Говоримо англійською - 40 розмовних тем - Л. П. Ільєнко 1997

Protection of nature

New words and word-combinations to be remembered:

protection of nature захист природи

to preserve зберігати

unrestricted необмежені

harmful substance шкідлива речовина

discharge викид

pollution забруднення

influence вплив

to change змінювати

state стан

violation порушення

to create створювати

compound сполука

resin смола

to belong (to) належати (до)

to disrupt розривати, порушувати

concern зацікавленість

to deteriorate погіршувати

contamination забруднення

environment навколишнє середовище

waste відходи

fertility родючість

Protection of nature in Ukraine has become the primary duty of every citizen and concern of the whole population. Our common goal is to preserve generous land for the present and future generations in all its beauty.

But as a result of unrestricted industrialization the biological balance has been broken. Hundreds tons of harmful substances are discharged every year into the air. The pollution is a consequence of poor technology used, atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by automobiles, sulphuric oxides arise from coal and oil burning, from electric power plants and chemical plants’ by-products, dust. With the present-day scientific and technological progress, man’s influence is changing the biosphere and it is passing into a new state. The violations of natural processes are different. Man creates new compounds, new substances, pure chemical elements which are unknown to the biosphere. The volume of new synthetic compounds, specifically of polymers, resins, plastics, synthetic materials, chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, has reached the figure of about million tons. They do not belong to the natural circulation of matter.

Many of them disrupt the established mechanisms of the biosphere.

That’s why the first concern of science is to find effective means of protecting the biosphere from pollutants.

About half of the chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, applied in the fields are washed off into rivers and result in grave marine pollution.

The situation tragically deteriorated after the N4 reactor at the Chomobyl’ nuclear power plant exploded and caused radio-active contamination of great territories and did much harm to human health. Contamination by various radio-active isotopes from the Chomobyl’ nuclear accident affected the air, land and water of Ukraine and vast areas beyond it.

After that accident the most urgent problem is removal from service of the Chomobyl’ nuclear power plant, it must be dismantled as soon as possible. Drastic measures have to be undertaken to neutralize its dangerous effect. It is also necessary to take urgent measures for reduction of harmful discharges of enterprises up to closing down those plants which can’t operate according to the norms set to protect environment.

A special organ for dealing with these problems — the UN Environmental Programme was set up by a decision of the UN General Assembly. And the main trends of this organization are:

combatting air and water pollution, averting the pollution of the world ocean;

development of technological systems producing little or no waste;

protecting and increasing the fertility of the soil recultivation of land;

elaboration of sanitary-hygienic criteria to determine environmental pollution;

making the environment healthier;

forecasting the effect of human activities on the ecological systems of various climatic and natural zones.

Much has to be done in Ukraine for bringing up a man as ecologically educated individual, a true friend of nature.

The Ministry of Environment was founded in Ukraine. Its task is to control the state of environment, to make comprehensive analysis of the environment, to prevent the pollution of fresh water, the air and the seas, to search for methods of combatting the main pollutants and to facilitate educational development and the exchange of information on research problems.

Now it is time to be not only environment conscious but environment educated as well.

Answer the following questions:

1. Does environment contamination originate from man’s activity?

2. What are major sources of atmosphere and water pollution?

3. What new synthetic compounds did man create?

4. What is the first concern of science?

5. What is the .most urgent problem after the nuclear accident at the Chomobyl’ atomic power plant?

6. What has stimulated man’s interest in ecology?

7. What international organ for dealing with environmental protection was set up?

8. What are the main trends of this organization?

9. Was the Ministry of Environment founded in Ukraine?

10. What is its task?

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