit in the SL: не горить - there is no need to hurry, легкий на ноги - such as can walk quickly and without fatigue, ні пари з вуст - to keep silent obstinately, to climb on the band wagon - приєднатися до руху (групи людей, політичної партії), що має шанс на успіх.

4. when the corresponding idiom cannot be identified in the TL, the interpreter can resort to (calqued translation) or coinage, which is word-by-word translation with proper consideration of the TL rules: сидіти, склавши руки - to sit with one's arms folded.

The factors which determine the choice of strategy include not only availability of an idiom with a similar meaning in the TL, but significance of the specific lexical items constituting the original idiom and appropriateness of using idiomatic language in a given register in the TL.

While looking for a corresponding equivalent of some phraseological unit, a translator should be very attentive and take into consideration all possible connotations of the unit in question in the TL. For example: “Розв'язати (собі) руки” has two equivalents in English: “to become a free agent” (with positive connotation) and “to have a free hand” (with negative connotation); While translating the sentence: “Вам необхідно взяти себе в руки”, one should take into consideration what kind of stress is implied in this case: permanent “You must take yourself in hand” or temporary “You must pull yourself together”

The most productive or fruitful sources of English idioms are works by Shakespeare and the Bible. According to Pavel Palazchenko, who interpreted for M. Gorbachov, there are three abstracts from the Bible which are familiar to any educated English-speaking person: The Ten Commandments, The Lord's Prayer, a famous abstract from Ecclesiastes.

4. G. Overt and covert quotations: translation approaches.

Special attention is to be paid by a translator to overt and covert quotations. Whereas the former require only correct rendering of the source quotation in the target language (Never suggest your own homemade translation for a quotation of a popular author!), the latter usually takes the shape of an allusion and the pragmatic equivalence seems the most appropriate for the case. For example, «the Trojan horse raid» one may translate as напад, підступний, як кінь троянців (i.e. preserving the allusion) or as підступний напад (losing the meaning of the original quotation).

A translator is to be ready to render dialect forms and illiterate speech in the target language forms. It goes without saying that one can hardly

render, say, cockney dialect using the Western Ukrainian dialect forms. There is no universal recipe for this translation problem. In some cases the distortions in the target grammar are used to render the dialect forms but then again it is not ‘a cure-all' and each such case requires an individual approach.

5. Pun: the ways of translating a pun.

A pun (so called ‘play of words') is righteously considered the most difficult for translation.

Pun is the realization in one and the same word of two lexical meanings simultaneously.

A pun can be translated only by a word in the target language with similar capacity to develop two meanings in a particular context. English is comparatively rich in polysems and homonyms, whereas in Ukrainian these word types are rather rare. Let's take an example of a pun and its fairly good Ukrainian translation.

- What gear were you in at the moment of impact? (gear - одяг, передача)

- Gucci's sweats and Reebok.

- На якій передачі ви були під час зіткнення?

- «Останні новини».

Conclusion

Thus, any good translation should be fulfilled with due regard of the stylistic peculiarities of the source text and this recommendation applies to all text types rather than only to fiction.



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