Фондові лекції викладачів факультету іноземної філології - Частина V - 2017

РОЗДІЛ 1. Лекції з дисциплін мовознавчого циклу і методики їх навчання

Т. В. Кеба, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент

Typology of the morphological systems of the contrasted languages

Дисципліна: Порівняльна типологія англійської та української мов. Вид лекції: тематична.

Дидактичні цілі:

Навчальні:

- виявляти, вибирати і групувати ізоморфні та алломорфні явища англійською та українською мовами;

- встановити на основі отриманих ізоморфних ознак типові мовні структури та типи мов;

- встановити на цій основі універсальні риси / явища, які стосуються кожної єдиної мови світу.

Розвиваючі: сформувати у студентів розуміння характеру міжмовних граматичних зв'язків і відношень;

- розкрити основні граматичні трансформації при здійсненні перекладу за відсутності граматичних еквівалентів у зіставлюва- них мовах;

Виховні: виховувати інтерес до дослідницької діяльності.

Міжпредметні та міждисциплінарні зв'язки: теоретична фонетика, граматика, лексикологія, стилістика, відповідні аспекти української мови.

Основні поняття: contrastive typology, the language type, isomorphic phenomena, allomorphic phenomena, morphemes, morphological categories.

Навчально-методичне забезпечення: мультимедійна презентація.

План

1. Morphological level of language.

2. Typology of the Parts of Speech in the Contrasted Languages.

3. Typological Features of the Noun as a Part of Speech.

4. Morphological Categories of the Noun.

4.1. The Category of Case and its Realisation.

4.2. The Category of Gender

4.3. The Category of Definiteness and Indefiniteness.

Рекомендована література

1. Аракин В. Д. Сравнительная типология английского и русского язика / В. Д. Аракин. - М. : Высшая школа, 1989. - 158 с.

2. Арнольд И. В. Лексикология современного английского язика : учеб. пособие / И. В. Арнольд. - 2-е изд., - М. : ФЛИНТА: Наука, 2012. - 376 с.

3. Брицин М. Я. Порівняльна граматика української та російської мов / М. Я. Брицин, М. А. Жовтобрюх, А. В. Майборода. - К., 1978. - 270 с.

4. Бровченко Т. О. Основи контрастивного аналізу мов / Т О. Бровченко // Порівняльні дослідження з граматики англійської, української, російської мов. - К., 1981. - 416 с.

5. Корунець I. В. Порівняльна типологія англійської та української мов : навч. посіб. / I. В. Корунець. - Вінниця, 2003. - 459 с.

Текст лекції

The morphological systems of the English and Ukrainian languages are characterized by a considerable number of isomorphic as well as of several allomorphic features.

The main typological constants that make the object of contrasting at the morphological level of English and Ukrainian are three. These are:

1) the morpheme;

2) the parts of speech;

3) their morphological categories.

The principal typological constant of the morphological level is, of course, the morpheme which is endowed (наділена) with some minimal meaning. As to its structure, the morpheme may be:

a) simple (one-phoneme): a-, -s, -t (alike, says, burnt) in English and -a, -u, -у, з-, c-, etc. in Ukrainian (весна, хати, беру, з'їсти, сховати) or

b) compound (-ment, -hood, -ward, -ство, -ський, -цький) as

(agement, brotherhood, seaward, суспільство, сільський, ткацький). The complexity of its nature, structure and meaning makes the morpheme one of the main objects of contrastive study at the morphological level. Moreover, the morpheme in English and Ukrainian has some peculiar features, which are characteristic of each of these contrasted languages.

1. Morphological level of language

The morpheme is a minimal meaningful unit and it can be in the contrasted languages either free or bound.

Free or root morphemes are lexically and functionally not dependent on other. They may be regular words (cf. boy, day, he, four, день, кінь, річ, він, три) or they may constitute the lexical core (ядро) of a word. Eg.: boyhood, daily, fourth, денна, нічний, etc.

Free root-morphemed words are represented in all lexico-morphological classes as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. of both contrasted languages and can also be functional: but, till, on, not, through, just (a moment), мов, геть, так, певне, може, ох, дзень, гав, не, ні, від, на, під, etc.

Bound morphemes (affixal), on the other hand, morphemes can not function independently: they are bound to the root or to the stem: Cf.: day-s, spok-en, four-teen, over-come, government, див-но,розум-ом, дн-і, наш-им, etc. Bound morphemes like -s, -en, -teen, over-, -ment, -о, -ом, -і,-им in either of the two languages can not exist independently, i.e. they are not free but always dependent on roots or stems of their words.

Affixal morphemes in the contrasted languages split into Derivational morphemes (word-forming) and Inflexional morphemes (form-building).

a) Derivational morphemes (word-forming) which are in English and Ukrainian mainly suffixes and sometimes also prefixes, are used to form a new word (вихова-тель, керма-нич; англ. teach-er, free-dom и т.д.), or to change the meaning of the word (зір-оньк-а, сон-ечк-о;girl-ie, booklet, dad-dy).

