Фондові лекції викладачів факультету іноземної філології - Частина V - 2017
РОЗДІЛ 1. Лекції з дисциплін мовознавчого циклу і методики їх навчання
Г. А. Кришталюк, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент
The Areas of English Syntax still unexplained: interactive approach
Дисципліна: Теоретична граматика англійської мови.
Вид лекції: оглядова.
Навчальні: спонукати студентів до отримання знань з теорії англійської мови, зацікавити їх вивченням синтаксису англійської мови, розкрити широту та глибину цього явища, палітру його проблем, які потребують вирішення.
Розвиваючі: виробляти у студентів вміння сприймати теоретичний англомовний матеріал у значному обсязі; формувати навички аналізу почутої на лекції інформації, а також трансформації набутого раніше практичного досвіду з граматики англійської мови у теоретичні знання; тренувати сприйняття, пам'ять, увагу, мислення.
Виховні: прищепити студентам повагу до лінгвістики як науки взагалі та до теоретичної граматики англійської мови зокрема; допомогти відчути необхідність вивчення предмету, який є обов'язковим для фахово-професійної підготовки випускника-англіста.
Міжпредметні та міждисциплінарні зв'язки: історія англійської мови, лексикологія, стилістика та фонетика англійської мови, практична граматика англійської мови, практика усного та писемного мовлення англійської мови, мовознавство.
Основні поняття: syntax, syntactic unit, syntactic, construction, syntagmeme, texteme, parataxis, hypotaxis, coordination, subordination, syntactic variation, devices of syntactic connection, inflection, function word, word order, fronting.
Навчально-методичне забезпечення: мультимедійна презентація, роздатковий матеріал з тезами лекції; тестові запитання; евристичні запитання.
1. Syntax and its definition.
2. Syntactic construction as a representation of a syntactic unit.
3. Syntactic relations and grammatical means of their expression within a syntactic construction.
The Recommended Literature
1. Блох М. Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского язика / М.Я. Блох. - М. Высшая школа, 1983. - 383 с.
2. Иванова И.П., Бурлакова В.В., Почепцов Г.Г. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского язика : [учебник] / И.П. Иванова, В.В. Бурлакова, Г.Г. Почепцов. - Москва : Высшая школа, 1981. - 285 с.
3. Прибиток И.И. Лекции по теоретической грамматике английского язика / И.И. Прибиток. - Саратов : Научная книга, 2006. - 408 с.
4. Харитонов І. К. Теоретична граматика сучасної англійської мови : [навч. посіб.] / І. К. Харітонов. - Вінниця : НОВА КНИГА, 2008. - 352 с.
5. Biber D., Conrad S., Leech G. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English / D. Biber, S. Conrad, G. Leech. - Harlow : Pearson Education Limited, 2002. - 487 p.
6. Brinton Laurel J. The Structure of Modern English. A linguistic introduction / J. Laurel Brinton. - Amsterdam / Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000 - 358 p.
7. Crystal D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language / D. Crystal. L.; N.Y. : The Cambridge University Press, 1995. - 487 p.
8. Evans V. Cognitive Linguistics. An Introduction / V. Evans, M. Green. - Edinburgh : Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006. - 830 p.
9. Morokhovskaya E.Ya. Fundamentals of Theoretical English Grammar / E. J. Morokhovskaya. - K. : Vysca Skola, 1984. - 287 р.
10. Wekker H., Haegeman L. A Modern Course in English Syntax / H. Wekker, L.Haegeman. - L. ; N.Y. : Routledge, 1985. - 199 p.
1.Syntax and its definition
Traditionally, the grammatical structure of language comprises two major parts - morphology and syntax. The latter is the point of our today's discussion. You have got some background knowledge of syntax. But the fact is that this part of grammar is very wide and much of it has been left unexplored and many questions are still open for you to tackle and learn more about.
So let's start our journey and our destination is some new knowledge of the areas of syntax.
Our first stop is the definition of syntax. And now it is for you to choose the correct one.
