Фондові лекції викладачів факультету іноземної філології - Частина V - 2017
РОЗДІЛ 1. Лекції з дисциплін мовознавчого циклу і методики їх навчання
Т. В. Сторчова, кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент
Дисципліна: Методика викладання іноземних мов.
Вид лекції: інформаційна.
Навчальні: формування декларативних знань про загальну характеристику читання, його психофізіологічні механізми, про зміст та етапи формування компетентності у читанні, підсистему вправ, формування методичної компетентності студентів-філологів;
Розвиваючі: набуття здатності та готовності до застосування на практиці сучасних методів та технологій навчання читання; розвиток емоційно-вольової сфери;
Виховні: формування розуміння важливості оволодіння учнівством іншомовної компетентності у читанні; формування доброзичливості, толерантності, активності, працьовитості тощо.
Міжпредметні та міждисциплінарні зв'язки: психологія, психолінгвістика, лексикологія, педагогіка, основи педагогічної майстерності.
Глосарій професійної термінології:
aloud/oral reading, analytical/intensive reading, anticipation, control/ test reading, correspondence, diagnostic reading, familiar text, fluent reading, guessing, home reading, independent reading, instructive reading, original text, rapid reading, reading for detailed comprehension, recognition, scanning, silent reading, skimming, study reading, synthetical/extensive/ global reading, text for reciting/telling, text of average difficulty, to compile a text, to read aloud, to read rapidly, to read silently, to recite, unfamiliar text, visual perception.
Навчально-методичне забезпечення: мультимедійна презентація.
1. Reading as an aim and a means of teaching and learning a foreign language.
2. Some difficulties students have in learning to read in the English language.
3. How to teach reading: reading aloud, silent reading.
1. Грызулина А. П. Хрестоматия по методике преподавания английского языка : учеб. пособ. для студ. пед. ин-тов по спец. № 2103 «Иностр. яз.» / Сост. А. П. Грызулина. - М. : Просвещение, 1983. - С. 59-87.
2. Методика навчання іноземних мов і культур: теорія і практика : підручник / Бігич О. Б., Бориско Н. Ф., Борецька Г. Е. та ін. / за заг. ред. С. Ю. Ніколаєвої. - К. : Ленвіт, 2013. - С. 370-418.
3. Методика навчання іноземних мов у загальноосвітніх навчальних закладах : підручник / Л.С. Панова, І.Ф. Андрійко, С.В. Тезікова та ін. - К. : ВЦ «Академія», 2010.
4. Методика преподавания ИЯ: общий курс : [учебное пособие] / отв. ред. А.Н. Шамов. - 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. - М. : АСТ : АСТ МОСКВА : Восток - Запад, 2008. - С. 123-129.
5. Рогова Г. В. Методика обучения английскому языку (на английском языке) : учеб. пособ. для студ. пед. ин-тов по спец. № 2103 «Иностр. яз.» / Г.В. Рогова. - 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. - М. : Просвещение, 1983. - С. 199-217.
6. Some activities teachers can use with students before, while and after reading a text [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: https:// www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/teens-reading-skills. - Назва з екрану (дата звернення 15.07.2017).
1. Reading as an aim and a means of teaching and learning a foreign language
To read is to grasp language patterns from their written representation. Reading is one of the main skills that a student must acquire in the process of mastering a foreign language in school. The syllabus for foreign languages lists reading as one of the leading language activities to be developed.
Therefore, reading is one of the practical aims of teaching a foreign language in schools. Reading is of great educational importance, as reading is a means of communicational, people get information they need from books, magazines, newspapers, etc. Through reading in a foreign language the student enriches his/her knowledge of the world around him/ her. It develops students' intelligence and helps to develop their memory, will, imagination.
Reading is not only an aim in itself, it is also a means of learning a foreign language. When reading a text the student reviews sounds and letters, vocabulary and grammar, memorizes the spelling of words, the meaning of words and word-combination, he/she also reviews grammar and, in this way, he/she perfects his/her command of the target language. The more the student reads, the better his/her retention of the linguistic material is. If the teacher instructs his/her students in good reading and they can read with sufficient fluency and complete comprehension he/she helps them to acquire speaking and writing skills as well.
The content of teaching reading. Reading is a complex process of language activity. As it is closely connected with the comprehension of what is read, reading is a complicated intellectual work. It requires the ability on the reader to carry out a number of mental operation: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison.