The number of suffixes in the contrasted languages considerably exceeds the number of prefixes. The number of suffixes in English does not exceed 100.

Ukrainian word-forming suffixes are more numerous and also more diverse by their nature, there being special suffixes to identify different genders of nouns that are practically missing in English.

Apart from the above-mentioned, there exist in Ukrainian large groups of evaluative noun suffixes: diminutive and augmentative.

Despite the difference in the quantity and quality of suffixes, they perform in English and Ukrainian an isomorphic (either the word-forming or form-building) function.

English

Ukrainian

noun

forming

suffixes

-er, -or, -hood, -ment, -ance, tion, -dom:

democr-acy, delega-tion, free-dom, writ-er, falsehood, polit-ics, feudal-ism, govern-ment, fit-ness, friend-ship, loyal-ty, etc.

But! The suffixes (-or, -ess, -me, -rix, -ine, and -ette)

identify the masculine and feminine sex and not the grammatical gender (actor, actress, directrix, heroine, suffragette)

іменникові:

masculine

gender

suffixes:

-ник, -івник, -ч, -ік/-їк, -ець/-єць, -ар/-яр, -ир, -ист, -іст, -тель, -аль:

мед-ик, керма-нич, крав-ець, хім-ік, бо-єць, шахт-ар, мул-яр, бригад-ир, зби-рач, ді-яч, окул-іст, вихова-тель, скрип-аль, etc.

feminine

gender

suffixes

-к/а/, -иц/я/, -ес/а/, -ух/а/, -ш/а/, -івн/а/:

виховат-ель-к-а,

рад-ист-к-а,

спів-ан-к-а,

уч-ен-иц-я,

ткач-их-а,

поет-ес-а,

коваль-івн-а,

директ-ор-ш-а.

neuter gender

suffixes (for identifying abstract and collective nouns and names of materials, babies...)

жіно-цтв-о,

нероб-ств-о,

заси-лл -я,

збі-жж-я,

кло-чч-я,

смі-тт-я,

горі-нн-я,

терп-інн-я.

girl-ie, booklet, dad-dy,

evaluative di-

зір-оньк-а,

gran-ny (4)

minutive and augmentative

noun suffixes

(53)

сон-ечк-о,

руч-ищ-е,

голов-ешк-а,

биц-юр-а,

кабан-юр-а, etc.

[di'minjutiv]

уменьш-й,

[o:g'ment9tiv]

увелич-й


The

adjective

forming

suffixes

-y, -ful, -able (-ible), -less:

form-al, president-ial, manifold, grate-ful, lacon-ic, fut-ile, self-ish, meaningless, danger-ous, tire-some, east-ward, happ-y, etc.

прикметникові: -к,-ив, -лив:

близь-к-ий, правд-ив-ий, міський, примхливий;

verb-

indicating

suffixes:

-ise, -en, -ate, -fy:

negoti-ate, short-en,

beaut-ify, demobil-ise, etc.

дієслівні: -ну, -ти, -ува, -юва:

кус-ну-ти, зим-ува-ти, дн-юва-ти;

adverb-

indicating

suffixes:

-fold, -ce, -ward,

-ways, -ly:

quick-ly, south-ward/ south-wards, side-ways, etc.

прислівникові: -но, -чі, -ки, -ма:

пошеп-ки, сидь-ма, дві-чі, горілиць, сон-но, віч-но.

Word-forming prefixes in the contrasted languages modify the lexical meaning of the word. Word-forming prefixes pertain mostly to the English (and in Ukr) language where they can form different parts of speech.

In English

In Ukrainian

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Stative verbs

Adverbs

Prepositions

Conjunctions

- co-existence, enclosure, insight, pro-rector

- avert, adjoin, bewray, subordinate;

- eccentric, non-standard, unable;

- ablaze, asleep;

- together, today

- below, behind

- because, unless, until.

без-мір, віддаль, зав'язь, підвид, праліс; вбігати, накричати, обійти, підвести;

антивоєнний, надмірний;

вголос, заміж, по-нашому, якнайкраще;

оскільки, позаяк, etc.

In Ukrainian only some conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs can be formed by means of prefixes, for example: вдень, вночі, по-нашому, no- новому, набік.

b) Inflexional morphemes (form-building) express relations between words in sentences. They added to the root (or to the stem of a word) change the form of these words.

Inflexional morphemes in the contrasted languages express different morphological categories. The number of genuine English inflexions today is only 14 to 16. They are:

part of speech

inflexions

example

noun inflexions

-s (-es), -en,-ren

boys, watches, oxen, children

the comparative degrees of adjectives

-er, -est

bigger, biggest

degrees of qualitative adverbs

-er/-ier, -est/ -iest

oftener, oftenest; slowlier; slowliest

the verbal inflexions

-s/-es, -d/-ed, -t, -n/-en

he puts/ watches; she learned the rule (burnt the candle); a broken pencil

the inflexions of absolute possessive pronouns

-s, -e

hers, ours, yours, mine, thine

The number of inflexions in Ukrainian by far exceeds their number in English since every notional part of speech has a variety of endings. The latter (endings) express number, case and gender of nominal parts of speech and tense, aspect, person, number, voice and mood forms of verbs. For example: Петра, Петрові; червоний, червона, червоного, червоному, червони;, двоє, двох, двом, двома; читав; читала, читали, читатиму, читатимеш, читатимете, etc.

