Фондові лекції викладачів факультету іноземної філології - Частина ІІ - 2014
РОЗДІЛ 1. Фондові лекції з дисциплін циклу професійної та практичної підготовки для студентів ОКР «Бакалавр» з галузі знань 0203 Гуманітарні науки за напрямами підготовки 6.020303 Філологія* Мова і література (англійська); 6.020303 філологія* Мова і література (німецька); 6.020303 філологія*Мова і література (російська)
С.М. Федірко, доцент
Language and Country Studies
Дисципліна: країнознавство ( лінгвокраїнознавство )
Вид лекції: тематична Дидактичні цілі:
Навчальні: ознайомити студентів з етапами історичного розвитку Великої Британії; продемонструвати вплив завоювань на формування англійської нації та мови.
Розвиваючі: розвивати навички аналізу історичних особливостей розвитку країни, мову якої вивчають студенти; аналізувати вплив інших мов на процес формування сучасної англійської мови.
Виховні: формувати науковий світогляд , шляхом мотивації навчальної діяльності; виховувати інтерес до вивчення історії та культури Великої Британії.
Міжпредметні та міждисциплінарні зв'язки: історія Англії, культурологія, стилістика, лексикологія, практика усного та писемного мовлення англійської мови, практична граматика і практична фонетика, мовознавство.
Основні поняття: historical development, political and cultural peculiarities, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Empire, the Commonwealth, the Celts, the Bourgeois Revolution, ethnic minorities, Parliament, the House of Commons, public schools.
Навчально - методичне забезпечення: мультимедійна презентація.
1. Early invaders. The Celts.
2. The Roman conquest of Britain.
3. The Germanic invasion.
4. Danish raids on England.
5. The Norman invasion and its influence.
1. Голицынский Ю.Б. Великобритания / Ю.Б. Голицынский. - СПб.: КАРО, 2001. - 480с.
2. Кертман Л.Е. География, история и культура Англии / Л.Е. Кертман . - М.: ВШ, 1979. - 384с.
3. Кузнецова В.С. England. History, Geography, Culture / В.С. Кузнецова, Л.М. Хохарина - Семерня, Р.А.Когосова. - К.: ВШ, 1976. - 250 с.
4. Bromhead P. Life in Modern Britain / P. Bromhead. - UK: Longman, 1991. - 198 p.
5. Crowther J. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture / J. Crowther. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. - 600 p.
6. Satinova V.F. Read and Speak about Britain and the British / V.F. Sat- inova. - Мн.: Выш. Шк., 1998. - 255 р.
1. Early invaders. The Celts.
England had long been thinly peopled by Stone Age hunters and food gatherers when, before 4000 B.C. immigrants from the Continent arrived. They were the first farmers and were called Iberians.
In the 8th - 7th c.c. B.C. Celtic tribes came to Britain. They were a tall, fair-skinned and blue-eyed people, farmers skilled in the working of bronze, and later of iron. The first Celtic comers were the Gaels, but the Brythons arrived two centuries later and pushed the Gaels to Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Then in the 1st. с. B.C. the most powerful tribe, the Belgae, occupied the south-east while part of the Brythons was pushed on to Wales though the rest stayed in what is England today.
The Celts were good warriors as later invaders had a chance to find out. Celtic war-chariots were famous even beyond the limits of the country. They were reliably built to hold one man standing up to drive and two more to do the fighting.
The Celts of the British Isles were heathens until Christianity was brought to them by later invaders, the Romans. Their religion was a mixture of heathenism that is the warship of certain Gods and Goddesses, with the worship of the Sun and Moon, and the Serpent, the symbol of wisdom.
It was an Age of Iron, though not altogether barbaric. The Celts imported the luxuries of the Mediterranean, their priests, the Druids, were the teachers and administrators of the age, and their craftsmen developed an abstract art that is one of the glories of western civilization.
Like all the ancient peoples the Celts made up many legends about their gods and heroes. The legends were passed down from generation to generation. They were written down in the Middle Ages. The chroniclers and writers translated the Celtic legends into Modern English and called them the Celtic Sagas.
To this day the descendants of the ancient Celts live on the territory of the British Isles. The Welsh who live in Wales are of Celtic origin. People in most parts of Wales speak Welsh, a Celtic tongue. In the Highlands of Scotland as well as in the Western parts of Ireland the people speak a tongue of Celtic origin too. Some words of the Celtic language can still be found in Modern English and most of them are geographical names.