Test point 1:
Syntax deals with
A. relations of words within a paradigm
B. relations of words within the linearly ordered units
C. relations of the speaker to the sign
D. relations of a sign to its meaning
The term ‘Syntax' is of Greek origin - svntaxis means ‘putting together in order, arrangement', ‘structure', ‘construction', ‘order'.
We can treat syntax widely and narrowly. According to its wide interpretation syntax is a subcategory of semiotics which deals with the ordering of and relationships between signs. According to the narrow view syntax is a subcategory of grammar of natural languages: a system of rules which describe how all well-formed sentences of a language can be derived from basic elements (morphemes, words, part of speech). Making use of both of the given above definitions we can produce our own interpretation of syntax as a level of speech production at which new and more or less independent units appear. The subject of syntax is ways of combinability of units and their transition from smaller and simpler to more complicated.
According to the levels of speech production syntax is divided into 3 parts: 1) syntax of words (parts of speech) studies word combinations, syntactic valency and its realization; 2) syntax of a sentence studies its inner structure, communicative types, formation of a simple and complex sentence; 3) syntax of a text studies actual division and modification of a sentence in a text and discourse, adaptation of a sentence to a context.
In relation to its complexity syntax is divided into minor represented by an elementary syntactic unit such as a phrase or word-group and major with a sentence as a main syntactic unit.
2. Syntactic construction as a representation of a syntactic unit
Syntactic unit is a composite formation of related elements (E. Ya. Morokhovska). They are constructive relational units the syntactic form of which is represented by a construction-pattern. Syntactic units are syntagmemes (term of E. Ya. Morokhovska): linear arrangements of related elements (constituents) whose syntagmatic relations are their qualitative value. Syntactic units are hierarchical units, i.e. the units of a lower level serve as the building material for the units of a higher level. Besides, the syntactic units are of the two-fold nature represented by a content side or syntactic meaning and expression side or syntactic form. Syntactic units
carry different degree of the communicative force. The lowest degree of the communicative force is carried by a word group, next goes the predicative word group (N + Vnonfinite), then a clause (N + Vfinite) follows bordering non-communicative and communicative categories. The central communicative position is occupied by the sentence. The composite sentence (clause + clause) is of still high communicative value. Paragraph is better communicatively organized and is followed by a texteme that is a building block for discourse as the highest communicative unit.
In different contexts syntactic units are represented by syntactic constructions. Syntactic construction is an abstract schematic representation of a syntactic unit. It is a ubiquitous term in the contemporary syntactic literature. Syntactic construction is a form-meaning pairing representing a syntactic unit. It has been found out that syntactic constructions undergo the process of variation. Two main types of syntactic variation have been singled out: formal and semantic.
The formal variation can be seen in the alternation of the means and forms of syntactic connection manifesting the relations between the constituents of word-groups.
The syntactic variation of a syntactic unit depends upon its syntactic status. The development of linguistics allows to treat syntactic variation as a unity of formal and semantic features, as a whole. Syntactic variation can be most obviously observed at the phrase level, sentence/utterance level and text level.
Let's look at how the meaning of possession is constructed by means of syntactic variation at the phrase and sentence levels:
a. Nick's new friend
b. a new friend of Nick's
c. Nick has a new friend
The three presented examples do not comprise a single possessive construction, because they are too different in their syntax. In the phrase Nick's new friend the possessor (Nick) is foregrounded as the proper name, the noun phrase (new friend) identifies the object possessed. In the phrase a new friend of Nick's the construction acquires the opposite direction as the object possessed is more salient and the possessor is shadowed being of secondary importance and representing known information. In the sentence Nick has a new friend the distance between the possessor and the object possessed is larger: they are represented by separate units and the attention is directed to the relations of possession between the possessor and the object possessed.
3.Syntactic relations within a syntactic construction
Test point 2:
What are the basic types of syntactic relations within a syntactic construction?
A. Transformation, subordination, predication
B. Coordination, subordination, predication
C. Parataxis, coordination, subordination
D. Hypotaxis, subordination, coordination
Coordination and subordination are examples of wider arrangements of constructs i.e. parataxis and hypotaxis.