Reading as a process is connected with the work of visual, kinaesthetic, aural analysers, and thinking. The visual analysers is at work when the reader sees a text. While seeing the text he/she «sounds» it silently, therefore the kinaesthetic analyser is involved. When he/she sounds the text he/she hears what he/she pronounces in his/her inner speech so it shows that the aural analyser is not passive, it also works and, finally, due to the work of all the analysers the reader can understand thoughts. In learning to read one of the aims is to minimize the activities of kinaesthetic and aural analysers so that the reader can associate what he/she sees with the thought expressed in reading material, since inner speech hinders the process of reading making it very slow. Thus the speed of reading depends on reader's ability to establish a direct connection between what he/she sees and what it means. To make this easier to understand it may be represented as follows:
There are two ways of reading: aloud orally, and silently. People usually start learning to read orally. In teaching a foreign language in school both ways should be developed. Students assimilate the graphic system of the target language as a means which is used for conveying information in print. They develop this skill through oral reading and silent reading.
When one says that one can read, it means that one can focus one's attention on the meaning and not on the form; the student treats the text as a familiar form of discourse and not as a task of deciphering. A good
reader does not look at letters, not even at words, one by one, however quickly; he/she takes in the meaning of two, three, or four words at a time, in a single moment. The eyes of a very good reader move quickly, taking long «jumps» and making very short «halts». We can call this ideal reading «reading per se». Reading per se is the end to be attained. It is possible provided:
These are three constituent parts of reading as a process.
As a means of teaching reading a system of exercises is widely used in school, which includes:
1) graphemic-phonemic exercises which help students to assimilate graphemic-phonemic correspondence in the English language;
2) structural-information exercises which help students to carry out lexical and grammar analysis to find the logical subject and predicate in the sentences following the structural signals;
3) semantic-communicative exercises which help students to get information from the text.
The actions which students perform while doing these exercises constitute the content of teaching and learning reading in a foreign language.
2.Some difficulties students have in learning to read in the English language
Reading in the English language is one of the most difficult things because there are 26 letters and 146 graphemes which represent 46 phonemes. Indeed the English alphabet presents many difficulties to Ukrainian-speaking students because the Ukrainian alphabet differs greatly from that of the English language.
It is not sufficient to know English letters. It is necessary that students should know graphemes, how this or that vowel, vowel combination, consonant, or consonant combination is read in different positions in the words (window, down).
Fit: Associating the graphemes and the language. Fit is the relation between a writing system and the spoken language it presents. When the student can speak a pattern and can identify the graphemes separately, it is time to associate the language with graphemes.
Teaching the regularities of fit. When a letter regularly represents the same sound, tell the student so. The fit of English writing is very poor; yet there are phonemes regularly represented by the same letter, e.g., /m/:m, /v/:v.
There are many other regularities of English spelling, although they are not simple one-phoneme-to-one-letter associations. Some letters always represent the same phoneme, but the phoneme can be represented by other letters, e.g., /f/f, also gh, ph. Some letters represent a phoneme under given conditions, e.g.,/l/:l, ll, but not in walk, calm.
It will usually be profitable to teach the alphabet or syllabary by heart. The names of the letters often illustrate the regular sound-symbol associations. Care must be taken to show that the phonemes are central and regular and that any discrepancies are imperfect representations, rather than the other way around.
Teaching the problems in patterns. Once the major regularities of fit are taught, the problems have to be taught more gradually. The problems arise from irregularities of fit or from interference from the source writing system. For example, the fact that English /k/can be represented by k and ch as in king, chemistry, and ch, in turn, can represent /f/ and /J/ in machine is a problem of irregularity.
Taking up each word as a separate problem is inefficient. Teach patterns of representation. For example, English /i/ is most often represented by i between consonants: bit, sip, fill, win. Then write these words on the board. Ask the students to read them aloud. Write other words they know, e.g., him, his, Miss, six, ship, and ask them to read them aloud.
Then to test the generalization, write some words they may not know, e.g., rift, tim, wit, and ask them to pronounce them if they can.
Programming. You cannot teach all the patterns, problems, and exceptions at once; something must come first, something second, and something last.
There is no need to postpone reading until complete mastery of the language has been achieved. The principle of teaching the language first is maintained in teaching reading of each pattern immediately after it is mastered orally.
The program moves on a double track. On one track is laid out systematically the association of sounds and symbols. On the other is hand
led the reading of sentences already mastered orally. The second track cannot wait for all the elements to be taught in the first; when something is needed out of normal sequence, teach it without analysis.
