Texts on specialities
New words and word-combinations to be remembered:
efficient means of labour ефективні засоби праці
to meet the requirements відповідати потребам
increased capacity підвищена потужність
introduction of programme control technique застосування методу програмованого контролю
automatic and semi-automatic machinery автоматичне та напівавтоматичне устаткування
numerically controlled machine верстат з числовим управлінням
integral part невід’ємна частина
transfer machine транспортувальна машина
automatic assembly автоматичне складання, монтаж
communication engineering техніка зв’язку
control engineering техніка управління
to transfer передавати
to exclude вивільнити
flexible manufacturing systems гнучкі автоматизовані системи
mechanical device механічний пристрій
automated production line автоматизована виробнича лінія
computer technology комп’ютерна технологія
The machine is known to be the major and efficient means of labour in modem production. The machine-building industry produces various kinds of machinery and machine-tools to meet the requirements of engineering branches as well as the light and food industries. The engineering industry is characterized by such features as increased capacities and speeds of machinery, the replacement of mechanical control systems by electrical and hydraulic ones. It is characterized by simplification of machinery design, an increasing use of automatic devices and the introduction of programme control techniques on a mass scale... Automation of production means producing automatic and semiautomatic machinery; machine-tools, numerically controlled machines based on microprocessors and microcomputers, installing transfer lines. It is a key production for the building of the material and technical base of economy. What is automation? Shortly speaking, automation consists of four integral parts: transfer machines, automatic assembly, communication engineering and control engineering. There is difference between mechanization and automation. In automation the functions of control, maintaining machines are transferred to other machines while in mechanization these functions are transferred to the working mechanizms.
The mechanized and automated production lines replace the work of a tremendous number of workers. There are fully automated enterprises such as chemical and hydro-power plants. The development and mass production of new types of computer technology makes it possible to exclude man from the entire technological processes.
The so-called flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are able to meet the demands of industry. They are considered to be the future of the automated plant.
I. Answer the following questions:
1 What is the machine in modem production?
2. What does the machine-building industry produce?
3. What are the main features of the engineering industry?
4. What is automation of production?
5. What is automation?
6. What is the difference between automation and mechanization?
7. Where is automation and automatic control introduced to?
8. What is the function computers in automation processes?
9. What are the flexible manufacturing systems?
II. Speak on automation using the following word-combinations:
Speciality — automation:
— to be much interested in;
— to choose as speciality;
— to be trained at special departments of higher schools;
— production of machinery meets the requirements of different branches of industries;
— characteristic features of the field: replacement of mechanization, increasing use of automatic devices, introduction of programme control techniques;
— automation of production means producing automatic machinery, numerically controlled machines, computers, microcomputers, microprocessors;
— integral parts of automation, transfer machines, automatic assembly, communication engineering, control engineering;
— difference between mechanization and automation;
— further development of automation and FMS.