2. The Roman conquest of Britain.
Two thousand years ago while the Celts were still living in tribes the Romans were the most powerful people in the world. Roman society differed greatly from that of the Celts. It was a slave society divided into antagonistic classes. The main classes were the slaves and the slave - owners. The slave - owners made up the minority of the population but they owned the land, tools, buildings and slaves. The slaves possessed neither land nor tools and were themselves the property of the slave - owners. With the help of the army the slave-owners put down the uprisings of the exploited. The army also waged endless wars in order to conquer new lands and to seize more slaves.
The Romans conquered all the countries around the Mediterranean Sea.
One of the last countries to be conquered by Rome was France, or Gaul as it was then called. Julius Caesar was appointed Head of the Roman army which was sent to conquer Gaul. In the course of this campaigns Caesar reached the Channel and that was how the Romans came to see the white cliffs of the land of the British Celts.
In 55 B.C. J.Caesar with 10-thousand-strong Roman army came to Britain. The Celts saw their ships approaching and rushed to attack the invaders in the sea as they were landing. The Celts made a great impression on the Romans, who saw them for the first time in battle. The well-armed Roman army was repulsed by the iron-weapon-possessing Celts.
A year later (54 B.C.) the expedition was repeated with an increased army of 25 thousand men. The Celts fought bravely for their independence but they were not strong enough, in spite of their courage, to drive the Romans off. The Romans who had better arms and were much better trained defeated the Celts in several battles. Some of the chiefs submitted and promised to pay tribute to Rome.
But the promised tribute was not paid and the real conquest of Britain by the Romans began a hundred years later.
The actual invasion took place in 43 A.D. when the Emperor Claudius sent a 50-thousand-strong army which landed in Kent and crossed the Thames. Since that time up to 410 Britain was one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was military occupation of the Romans and it lasted during four centuries.
The Celtic tribal chiefs saw that they were beaten and agreed to recognize the Romans as their rulers.
To defend their province the Romans stationed their legions in Britain. Straight roads were built so that the legions might march quickly to any part of the country. These roads were made of several layers of stones, lime, mortar and gravel. They were made so well that they lasted a long time and still exist today.
As a result of the conquest signs of Roman civilization spread over Britain. The civilized Romans began to build towns, splendid villas, public baths as in Rome itself. In most towns there were market-places and plenty of shops where merchants sold their goods.
Every Roman town had a drain age system and a good supply of pure water.
Besides, there's something to be said about the cultural influence as well.
The Romans brought Christianity to the British Isles which was a step forward as compared with the heathenism. The invaders spoke Latin and in course of time many Latin words came to enrich the Celtic vocabulary:
e.g. «castra» - a military camp
(found now in the names of the cities like Lancaster, Leicester)
«vallum» - a wall (Hadrian's Wall, Antonine's Wall)
«via strata» - a street (Watling street).
But together with high civilization the Romans brought exploitation and slavery to the British Isles. Rich Romans had villas in the country with large estates, which were worked by gangs of slaves. The free Celts were not turned into slaves but they had to pay heavy taxes to the conquerors and were made to work for them.
But unexpectedly, in 407, orders came to the Romans to return to their native country. Evidently, the safety of Rome itself was in question. So the Romans left and never returned again. The Celts were left alone in their land.
3. The Germanic invasion.
In the middle of the 5th c. A.D. (449-450 A.D.) the Germanic tribes started their invasion. In 449 first the Jutes, and then other Germanic tribes - the Angles and the Saxons began to migrate to Britain.
The conquest must have been ruthless in its character. The barbaric invaders not only destroyed all the remnants of Roman culture, they killed and plundered and laid the country waste. The Celts resisted their invasion. During the 6th c. there was a severe fight between the Celts and
the invaders. But due to the greater number of Germanic tribes they won and the Celts were killed or sent to the west and north-west part of the country.
By the end of the 6th с. A.D. on the territory of Great Britain seven states were formed: the three of them - Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia belonged to the Angles. Sussex, Wessex, Essex were formed by the Saxons. Kent belonged to the Jutes and was set up in the South-East.
All these states did not live in peace. They fought among themselves for supreme power in the country.
The new conquerors brought about changes altogether different from those that had followed the conquest of the country by the Romans. The new settlers disliked towns preferring to live in small villages. In the course of the conquest they destroyed the Roman towns and villas. All the beautiful buildings and baths and roads were so neglected that they soon fell in ruins. Sometimes the roads were broken up, the stones being used for building material. Thus the art of road- making was lost for many hundreds years to come.
The Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles were closely akin in speech and customs, and they gradually merged into one people. The name Jute soon died out and the conquerors are generally referred to as the Anglo-Saxons.
