Говоримо англійською - 40 розмовних тем - Л. П. Ільєнко 1997

Industry and agriculture

New words and word-combinations to be remembered:

power-engineering електротехнічна промисловість

non-ferrous metallurgy кольорова металургія

grain harvester зернозбиральний комбайн

fertile black

soli родючий чорнозем

to facilitate сприяти, полегшувати

Ukraine has a ranking position among industrially developed countries. The most important factor is the priority given to the development of high-technology industry.

Ukraine’s oldest industries are coal-mining and metallurgy.

New branches of industry have appeared, such as power engineering, non-ferrous metallurgy, aircraft construction and the most delicate precision instruments for radio-electronic apparatuses, as well as powerful turbines, textile and food industries, car and motor vehicle industry, ship-building industry, etc.

Ukraine is producing modem supersonic airliners, grain harvesters, the latest metal-cutting machine tools, computers, chemical equipment. The chemical industry' embraces the production of acids, alkalies, fertilizers, dyes, detergents, plastics, synthetic fibres, pharmaceuticals and other goods.

There are many industrial cities in Ukraine, for example: Kharkiv, an important industrial and cultural centre; Donetsk, a coal-mining centre; Odesa, a big sea port and a resort city; Lviv, a large industrial, scientific and cultural centre; Zaporizhya, a metallurgical centre of Ukraine; Dnipropetrovsk, a large cosmic, machine-building and metallurgical centre and others.

In the Carpathian zone the timber furniture and paper industries have developed substantially.

The territory of Ukraine is criss-crossed by railroads and highways, oil, gas pipelines and high-voltage transmission lines — all of which ensure close economic ties with Eastern and Western Europe.

The fertile black soil and the favourable climate have long facilitated the growth of agriculture in Ukraine. Ukraine is the most important producer of grain, wheat, sugar beet, flax, sunflower, fruits, buckwheat, vegetables, grapes.

The food industry' is allied with cultivation of grapes, fruits and vegetables. Close to 40 types of vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine: cabbage, tomato, cucumber, red beet, carrot, onion, garlic, etc.

Melon-growing is practised mainly in the south. Potatoes occupy 6 percent of total area under cultivation. Animal husbandry is the second largest component of agriculture.

Answer the following questions:

1. What are the oldest branches of industry in Ukraine?

2. What new branches of industry appeared in Ukraine?

3. What industrial centres in Ukraine do you know?

4. What can you say about the development of agriculture in Ukraine?

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