The United Kingdom of Grteat Britain and Northern Ireland
New words and word-combinations to be remembered:
application form заява
to attend відвідувати
to offer пропонувати
to provide забезпечувати
to submit подавати
tuition fee плата за навчання
academic year навчальний рік
There are different kinds of educational institutions in Great Britain: universities, colleges (residential and non-residential), University extra-mural departments, evening departments at colleges.
If you want to go to university, you usually apply during your last year at school, when you are 17-18. You can apply to study at any university in Britain and most people choose a university that is not in their own town. So, university students usually live away from home. Students get a grant or a loan from the government to study.
At the beginning of your last year at school you receive an application form. On this form you choose up to five universities that you would like to go to. The form is sent to those universities with information from your school about you and your academic record. If the universities are interested in your application, they will ask you to attend an interview. If they are still interested after the interview, they will offer you a place.
Any offer, however, is only conditional at this stage. Applications and interviews take place several months before students do their A-level examinations. These are the exams that you do at the end of your time at school. So, when a university makes an offer, it will tell you the minimum grades that you will have to get when you do your А-level exams. If you don’t get those grades, then you will not be able to accept the place. It will be offered to someone else and you must apply again to another university.
You don’t have to accept your place immediately. Some students don’t want to go straight from school to university, so after they have taken their A-levels, they take a year out to work or travel.
At present there are about 40 universities in Great Britain: practically every big city of the country has a university.
A university usually consists of some colleges, which are a part of the University. They provide training and give degrees to their students.
Universities in Britain are different from those in other countries. They greatly differ from each other in date of foundation, history, tradition, size, methods of teaching, way of student life, etc.
Until the 19th century' there were only two universities in England: Oxford and Cambridge. Both Universities are residential.
They have a tutorial system of education.
Each student has a tutor who helps the student to plan his work.
The student must regularly come to see his tutor. They discuss different questions and problems. A student writes papers on the subject which he is studying and submits them regularly to his tutor for correction.
The modem Universities are University of London, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and others. They are not residential. They provide instruction chiefly by means of lectures attended mainly by day students.
Most of civic universities were founded in the 19th century as University colleges. Later they became universities. These universities were founded to serve the needs of their city and surrounding area, in contrast to Oxford, Cambridge and London which took students from all over the country.
College is a separate institution. Most colleges are state colleges but there are also private colleges.
At present there are about 300 technical colleges in England. They give diplomas, not degrees. The course for training specialists at such colleges is shorter as a rule than at the universities. It usually lasts 3 or 4 years, while at the universities it lasts as a rule more than 4 years.
A person who studies for a degree at a British University is called an undergraduate. Bachelor of Arts or of Science is the first degree. One can become a B.A. after 3 years of hard study and a M.A. (Master of Arts or of Science) at the end of 5 years. Doctor of Phylosophy is the highest degree.
Tuition costs a lot of money, about 800 dollars. We have to pay for taking examinations, for attending lectures, for borrowing books from the library, for hostel accommodations.
At all British universities there are good sporting grounds for jumping, boxing, skating, playing football, golf and other games.
The academic year has 3 terms. Each term lasts about eight — ten weeks. Between terms the students have their holidays — a month in winter, a month in spring and three or four months in summer.
Answer the following questions:
1. Who has the right to higher education?
2. What is tuition fee at the university?
3. How do the modem universities provide instruction?
4. What university cities do you know?
5. Are universities in Britain different from those in other countries?
6. What does the word «residential» mean?
London University was established in 1836 by union of two colleges. Later many other colleges, schools and institutes were added. Now it is the largest University in Britain.
Its function is to give the highest type of education and training to its students, to make them able to carry out scientific work. A University graduate leaves with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he may continue to take the Master’s Degree by thesis or research and if he becomes a good specialist in the subject, the Degree of Doctor is open to him. London University provides instructions mainly by means of lectures while the students of extra-mural department come to London only to sit for their examinations.
The University gives people not studying at the University the opportunity of taking the degree examinations. The University doesn’t provide any tuition for such students, they study for the examinations on their own, or take correspondence courses, or have private lessons.
It is a federation of colleges, each largely independent. There is a large department of Extra-Mural Studies, four faculties of Theology, thirteen of Arts, thirty-one of Medicine, ten of Science. There are ten «Institutes» of which the Institute of Education is one of the biggest. The Institute of Education itself is a complex organization. University building and hostels are scattered the length and breadth of London. Such names as A. E. Housman, a philologist and poet, A.L. Whitehead, a mathematician, Michael Faraday, a physicist, l. Alex Fleming, a famous bacteriologist, are associated with the University of London,
University College was founded in 1249. The tutorial system is one of the ways in which Oxford University differs from all the other English Universities. Every student has a tutor and as soon as you come to Oxford one of the first thing you have to do is to go and see your tutor. He, more or less, plans your work, gives you a list of books to read and gives work for you to do (for example an essay to write). Each week you go to see him, may be with two or three other students and he discusses with you the work that you did last week, criticizes in detail your essays and gives you the next week’s work.
As the colleges of Oxford are residential (i.e. the students have to live in one of the University hostels or in a private room) they are smaller than most of the colleges of other Universities. The students wear black gowns and caps. Without a gown a student is not allowed to come to his tutor to have dinner in the college dining-hall or attend a lecture. When they are taking examinations they have to wear a black suit and a white bow-tie,
The majority of the student body are sons of rich parents as the tuition fee is very high. A person who has taken the lowest degree, a Degree of Bachelor, is called a graduate, while any graduate that continues his studies or research to receive a Degree of Master or Doctor is called a post-graduate. A degree costs a lot at Oxford.