As a result of the conquest the Anglo-Saxons made up the majority of the population in Britain and their customs, religion and languages became predominant.
At first they spoke various dialects but gradually the dialect of the Angles of Mercia became most spread. In the course of time all the people of Britain were referred to as the English after the Angles and the new name of England was given to the whole country. The Anglo-Saxon language, or English, has been the principal language of the country since then although it has undergone great change.
In the 9th с. Wessex succeeded in consolidating all the kingdoms into a unified country, which broke up the tribal structure and advanced feudalism.
4. Danish raids on England.
From the end of the 8th century and during the 9th and the 10th centuries Western Europe was troubled by a new wave of barbarian attacks. These barbarians came from the North - from Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and were called Northmen. In different countries they were known by many other names, as the Vikings, the Normans, the Danes. But more often the British Isles were raided from Denmark, and the invaders came to be known in English history as the Danes.
In the 8th c., in 793 the Danes carried out their first raids on Britain. The Danes surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in military skill and in military equipment. They were well-armed with sword, spear, dagger, battle-axe and bow. Their ships were sailing-boats but they were also provided with oars. The Danes were bold and skillful seamen.
Their first raids were for plunder only. They came in spring or summer, and when their ships were loaded with plunder they returned home for the winter.
In later years large Danish fleets brought large armies to conquer and settle in the new lands. The Danish raids were successful because the kingdom of England had neither a regular army nor a fleet to meet them.
In 842 they burnt up London, in 850 they stayed to winter in England instead of withdrawing as usual and in 60th of the 9th с. they founded their first permanent settlements.
They plundered Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia who even did not resist them. At last all England north of the Thames was in their hands.
Only Wessex was left to face the enemy. But it was not so easy to devastate Wessex as other parts of England. It had united the small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and under the reign of King Alfred (871-899), who became known in English history as Alfred the Great, Wessex became the centre of resistance against the invaders.
The year of 871 is called «Alfred's great year of battles» when the Danes saw they were dealing with staunch resistance at last. This was the period when the Scandinavian invasion began to assume new forms - such as settling down to found kingdoms. This is what they did in Northumbria and East Anglia.
The people began to join Alfred the Great and soon he gathered a great force. As a result the Danes did not want to fight any more and in 879 a peace treaty was signed according to which the country was divided into two equal parts: the «Danelaw» part in the north-east and England proper in the south-west.
The Scandinavian raids were renewed at the end of the 10th с. and England was conquered (1016) and joined to the «Danelaw» part.
But in 1042 the political priority of the Danes came to the end and Edward the Confessor was brought back to the throne.
5. The Norman invasion and its influence.
An event of great importance in the life of GB took place in 1066. It was the invasion of the Normans under the leadership of William the Conqueror. This invasion influenced the consolidation of royal power and it led to the competition of the process of feudalism in England.
On the 14th of October 1066 at a little village near the town Hastings the battle took place between the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons. The Normans outnumbered the Anglo-Saxons forces and were superior in quality. The military tactics of the well-trained Normans was unknown in England. They used a skilful combination of heavy-armoured cavalry and archers. First the archers would break up the ranks of their enemy and then followed a cavalry which decided the victory.
Though the battle went on all day and the Anglo-Saxons did their best, the battle finished with the Normans' victory.
William the Conqueror became the King of England and ruled for 21 years (1066-1087).
The new masters were strangers in the country. They had different manners, customs and laws. They spoke a foreign tongue and the AngloSaxon peasants could not understand their speech and they felt great hatred to their new masters. The Normans punished cruelly those who dared to disobey, but they didn't feel safe in the conquered country. That's why they began to build castles to protect themselves. The first most important castle for protection London was the Tower of London.
The Norman aristocracy spoke a Norman dialect of French, a tongue of Latin origin, while the Anglo-Saxons spoke English, a tongue of Germanic origin. Thus there were two different languages spoken in the country at the same time. Norman-French became the official language of the state; the documents were written in French. But the peasants and townspeople spoke English. Many Norman-French words came into English during this time: words dealing with feudal relations as manor, noble, serve, command, obey; or words relating to administration and law, such as charter, council, accuse, court, crime; or such military terms as arms, troops, navy, battle, victory and other words characterizing the way of life and customs of the Norman aristocracy.
As a result of the Conquest, the English language changed greatly under the influence of the French language. The two languages gradually formed one rich English language which already in the 14th century was being used both in speech and in writing. Gradually the Normans mixed with the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes and from this mixture the English nation finally emerged.