Parataxis (from Greek παράταξις «act of placing side by side», from παραpara «beside» + τάξις täxis «arrangement») is a technique, in writing or speaking, that favors sentences, with the use of coordinating rather than subordinating conjunctions. Perhaps the best known use of parataxis is Julius Caesar's famous laconic phrase, «Veni, vidi, vici» or, «I came, I saw, I conquered» - iconic representation with the account of distance and sequential order. There was a lot to carry, costume-wise and crown-wise and scepter-wise. - no hierarchy, independent constructs
In contrast to parataxis hypotaxis is the grammatical arrangement of functionally similar but «unequal» constructs (from Greek hypo - «beneath», and taxis «arrangement»), i.e., constructs playing an unequal role in a sentence. We can observe hypotaxis both at the phrase and sentence levels. At the phrase level it is observed in premodification, e.g. compulsive manifestation, a closer look, this generation's mental-health differences (hierarchic structure). At the sentence level: e.g. It's this kind of thinking that encouraged the Institute of Medicine to advocate for a more comprehensive cancer-treatment plan.
Parataxis and hypotaxis as types of syntactic relations or syntactic connections are realized due to different devices employed for specifying them. Devices of syntactic connection are the following: inflection, function words, word order.
Inflection is primarily employed in synthetic languages for establishing relations of subordination between constituents. Such forms of subordination as agreement and government are the main ones in Slavic languages. In modern English the sphere of inflectional devices is highly limited, e.g. this conclusion - these conclusions; saw them in the street, gave them a new assignment; Fillmore's theory.
Special function words are widely used in Modern English as means of syntactic connection. Function words are the proof of analytical nature of English. Some of them function as connectors.
Test point 3:
In what groups do connectors fall into?
A. Notional words and coordinators
B. Functional words and coordinators
C. Coordinators and subordinators
D. Functional words and notional words
Connectors fall into coordinators (and, or, but, yet, neither... nor) and subordinators (that, when, as if, though). Coordinators include:
a) a coordinating conjunction: and, but, or, nor, either, neither;
b) a coordinating conjunctive adverb, which can shift its position: besides, moreover, however, yet, still, otherwise, therefore, so, thus, then, consequently.
a) a subordinating conjunction:
- 1-word: that, because, though, if, before, until, since, who, than.;
- phrasal: in order that, so far as, as if, in case.;
- paired: as...as, such...as;
b) a relative pronoun (/a connective/ a subordinating conjunctive adverb), which is part of the clause (= occupies a notional and structural position in it): who, what, whose, which, why, that, where, when, as.
Connectors mark syntagmatic relations between words, clauses, sentences and even paragraphs:
There's a peculiar feeling ex-prisoners get when (between clauses) they move freely about society, a tinge of anxiety many say they've felt walking down the street or driving home from the store. When (between sentence) Billy Ray Wheelock walks down a street, he is often aware of the people approaching behind him. But Wheelock, who was convicted of intending to distribute 50 g of crack, doesn't live with regret.
In the presented passage the conjunction when functions as a subordinator, clause connector and a sentence connector. The coordinator but functions as a sentence connector.
Word-order is another device which is regularly in English for marking subordination of words in word groups. It is of common knowledge that the decay of Old English cases and the standardization of word-positions made the rigid word order syntactically significant. Word order is an analytical device marking such forms of subordinate connection as ad- joinment and enclosure. These forms of subordinate connection displaced agreement and government because the latter lost their regular markers.
Test point 4:
Identify the definitions of agreement, government and adjoinment:
• the use of the dependent word in a certain form (but not identical!) required by the head word;
• a means of expressing syntactical connections within a subordinate phrase when the constituents are joined without any specific change of the form of the dependent word, but only by the mutual position;
• a means of expressing syntactic dependence when the dependent word takes a grammatical form identical to that of the head word and expresses the same grammatical categories.