In general, regular patterns can be taught first, followed by problems due to interference from the source writing; next, problems caused by multiple patterns of fit can be presented and the exceptions taught as needed.
3. How to teach reading
The teacher can use the whole system of exercises for developing students' ability to read which may be done in two forms - loud and silent.
Reading aloud. In teaching reading aloud the following methods are observed: the phonic, the word, and the sentence ways. When the phonic way is used, the child learns the sounds and associated them with graphic symbols - letters. In the word way a complete word is first presented to the child. When several words have been learnt they are used in simple sentences. The sentence way deals with the sentences as unit of approach in teaching reading. The teacher can develop students' ability to read sentences with correct intonation.
Mistakes and how to correct them. In teaching students to read the teacher must do his/her best to prevent mistakes. We may, however, be certain that in spite of much work done by the teacher, students will make mistakes in reading. The question is who correct their mistakes, how they should be corrected, when they must be corrected.
The student who has made a mistake must try to correct it himself/ herself. If he/she cannot do it, his/her classmates correct his/her mistakes. If they cannot do so, the teacher correct the mistakes. The following techniques may be suggested:
1. The teacher writes a word (e.g. black) on the blackboard. He/she underlines ck in it and asks the pupil to say what sound these two letters convey. If the pupil cannot answer the question, the teacher asks some of his/her classmates. They help the student to correct his/her mistake and he/she reads the word.
2. The teacher corrects the mistake himself/herself. The student reads the word correctly. The teacher asks the student to explain to the class how to read ck.
3. The teacher tells the student to write the word black and underline ck. Then he says how the word is read.
There are some other ways of correcting students' mistakes. The teacher should use them reasonably and choose the one most suitable for the case.
Another question arises: whether we should correct a mistake in the process of reading a passage or after finishing it. Both ways are possible. The mistake should be corrected at once while the student reads the text if he/she made it in a word which will occur two or more times in the text. If the word does not appear again, it is better to let the student read the paragraph to the end. Then the mistake is corrected.
Silent reading. In learning to read students widen their eye span. They can see more than a word, a phrase, a sentence. The eye can move faster than the reader is able to pronounce what he/she see. Thus reading aloud becomes an obstacle for perception. It hinders the student's comprehension of the text. It is necessary that the student should read silently. Special exercises may be suggested to develop students' skills in silent reading. For instance, «look and say, read and look up».
Teaching silent reading is closely connected with two problems:
1. Instructing students in finding in sentences what is new in the information following some structural signals, the latter is possible provided students have a certain knowledge of grammar and vocabulary and they can perform lexical and grammar analysis;
2. Developing students' ability in guessing.
Students should be taught how to find the logical predicate in a sentence. The teacher may ask students to read a text silently and find the words conveying the new information in the text according to their position. There are some signals which may be helpful in this respect. These are - the Passive Voice (The doctor was sent for); the indefinite article (A man came up to me); the construction (It is/was - it was not difficult for him to finish his work in time) etc. Students' poor comprehension often results from their poor knowledge of grammar. The teacher should instruct students how to work with a dictionary and reference book so that they can overcome some difficulties independently. Much more attention should be given to teaching students how to carry out the actual division of sentences to get information from the text. Here are a few examples of structural-information exercises:
- Read the following sentences and guess the meaning of the words you don't know.
- Read the sentence An idea struck me and explain the use of the indefinite article.
- Read the text. Stress the words conveying new information in each sentence. E.g. I have a bag. The bag is black. It is a new bag. I like my new bag.
- This sentences are two complicated. Break them into shorter sentences.
- Find the sentence which summarizes the paragraph.
- What is the effect of the series of repetitions in the paragraph?
To read a text the student must possess the ability to grasp the contents of the text. The student is to be taught to compare, to contrast, to guess, and to foresee events.
In teaching pupils to read much attention should be given to the development of their ability to guess. One of the best ways to develop this skill is to give the student the text for acquaintance either during the lesson or as his/her homework. He/she can read it again and again. «Before questions» may be helpful. They direct the student's thought when he/ she reads the text.
The teacher instructs students how to get information from the text. Semantic-communicative exercises are recommended. They are all connected with silent reading. These may be:
- Read. Find answers to the following questions.
- Read the text. Find the words which describe the room.
- Read the text. Say what made the Prime Minister leave the country.
- The author describes his hero with great sympathy. Find in what words he expresses his attitude.