The set of forms of the word that reflect the changes in the system of inflected forms is called the paradigm.

So, the Ukrainian paradigms are much richer than the English ones. The variety of case inflexions of Ukrainian nouns is also predetermined by the existence of four declensions, the first and the second of which have different case and number inflexions. (cf. вода - води, учень - учні, поле - поля, миша - мишею, доня - донею, etc.).

Set of paradigms that are characteristic of the given class of words represent the grammatical expression of the mostly common features belonging to the given part of speech. These features or properties form the Grammatical Category.

Analytical forms

Some morphological relations and categories in English and Ukrainian (though much rarer) are expressed with the help of analytical means - prepositions, analytical word forms, and particles; for example: to give smth. to Peter, not far from the river, written (painted) with pencil.

Analytically expressed also:

Gr. categories expressed analytically

English

Ukrainian

1. degrees of comparison of some adjectives and adverbs.

more calm, most calm; more (most) interesting;

більш/менш важливий, найбільш/ найменш важливо;

2. the future tense

shall/will go;

(only analytical

form): the plant is

being built

будемо боротися (but: боротимемо);

(synthetical form for present/past

passive): завод будується (будувався),

(both synthetical and analytical forms for future passive): завод будуватиметься, завод буде будуватися.

3. the passive voice

The totality of the synthetic and analytical paradigms of the notional parts of speech in a language reflects the structural peculiarity of the language as a whole. Hence, contrastive morphology also deals:

a) with the specific traits of morphemes in languages under contrasted investigation;

b) with classes of paradigms (both synthetic and analytical) pertaining to a notional part of speech and reflecting its paradigmatic variety;

c) with the morphological categories and their manifestation in the contrasted languages;

d) with the parts of speech and their typological features.

It should be emphasized that in the process of typological investigation only correlated language units and phenomena can be contrasted. That means that the units or phenomena have to be of the same status, i. e. they have to belong to a common class of units or phenomena in both the languages in question.

Agglutination and suppletivity as isomorphic morphological phenomena of word-building nature.

Common/isomorphic in the contrasted languages are also some other morphological phenomena of word-building nature. Among these are first of all to be mentioned such phenomena as agglutination and suppletivity.

Agglutination - the formation of grammatical forms and derivatives of words by joining affixes with grammatical and derivational meanings to the root or stem of the word.

Suppletivity - the forms of the same word formed from various stems: я- мене; йду-йшов; go-went.

Agglutination at the morphological level represents a mechanical adding of one or more affixal morphemes in pre-position, postposition or in interposition to the root morpheme.

The quantitative representation of the parts of speech that are formed in the contrasted languages by means of agglutinating morphemes is different. In present-day English, which has more zero-morphemed root words than Ukrainian, there exists a larger number of words belonging to different parts of speech and formed by agglutinating prefixes, for example:

- the verbs: adhere, assure, co-exist;

- adjectives: postwar, pre-war;

- statives: afraid, alike, aloof;

- adverbs and prepositions: be-side, inside, before, afterwards, unwell, etc.

Prepositive agglutinators apart from forming new parts of speech or creating some shades in the lexical meaning of many such words (cf. do - undo - overdo; Ukr.: схід - захід -вихід - дохід - прихід, etc.) can also perform some purely grammatical functions. Thus, they can sometimes turn the intransitive verbs into transitive, for example: live - outlive, moan - bemoan; Ukrainian: жити - дожити - прожити- пережити, спати - проспати, плакати - оплакати.

All Ukrainian infinitives without exception are formed by mechanical adding to the root the post-positive morphemes -ти/-ть, -ся, -ки, -оньки, (diminutive forms), e.g: набити, пролити, працювать, злитися, спатки.

In English most of the indefinite form infinitives are pure root-mor- phemed words (cf. come, live, love, fly, sit, read, swim). There are only some five verbal morphemes that are agglutinated post-positively. These are -ate, -en, -esce, -ify, -ise, eg: create, blacken, acquiesce, purify, civilise, etc.

Post-positive agglutination is often used to form nouns in both contrasted languages as well. For example, in English: attendance, diary, freedom, employee, hostess, boyhood, highness.

Similarly in Ukrainian: чужак, бідняк, дудaр, гуляр, багач, борець, дудик, дудник, нудота, колій, сонливість, холодок, ясність, etc.

Suppletivity. As a means of grammatical expression suppletivity is observed in words, word-forms and morphemes of all Indo-European languages. At the lexical level it helps express, both in English and Ukrainian, sex distinctions, eg: boy - girl, father - mother, bull - cow, man - woman, хлопець - дівчина, батько - мати, чоловік - жінка, півень - курка, etc.