Test point 5:
Divide the given word groups into those marked with agreement, government and adjoinment:
A. Asked him
B. Asked a student
C. These letters
D. Private letters
E. The chief's letters
Asked him - case-government marked by the case form; asked a student - adjoinment marked by the word order; these letters - agreement marked by number-forms; private letters - adjoinment marked by the word order; the chief's letters - case-government marked by the case-inflection.
There are grammatical devices to manipulate word order in clauses: fronting, nversion of subjects and verbs, existential there clauses, dislocation, clefting, and variations in the ordering of objects. Some of these devices involve simply moving elements to different positions. Others require changing the clause in more complicated ways, such as changing the verb to passive voice. The techniques that we discuss here are used in a variety of ways to make a clause better fit its context. Four major discourse factors are important in understanding the grammatical choices that influence word order: information flow (given v. new information) focus and emphasis, including end-focus and double focus, contrast, weight, including end-weight and balance of weight.
If we look at a clause in its discourse context, some elements refer back to information that is familiar due to the preceding discourse, i.e. given information and other elements present new information. The typical word order in English is to start with given information and move to new. Thus, in the following example clause, the person Mr Summers and the house have already been introduced, e.g. Inside the home Mr Summers found a family of cats shut in the bathroom. The clause is first grounded in the situation that has already been mentioned the house and Mr Summers. Then the communication advances with the information about what
Mr Summers found. This typical ordering of information - from given to new - is the information-flow principle. Given-new order of information contributes to the cohesion of a text. The given information is usually related to its previous mention, and the new information is often taken up in the following discourse.
In any clause, there is usually at least one point of focus. This point receives some prominence in the clause. Typically, the focus occurs naturally on the last lexical item in the clause (e.g. Inside the home Mr Summers found a family of cats shut in the bathroom). The general principle governing focus is therefore known as the principle of end-focus. When the information-flow principle is being followed, new information, which occurs at the end of the clause, will be the focus. However, there is another potential point of focus in a clause: the beginning. We can increase the focus given to the beginning of the clause by starting with an element other than the subject. The result is a clause with double focus (or even more than two points of focus). For example, in Inside the home Mr Summers found a family of cats shut in the bathroom an adverbial occurs first. That adverbial - inside the house, and more specifically the lexical item house - receives its own focus, in addition to the focus on in the bathroom. When an initial element is the point of focus, it gains prominence. A complement of the verb in initial position is intensified, much as it is intensified by an adverb like very:
Contrast occurs when the focused part is highlighted to show its difference from another element, e.g. It's not the bikers - It's the other vehicle that's on the road. Here the other vehicle is focused and contrasted with the bikers in the preceding clause in a parallel structure. The manipulation of the sentence structure shows contrast just as the coordinator but and the linking adverb however do. The speaker, for instance, could have said: The bikers are not a problem. However, the other vehicle is.
More often than not, heavier elements are closer to the end of the sentence. Weight correlates with the information-flow principle. These two devices reinforce each other.
Fronting is one of the central grammatical devices to manipulate word order in clauses. Fronting means placing in initial position a clause element which is normally found after the verb. Fronting is relatively rare in English, and it is almost always in declarative main clauses.
In the given below table 1 several possible kinds of fronting are summarized:
Types of fronting
Type of fronting
This I do not understand. Why he came this way I
will probably never know
The object of the clause is in initial position. Many different structures occur as fronted objects, such as nouns. pronouns, and complement clauses
Far more serious were
the severe head injuries.
The larger the base the easier it will be to perform the action.
So preoccupied was she that she was unaware that Diana was standing in the doorway
subject predicative is in initial position. Many structures can occur as fronted predicatives. Special cases include proportion clauses with the and degree clauses with so ... that. Some fronted predicatives occur with inversion
I have said he would come down and come down he did.
Waiting below was Michael Sams.
Enclosed is a card for our permanent signature file
An infinitive, ing-participle or ed-participle is in initial position. Its complements are fronted with it (e.g. down in come down). Some fronted non-finite predicates occur with inversion
Thus, syntax is a complicated area of linguistic study dealing with syntactic units and relations within and between them. In English there are certain grammatical devices that are used as means of establishing syntactic relations within syntactic units.