The United States of America
New words and word-combinations to be remembered:
to show a great concern піклуватися
institution of higher learning вищий навчальний заклад
to take great pride пишатися
creative abilities творчі здібності
responsible for відповідальний (за)
to refer to ставитись до
admission вступ (до навчального закладу)
grant заохочувальна стипендія
post-graduate programs аспірантура
campus студентське містечко
financial aid фінансова допомога
to commit виділяти (кошти)
adult education courses освітянські курси для дорослих
Americans have shown a great concern for education since early colonial times. Among the first settlers there was an. unusually high proportion of educated men. Some of these men, many of them graduates of Cambridge, came together and in 1636 founded Harward College. Other early institutions of higher learning were the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, established in 1693 and Yale, founded in 1701. Before the Revolution in 1776, nine colleges had been opened in the colonies, most of them later became universities.
From the early times, especially in the northern and western states, the public policy was to produce educated people.
Americans take great pride in their schools, and want their children to have the best possible education. Only one percent of the population cannot read or write, compared to 20 percent a century ago. There are inure than 57 million students enrolled in schools and universities. New methods of instruction that encourage children to develop their creative abilities are being devised and tested in schools. Today there is a strong emphasis on science, mathematics and foreign languages, and an effort is being made to broaden the students’ knowledge of other peoples and cultures. Television and motion pictures are widely used in teaching. More effort is being made to guide young people into careers suited to their talents and abilities.
Free public schools supported by taxes were established in the early days of the nation, with each state responsible for organizing its own education system, Most states require that children go to school until they reach a certain age, which varies from 6 to 18 years. Education requirements, set by the state legislatures, vary, but local communities, divided into approximately 15,517 state school districts, manage their own public schools. Community school boards are free to establish education programs that surpass the basic requirements set by state law, and they usually do.
Today, about half of young people who graduate from secondary school go on to colleges or universities. (In the United States, the term «college» refers to an institution requiring a secondary school certificate lor admission and granting a degree after four years of study. It is often used in place of the word «university». A college may or may not be a part of a university, which ordinarily offers post-graduate programs and grants professional degrees). The University of California, the nation’s largest university, has over 121,000 students on its many branch campuses,
The cost of higher education is substantial in private colleges and universities, but is much less in those supported by states and cities. A large number of students work to help pay their expenses. Many receive scholarship grants, some of which cover almost the entire expenses of attending college.
Each year Congress appropriates funds to assist states in furthering their public education programs. In 1965 financial aid was also extended to private and parochial schools for the first time. This substantial federal support helps the states improve the quality of their education systems.
Since the important 1954 Supreme Court decision that ordered an end to separate schools for black and white students, the federal government has become increasingly committed to a program of providing equal educational opportunity. Of the more than 11 million students in colleges and universities, 11 percent are black.
In 1982 some 935,000 students received Bachelor’s Degrees; 70,000, first professional degrees; 295,739, Master’s Degrees, and 32,958, Doctorates.
Every year more than 15 million adults take adult education courses that range from engineering to writing poetry. They may be housewives, businessmen, clerks, mechanics or labourers. Many adult education courses are given at night in public schools, town halls and community centres.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the American’s attitude to education?
2. When was Harvard College founded?
3. What were the oldest institutions of higher learning?
4. How many students are enrolled in schools and universities?
5. What devices are widely used in teaching?
6. What is the role of states in educating people?
7. Where can young people get higher education?
8. Is higher education free of charge?
9. How do American students manage to overcome financial difficulties?
10. Does the USA government assist states in their public education programs? What is its support?