Suppletive forms of a verb paradigm can be used in English and Ukrainian to express some morphological categories. The verb «to be»: am, is, are - was, were; take - give; брати - взяти, ловити ~ піймати. (suppletive degrees: good - better - best, bad - worse - worst and little - less - least. In Ukrainian: добрий - кращий - найкращий, добрий - ліпший - найліпший, поганий - гірший);

Suppletivity of pronouns: I - me, he - him, she - her, we - us; я- мене, воно - його, він - його, ми - нас, вони - їх, etc.; numerals: in English (one - the first, two - the second) and only one in Ukrainian (один - перший).

2. Typology of the Parts of Speech in the Contrasted Languages

Despite significant morphological and syntactical differences in the structure of Contrasted languages, the composition/ structure (склад) of parts of their speech is largely similar.

English

Ukrainian

1. Noun

1. Іменник

2. Adjective

2. Прикметник

3. Numeral

3. Числівник

4. Pronoun

4.Займенник

5. Verb

5. Дієслово

6. Adverb

6. Прислівник

7. Preposition

7. Прийменник

8. Conjunction

8. Сполучник

9. Particles

9. Частка

10. Interjections

10. Вигук

11. Article

12. Linking verb

The difference primarily lies in the discrepancy as part of grammatical categories and their means of expression in both languages.

A typologically more relevant classification has been suggested for English notionals by C. T Hockett who distinguishes them in «class N (noun) words», «class V (verb) words» and «class A (adjective) words». These «classes» are mainly singled out with regard to the morphological properties of these notionals. At the same time, the grammarians singled out classes, which can show double and triple nature. (e.g.: AVclass - the adjective and the verb pattern: clean hands, to clean the room; the NAV class represents words, which can follow the noun, the adjective and the verb pattern: the fat of meat, fat meat, to fat (up) fowls). Thus, «classes of words» clearly reflect the amorphous grammatical nature of many English nouns, verbs. As a result, their true lexico-grammatical nature cannot be discriminated when taken out of a sentence. The word «export», for example, may be noun or verb (when indicated by stress or determined by the particle «to»); «blue» may be noun (the blue of the sky), adjective (the blue sky), or verb (to blue smth.).

In Ukrainian the lexical meaning and «formal» (morphological) characteristics of such notional words as експорт, синь, синій, синіти, etc. are always explicitly (ясно) displayed already when taken separately, out of context (as in dictionaries).

Therefore, many notionals in English, unlike their lexico-grammatical equivalents in Ukrainian, are variable, i. e. they may change their nature depending on the contextual environment without any morphological changes in their form. The variability is certainly the main typological (allomorphic) difference pertaining to some English notional words.

Despite the existence of the kind of morphologically indistinct notional words in present-day English like in Ukrainian there also exist a bulk of words whose lexico-grammatical nature as a part of speech is quite evident and indisputable.

Easily enough, already at language level, are identified nouns, verbs, and adjectives, pronouns (he, she, we, they, who), numerals (ten, the first, the tenth), conjunctions (and, or, if, because) and many other words having the same lexico-grammatical nature in English, Ukrainian.

This is observed, for example, in case of conjunctions (and, but, or, if, either - or, neither - nor, etc.), prepositions (at, in, on, under), interjections (ah, oh, alas, humph), etc. Most of these functionals, except for the articles, have absolute semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian. For example: and - i, but - але, проте, or - чи, if - якщо/якби, either-or, чи-чи, in - в/у, etc. As a result, these and a number of other functionals in English and Ukrainian are typologically relevant, i. e. isomorphic, in other words common.

As to the functionals their number in the contrasted languages is not identical, because present-day English has the article which is missing in Ukrainian. The rest of functionals are all common: conjunctions: and - i, but - але; prepositions: on - на, under- під, modal words: can - могти, must- повинен; and modal expressions, particles, exclamations, articles (in English), сполучники, прийменники, модальні слова та вирази, частки, вигуки.

3.Typological Features of the Noun as a Part of Speech

The noun as a part of speech is characterised in English and Ukrainian by a common lexico-grammatical nature of substantivity or «thingness». This meaning (thingness) finds its realisation not only in concrete nouns (book, boy, etc.) but also in abstract nouns (love, hatefulness, information, etc.). Hence, the main paradigmatic classes of nouns, which are two:

1) common nouns and 2) proper names are also typologically isomorphic.

Each of these two main classes of nouns is sub-categorised in English and Ukrainian into several minor groups which can be found below:

Common Nouns split in the contrasted languages into the following subclasses:

Concrete

nouns

Abstract

nouns

Collective

nouns

Names of materials

Class nouns

arrow, cap, carp, doll, tree, house, стріла, дерево, короп, лялька

fear, hatred,

knowledge,

news;

страх,

ненависть,

знання, вість

cattle, crew,

family, militia,

худоба,

екіпаж,

міліція,

гроші

air, flour, iron, salt, snow; повітря, цукор, борошно

bird, desk, book, cat, flower, glove, kite; птах

Proper names in their turn split in English and Ukrainian into some common subclasses as well. The main of them are as follows:

Names/ Nicknames of people(s), nationals

Family names

Geographical

names

Names of companies, newspapers, journals, etc.