- Read the text and prove that … is a kind woman.
The three types of exercises are distributed differently depending on the stage of teaching. In the primary school graphemic-phonemic and structural-information exercises should prevail. In the secondary school structural-information and semantic-communicative must be mostly used; the latter should prevail.
Students perform graphemic-phonemic exercises reading them aloud. The teacher uses individual, group, and full class reading. He/she checks the student's reading my making him/her read aloud.
Students perform structural-information exercises by reading them aloud and silently. The teacher uses individual, group, and full class reading when students read sentences, paragraphs of the text aloud, and when the aim is to teach students correct intonation in connection with the actual division of sentences. He/she checks the student's reading by asking him/her to read aloud.
The teacher uses mass reading when students read sentences, paragraphs of the text silently. The teacher checks the students' silent reading by asking him/her to reproduce a sentence or a paragraph; through partial reading of a sentence or a clause; through the student's interpreting the text; by utilizing true-false statements, questions and answers.
Students perform semantic-communicative exercises reading the text silently. If the work is done during the lesson the teacher uses mass reading. He/she checks students' comprehension by asking them individually. The techniques the teacher uses to check students' ability to get
information from the text may be different. The choice depends on the stage of teaching; on the material used; on students' progress.
In the junior stage the following techniques may be suggested:
- read and draw;
- here are the questions, find the answers in the text;
- find the following sentences in the text (the teacher gives Ukrainian equivalents);
- correct the following statements which are not true to fact;
- read the sentences you find most important in the text. Etc.
If the text is easy, i.e., if it does not contain unfamiliar words and grammar items, the teacher uses those techniques which are connected with speaking, with the active use of vocabulary and sentence patterns. Similar techniques may be used in intermediate and senior stages if the text is not difficult for the class. The teacher asks students a few questions to test their understanding. The interrogation should be carried out briskly. The teacher passes from student to student without waiting if the particular student has not got his/her answer ready. For the most profitable results of this work speed is essential. It ensures that all get a chance to answer. With books open one of the student ask the question or a number of questions and another answers. The teacher asks the students to retell the text. One student begins retelling the text, another continues. Each student says a few sentences. The teacher asks the first group of students to be ready to say everything they know about X, the second group - everything they know about J, the third group - about Y, and so on.
The work must be carried out in a way which will be of interest to students and develop not only their reading ability but their aural comprehension and speaking abilities as well.
If the text is difficult, i.e., if it contains unfamiliar words and grammar items, the techniques should be different, as the students read the text not only to get information but to improve their knowledge of the language and intensive work is needed on their part.
The intensive work may be connected with:
- lexical work which helps students to deepen and enrich their vocabulary knowledge;
- grammar work which helps pupils to review and systematize their grammar knowledge and enrich it through grammar analysis;
- stylistic work which helps students to become acquainted with stylistic use of words and grammar forms (inversion, tense-usage, etc.);
- content analysis which helps students to learn new concepts quite strange to Ukrainian-speaking students. For example, the House of Parliament, public schools, etc.
The exercises are mostly connected with recognition on the part of the learners, namely, find … and read; find … and analyse find … and translate; read those sentences which you think contain the main information; answer the questions etc. The choice also depends on students' progress. If students are orally skilful, the techniques the teacher uses are to be those connected with conversation. If students are poor in speaking the techniques should be those of recognition, retelling in the mother tongue.
Unfortunately, some teachers have a tendency to test instead of teach during classroom work and they often confine themselves to reading and translating the text. This is a bad practice. Students are tested and not taught. Moreover, the procedure becomes monotonous, and the work is ineffective.
Exercises which develop reading skill
Form of reading
Organizational form used
Individual, group and full class reading
Name the words beginning with the letter …;compose words (letters are distributed); choose the words which are not read according to the rule; name the element which makes the words different etc.
Mass reading in class Individual reading at home
Find the logical predicate in the sentences; look and say; determine the meaning of the words proceeding from its position in the sentence; read the sentences and guess the meaning of words in italics; break the sentence into two simple sentences, etc.
Mass reading in class and individual at home
Read and say …; read and find …; read and answer the following questions; prove that … etc.
Experience has taught us that students don't learn to read their first language in a few easy lessons. Their pace and progress depend on several factors, among them general intelligence, maturity, ability at visual discrimination, and rich background to give meaning to the printed word. It cannot be overemphasized that during the first few weeks of reading the teacher should not go at a pace too fast for the students to follow.