The United States of America
System of government
New words and word-combinations to be remembered:
system of government урядова система
powers and activities влада та повноваження
law закон county округ
township район, частина округу
to elect вибирати
executive power виконавча влада
legislative power законодавча влада
judicial power судова влада
to gain undue power набувати надмірної влади
Supreme Court Верховний суд
a framework of law межа закону
to appoint призначали
to resign подавати у відставку
to assume брати на себе
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, with the District of Columbia as the seat of the national government. The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and specifies its powers and activities. Other governmental activities are the responsibility of the individual states, which have their own constitutions and laws. Within each state are counties, townships, cities and villages, each of which has its own elective government.
The President names the heads of federal departments while judges are either elected directly by the people or appointed by elected officials.
The Constitution divides the powers of the government into three branches — the executive, headed by the President; the legislative, which includes both houses of Congress (the Senate and the House of Representatives); and the judicial, which is headed by the Supreme Court. The Constitution limits the role of each branch to prevent any one branch from gaining undue power.
The whole system of American government is based on the principles established in the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
The state governments follow much the same pattern as the federal government. Each has a governor as the chief executive, with power divided among the executive, legislative and judicial branches. State governments manage such affairs as maintaining order, educating children and young adults and building highways. The federal government deals with national problems and international relations and with regional problems that involve more than one state.
The President of the United States is chosen in a national election for a four-year term and may be re-elected for a second term. He must be a native-born citizen, at least 35 years old. His salary is $200,000 a year, and he also gets an extra $50,000 for expenses; but he must pay income tax on the whole amount. He receives up to $100,000 tax-free for і ravel and $20,000 for official entertainment, and is provided a home and extensive office space at the White House.
As head of the executive branch, the President must carry out the government programs enacted into law by Congress. He recommends programs and laws to Congress and requests money for federal government operations. The President appoints federal judges, ambassador and hundreds of government officials, and assigns duties to the elected Vice President. If a President dies, resigns or becomes permanently disabled, the Vice President assumes the office until the next lection.
Answer the following questions:
1. How many states does the United States consist of?
2. What are the main branches of the government’s powers?
3. Do state governments follow much the same pattern as the federal government?
4. What affairs do state governments manage?
5. Who can be elected the President of the United States?
6. Whom does the President appoint?