Ann, Yankeys, English, Michael, Ukrainians,

Oscar - англійці, українці Ганна, Леся, Надія,

Adams, Byron,

McDonald,

Newton;

Винник,

Кизима,

Шумило,

Мельник

Alaska, Chicago, Leeds, Ottawa; Аляска, Вінниця, Київ, Чорне море

Ford, Rolls-Royce,

The Daily Telegraph;

«Світоч»,

фірма «Світанок»,

«Форд»,

«Прогрес»,

«Всесвіт»

Isomorphism is equally observed in the existence of some other grammatically and typologically relevant groups of nouns in English and Ukrainian. These are:

- life nouns (boy, girl, cat - хлопець, дівчина, кіт);

- inanimate (неживий) nouns (atom, bell, door- атом, дзвін, двері);

- count nouns (pen, star - ручка, зірка);

- noncount nouns (air, honesty, slavery - повітря, чесність).

There is some allomorphism, however, in the realisation of the meaning (and category) of number and quantity in some groups of nouns in the contrasted languages. Among these are some collective nouns, which may be used in English_both in singular and in plural (when the constituent members of these collective nouns are meant). Cf: My family is small - My family are early risers. In Ukrainian these words have singular meaning (cf. вся родина зійшлася, поліція слідкує за порядком, etc.).

The very particular feature of English nouns is their usually indistinct lexico-grammatical nature at language level. As a result, determiners (usually the definite or the indefinite article or demonstrative pronouns) are used to identify these nouns: the bear, the/that round of talks.

From the morphological side, the noun is characterized in the contrasted languages by the existence of a system of suffixes and prefixes

performing, as a rule, isomorphic functions in both contrasted languages. Among them are traditionally distinguished productive and unproductive suffixes that form agent nouns.

English Agent Nouns Suffixes

Ukrainian Agent Nouns Suffixes

suffixes forming agent nouns

-ant: servant, irritant;

-ent: dependent, solvent, student -ar: beggar, scholar;

-er: weaver, teacher, interpreter, farmer;

- ier: cashier;

-or: sailor, translator, tailor. -yer: lawyer;

-ard/-art: sluggard, braggart; -ster: rhymester, youngster;

-ник: завойовник, обвідник;

-яч-ач: глядач, перекладач, копач, наймач; -ець: їздець, кравець, співець;

-тель: вихователь, учитель;

-щик/ -чик: гонщик, пайщик, датчик. -тай/-тяй: глитай, шахрай, гультяй;

-аль: коваль, стригаль;

-ень: в'язень, лежень, учень;

-ух: пастух,питух; -ар/-яр: лікар, голяр; -ун: бігун, свистун; -ак/-як: жебрак, пияк

Augmentative suffixes:

-ак/-а: забіяка, рубака;

-ил-: вітрило, барило;

-ищ-: вовчище, вітрище; -ук-/-юк-: каменюка, зміюка;

Diminutive suffixes

-y (-ie, -ye) daddy, grannie -ling gooseling,

-let - booklet

-ette - kitchenette, launderette -kin - kingling; ladykin

-оньк-: голівонька, дівонька, кізонька;

-очок: горбочок, садочок;

-унь: братунь, Лідунь (diminutive from Ліда); -к-: лапка, ніжка;

-очк-: Ліночка, різочка;

-еньк: ненька, рученька,

International suffixes

-ism: feudalism, materialism;

- ist: utopist, therapeutist;

-or: rector, protector;

-tion: protection, selection; -ess/-ness: actress, baroness Suffixes forming nouns desigi condition, etc. national by nati -dom: freedom, serfdom;

-hood: brotherhood, falsehood, -ess: easiness, loneliness;

-ing: being, meaning:

-ion, -sion: creation, tension,

-ізм/изм: дарвінізм, колоквіалізм, реалізм; -іст/-ист: активіст, шовініст;

-op: автор, оратор;

-ція: асиміляція, сесія, протекція; к-, -ес/-ис-а: поетка, поетеса, директриса iating abstract notions of state, act, quality, ire

-ність: вільність, рівність;

-ство: братство, рабство;

-ивість: вродливість, мінливість;

-ість: легкість, самотність;

-тт-я: буття,вороття;

-нн-я: творіння, напруження;

-енн-я: вдоволення, захоплення, прикріплення

Prefixal morphemes in both languages have many typological features in common as well. Thus, they may be national, foreign or international by origin.

