Texts on specialities
New words and word-combinations to be remembered:
management менеджмент, управління
decision-making приймати рішення
in advance заздалегідь
to be allocated розміщуватись
to deal with мати справу з
Management is a process which takes place at all levels in an organization. It is not carried out only by people with «manager» in their job title. Section leaders, supervisors, chief clerks, foremen, etc. all carry out managerial functions although not all of the same type or of equal importance. A manager is concerned not only with physical processes, organization structures and tasks, he has to deal with people and must take into account their attitudes, beliefs, values and reactions. There are three levels of management in most organizations.
Strategic management (Chief Executive, Board of Directors); tactical management (all types of middle management, departmental managers, functional managers such as the personnel manager, account, sales manager); operational management (foremen, supervisors, chielf clerk, etc,). Management tasks can he grouped into: planning, motivating, organizing, control with decision-making taking place within each.
Planning, decision-making and control are intimately related managerial processes of deciding in advance ‘what’ is to be done and ‘how’ it s to be done, ‘when’ to do it and ‘who’ is to do it. There are three levels of planning: strategic, tactical, operational. Strategic planning: 1) which business should the organization be in? 2) how should they be financed? 3) how should the organization be structured? 4) how should resources be allocated?
Tactical planning: 1) what products should be added or deleted? 2) what capital investment or divestment is necessary to meet stragic plan? 3) what is the best pricing pattern? 4) what new facilities systems or methods are needed to meet strategic plans?
Operational planning: 1) what is the best production (marketing, etc.) plan to meet objectives? 2) what materials, facilities are needed for operations? 3) what is the best method of organizing operations?
Production is a process which transforms various forms of inputs (materials, energy, sms, money, etc.) into outputs or finished products using a range of facilities (machines, buildings, people, information, etc.). Outputs may be physical products such as: televisions, cars, etc. or they may be in the form of services (a life assurance policy, etc.).
Production or operations management deals with all aspects of the production process. It includes the following: product design; factory location and layout; work organization and methods; equipment design and selection; job and method design; supplier selection, training and development of production personnel; production and stock control; inspection and quality control; cost and waste control, maintenance; labour organization and supervision.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is management?
2. What types of management do you know?
3. What are the levels of planning?
4. What is the production?
5. What does operations management deal with?