National

mis- misunderstanding, out- outcome, with- withdrawal, over- overflow, in- insight, un- untruth, under- undergo

па- пасинок, пра- прадід, без- безмежжя, від- віддаль, за- завулок, пере- перенапруга, при- прибудова, над- надбудова, пра- праліс, під- підгрупа, спів-співвиконавець, не- небилиця

Foreign

ante-/anti-: antethesis, antibody; ex-: ex-champion, ex-chairman; extra-: extraordinariness, extraterritoriality; hyper- hyperbolism, hypersonic; un-, in-, il-, ir-: unbalance, indelicate, illogical, innovation, illiteracy, impressionistic, irregularity; super-, ultra-, vice-: superrealism, ultramarine, viceconsul, vice-governor

антитеза, екс-чемпіон, екстравагантність, гіпертрофічний, гіпостиль, інновація, інокуляція, інтервенція, інконгруентний, суперсегментний, сюрреалізм, ультраправий, ультрафіолетовий, віце-королівський, віце-президент,

English and Ukrainian nouns may also be

compound:

airbus, headache, waterway; composite:

take-off, go-between, sister-in-law

лісостепом, льонтрести мати-й-мачуха, хліб-сіль

4. Morphological Categories of the Noun

Set of paradigms that are characteristic of the given class of words represent the grammatical expression of the mostly common features belonging to the given part of speech. These features or properties form the Grammatical Category.

The noun in the Ukrainian language is characterized by the presence of three grammatical categories:

1) the category of case, expressed by a paradigm of declension consisting of 7 cases:

2) category of number consisting of two numbers - singular and plural;

3) category of grammatical gender, representing three genders - masculine, feminine and neuter, having appropriate morphological expression.

The noun in the English language is characterized by the presence of two grammatical categories:

1) the category of number, consisting of two numbers - singular and plural;

2) the category of determinativeness (certainty - uncertainty), expressed by the article in preposition and the determinative pronoun this - that.

Category of the noun is mostly realised synthetically:

- through zero and marked inflexions respectively. Eg: child - children, ox - oxen, and correspondingly baths, cargos. (дом - дома);

- the position of the inflexion -s in various compounds, eg: take-off = take-offs, sit-in= sit-ins, forget-me-not = forget-me-nots, merry-go-round = merry-gorounds, Commander-in-chief = Commanders-in chief;

- the formation of plural number by way of sound interchange (ablaut) as in the following seven English nouns: foot - feet, tooth - teeth, goose - geese; man - men, woman - women; louse - lice, mouse - mice.

- having one and the same form for singular and plural (cf. grouse, sheep, deer, swine, plaice).

- some borrowed noun inflexions. These are Latin: -a- -ae: alga - algae, larva - larvae; -us- -i: stimulus - stimuli, terminus - termini; -um- -a: curriculum - curricula, erratum - errata, etc. Several Greek: -is-es: analysis - analyses, basis - bases, ellipsis - ellipse) and -on- a: criterion - criteria, phenomenon - phenomena.

Unlike English, Ukrainian number inflexions are partly predetermined by the declension groups and partly by the gender of nouns and final consonant or vowel, which can respectively be hard, soft or mixed (sibilant). Thus, masculine, neuter and feminine gender nouns of the first and second declensions have the following endings.

Declension

Inflexion

Hard consonant group

Inflexion

Soft consonant group

Inflexion

Mixed / sibilant consonant group

I

а-и

Ганна - Ганни, сирота - сироти, хата - хати

я - і

буря - бурі, вишня - вишні, сім'я - сім'ї

а-і

груша - груші, межа - межі, площа - площі

II

0-і

0-і

о-а

o-и

ятір - ятері, комар - комарі, крило - крила, весло - весла, батько - батьки

0-і

й-ї

е-я

е-я

день - дні, край - краї, поле - поля, море - моря, місце - місця

е-а

е-і

0-і

селище - селища, плече - плечі, кущ - кущі, хрущ - хрущі, ткач - ткачі

III

й - і:

мати - матері

0 - і

вість - вісті, тінь - тіні

0 - і

піч - печі,

IV

: а -

/т/а

я - /н/ т+я:

ім'я - імена, маля - малята

а - /т/а

дівча - дівчата, курча - курчата

The major allomorphic feature in the system of noun categories is the existence in Ukrainian of dual number. The nouns express dual number only in connection with the numeral adjuncts two, three and four:

берег - береги - два (три, чотири) бе'реги;

дуб - дуби but два (три, чотири) ‘дуби;

слово - слова but два (три, чотири) слова;

село - села (дві, три, чотири) сел'і, etc.

Typologically isomorphic is the existence in English and Ukrainian of the classes of singularia and pluralia tantum nouns mostly expressing quantity.

a) The singularia tantum:

- geographical names: the North, the South, the East, the West, the NorthWest the North-East (північ, південь, захід, схід,північний захід), etc.

- names of materials: iron, copper, snow, milk, bread; срібло, золото, сніг, хліб,сіль, молоко, etc.

- abstract notions: -ств-о (-цтв-о): воїнство, селянство, студентство, козацтво; -я(j) + (а): листя, гілля, пруття, колосся, волосся, струччя; -от-а: жінота, парубота, біднота, дрібнота, etc.; f)nouns formed with the help of the suffixes -инн-я (-овинн-я): картоплиння, гарбузиння, кукурудзиння, бобовиння; g) nouns formed with the help of the suffixes -ин-а (-овин-а): дичина, садовина, ярина, h) nouns formed with the help of the suffixes -ник-няк: сливник, липняк, осичник, вишняк, підосичник, etc.

Isomorphic Semantic Groups of Singularia Tantum Nouns

English

Ukrainian

1. Nouns denoting parts of the world:

the North, the South, the East, the West, the North-West, the North-East, the South-East, the South-West.

1. Північ, південь, захід, схід, північний схід, північний захід, південний схід, південний захід.

2. Names of materials: gold, silver, iron, copper, milk, butter, snow, dirt, sand, water, hay, straw, bread, coffee, sugar, wood, etc.

2. Золото, срібло, залізо, алюміній, мідь, молоко, масло, бруд, сніг, пісок, вода, хліб, деревина, сіно, солома, цукор, etc.

3. Collective nouns: brushwood, foliage, leafage, furniture, shrubbery, rubbish, peasantry, hair, professorate, womankind, etc.

3. Білизна, збрід, крам, віниччя, гарбузиння, капустиння, паліччя, збіжжя, птаство, волосся, професура, селянство, жіноцтво, etc.

4. Abstract notions as: courage, knowledge, advice, recognition, friendship, kindness, news, information, business, love, peace, patriotism, weather, etc

Відвага, знання, буття, кохання, любов, мир, патріотизм, погода, прогрес, визнання, гамір, сумління, буття, виховання, ненависть, каяття, etc.

b) Pluralia tantum nouns.

No complete coincidence can be observed in the semantic classes of the pluralia tantum nouns.

Isomorphic Semantic Groups of Pluralia Tantum Nouns

English

Ukrainian

1. Summations nouns: trousers, shorts, tongs, scissors, scales, spectacles, eyeglasses, opera-glasses, leggings, strachies, pincers, etc.

1. Штани, шорти, обценьки, ножиці, терези, окуляри, сани, ночви, в'язи, баки, граблі, ворота, цимбали, стречі, леґґінси, etc.

2. Names of remnants (залишки):

scraps, slops, sweepings, siftings, leavings, remnants, etc.

2. Покидьки, помиї, висівки, недоїдки, недопитки, зметини, вишкрібки, etc.

3. Names of some games: drafts, cards, darts, skittles, billiards, etc.

3. Шахи, шашки, карти, дротики, кеглі, городки, гилки, etc.

4. Some abstract and concrete notions: outskirts, tigins, (inverted) commas, goings-on, contents, means (кошти), etc.

4. Будні, злидні, іменини, родини, заручини, хрестини, лапки, посиденьки, витребеньки, жмурки, etc.

5. Some geographical names like Athens, the Netherlands, the Alps, the Urals, the Carpathians, the Azores, the Bermudas, the Philippines, etc.

5. Атени, Нідерланди, Альпи, Карпати, Азори, Бермуди, Філіппіни, Бровари, Суми, Лубни, Жуляни, Черкаси, etc.

4.1.The Category of Case and its Realisation

The category of case in present-day English has always been disputable. Some grammarians found in present-day English two cases (O. Jes- persen, V. Yartseva, B. Rohovska, B. Khaimovich), others found in English four cases. The Russian grammarian G. N. Vorontsova recognised no cases in English at all, since the -'s sign she treated as a postpositive particle expressing possession.

As to Ukrainian nouns they may have 6 or 7 marked singular and plural oppositions in the case.

singular

plural

1. (називний) nominative - хмара

2. (родовий) genitive - хмари

3. (давальний) dative - хмарі

4. (знахідний) accusative - хмару

5. (орудний) instrumental - хмарою

6. (місцевий) locative - (на) хмарі

7. (кличний) vocative - хмаро (first decl.)

- степи

- степів

- степам

- степи

- степами

- (у) степах,

- степи (second decl., vocative case).

Підводячи підсумок розгляду категорії відмінка в обох мовах, ми

можемо скласти порівняльну таблицю.

The comparative table of the category of case

Ukrainian

English

1. 7 cases in the system of the noun and pronoun.

2. Agreement in the category of case in adjectives, pronouns (except for the personal), ordinal numbers.

3. The absence of the category of possession.

4. Isolation of the class of living subjects by means of formal expression in the accusative case (хмара - хмару; брат - брата)

1. The absence of category of cases in the system of the noun and the existence of two categories of cases in the system of personal pronouns

2. The absence of any agreement of nouns with other parts of speech.

3. Availability of the category of possession, having morphological expression in the morpheme ‘s.

4. Isolation of the class of living subjects using the possessive suffix -'s mother's handbag

4.2. The category of gender

No identity exists in the contrasted languages in the expression of the category of gender. Thus, in Ukrainian, Russian, German and other languages there are three grammatical genders - masculine, feminine, and neuter. (but in the Bantu language, as E. Sapir points out, there are about 42 genders realised with the help various inflexions).

The morphological category of gender in Ukrainian is identified either through separate inflexions of the adjunct /attribute or through the inflexion of the finite form of the verb that conjugates with a noun. For example:

Masculine gender

Feminine gender

Neuter gender

каштан цвів/ріс ведмідь ходив/спав обід захолов/замерз хлопець сміявся/був

яблуня цвіла/росла вода замерзла лисиця ходила/бігла дівчина сміялася/була

жито цвіло/росло лоша ходило/бігало сонечко пригрівало дитя сміялося/було

In present-day English no gender distinctions of the kind are possible, as can be seen from the following sentences:

Masculine gender

Feminine gender

Neuter gender

the actor plays the actor played the actor is/has the actor was

the actress plays the actress played the actress is/has seen the actress was seen

the child plays/smiles the child played/smiled, etc. the child is/has seen the child was seen/heard, etc.

The form of the verbal predicate does not reflect or in any way testify to the existence of any gender distinction. This is not so in Ukrainian. Absence of the morphological category of gender in English is easy to be proved by the unchanged attributive adjuncts to nouns which have this category in Ukrainian,

e.g.: the great emperor lived long - великий імператор жив довго; the great heroine lived long велика героїня жила довго the great desire lived long - велике бажання жило довго. The adjective «great» does not reflect any sex or gender distinction of the English head nouns «emperor», «heroine» or «desire» as it is in Ukrainian («великий імператор», «велика героїня», «велике бажання»).

The morphological category of gender and the objective (natural) category of sex may also be indicated in Ukrainian by the following means:

a) by a marked inflexion in the nominative case (книжка, село, яйце, батько, мати, сестра);

b) by the zero inflexion (дуб, час, ніч, річ, вість);

c) by suffixes only or by the root suffixes + endings (робітник, вівчар, стрілець, орач, вчительк-а, робітниц-я, поетес-а, поетик-а);

d) by means of a modifying word: наше київське метро (кашне, кіно), цей кабальєро, такий великий ґну, гарний поні, ця молода леді/дама, пані, etc.

The possessive conjoint or possessive absolute pronouns, however, may sometime be used in English to indicate the extralingual category of sex, e.g.: the bear and his life, that actress and her voice, his child and its toys. A testimony to there being no grammatical gender in English nouns is the use of appositional pronouns and nouns to indicate the sex of living beings as in boy-friend - girl-friend, man-servant - maid-servant.

In Ukrainian, on the contrary, each noun irrespective of its being a life or lifeless thing belongs to a concrete gender.

In spoken English all strong or fearful animals, birds and natural phenomena or celestial objects are usually referred to masculine gender. Thus, the wolf, the dog, the tiger, the lion, the elephant or the eagle are referred to masculine gender (is always he). All weaker, timid or sly animals and birds are referred to the feminine gender. Hence, the cat, the fox or the hare, the nightingale are each referred to feminine gender (she). Though not without exceptions. The daisy (маргаритка), for example, is he in

O. Wilde's fairy tale The Nightingale and the Rose-tree.

4.3. The Category of Definiteness and Indefiniteness

The noun in English and Ukrainian, as in other languages, possesses the semantic category of definiteness and indefiniteness.

The category of definiteness and indefiniteness may be identified in English and Ukrainian both at language level (when the noun is out of a concrete context) and at speech level, i.e. in oral presentation or in a written microtext.

1) The main means of making the noun definite in English is to use the definite or indefinite (zero) article or any other determining or identifying adjunct. For example: Bristol (zero article) means the town of Bristol, whereas the Bristol is the name of a hotel.

2) The category of definiteness may be also indicated by syntactic, i.e. lexico-syntactic means. Namely, by an appositive noun or a substantivised numeral, an adjective or any other adjunct: Cf.: the Tory government, King Henry V, the first Summit meeting, уряд торі, король Генріх П'ятий.

3) The category of indefiniteness apart from being indicated in English by the indefinite article a/an, may also be made explicit by the indefinite pronouns any, some, etc. The expression of indefiniteness in Ukrainian is likewise realized with the help of the indefinite pronouns якийсь (якась, якесь), through the indefinite numeral один (одна, одне).

4) indefiniteness in Ukrainian it may sometimes be expressed also- through grammatical shifting of the indefinite noun into the final position of the sentence.

The door opened and the teacher entered the classroom.

Двері відчинилися і вчитель увійшов до класу.

То express indefiniteness, the noun will be shifted to the final position:

The door opened and a teacher entered the classroom.

Двері відчинилися і до класу ввійшов учитель.

Therefore, the category of definitess and indefiniteness is equally pertained to both contrasted languages.

Conclusion

Studying the grammatical structure of the English language in comparison with the mother tongue and understanding the nature of interlingual grammatical connections and relationships one can more thoroughly comprehend the universal and specific in the English-language world picture, promote competent colloquial speech and the implementation of quality translations from the Ukrainian language into English and vice versa taking into account the features of the structure of both languages.






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