Texts on specialities
Processes in making footwear
New words and word-combinations to be remembered:
closing з’єднання деталей
making з’єднання деталей
lasting затяжка на колодку
upper верхня частина
interlining додаткова підкладка
bottoming parts деталі низу (взуття)
direct moulded construction метод вулканізації
pump shoes взуття на зразок «лодочка»
casuals зручне повсякденне взуття
processability здатність (легкість) до переробки
The manufacture of modem boots and shoes includes a great number of processes and operations. They are combined into main several sections as designing, pattern cutting, clicking, closing, bottom stocking, lasting, making, finishing, packing and dispatch.
The work in a big modem factory is very different. In one part of the factory soles and heels of stout leather are being cut. The machines used are powerful presses armed with sharp cutters. In another room the parts that make uppers are being cut by cutting presses. The finished uppers are being fastened to the soles by machinery. Lastly, there come many finishing processes: trimming, smoothing, colouring, polishing, dressing.
Although we shall find boots and shoes made of rubber, felt, canvas, fur, cotton, silk, straw, wood, plaited birch bark, and other materials, the most popular of all shoes are certainly leather shoes. With leather other materials are combined such as nails, linen thread and wood.
The essential characteristics of upper materials are: good processability durability in wear, flexibility, softness, strength and stretch, permeability, thermal conductivity, chemical constitution and reaction with the foot.
Leather is the ideal material for both shoe uppers and soles. Porous, sturdy and light-weight, leather shoes conform to the shape of your feet — in motion and rest.
Nowadays except leather other materials such as fabrics and chemical materials are widely used in footwear production.
A large range of fabrics is suitable for different types of footwear for uppers, linings, interlinings, Sports wear, walking, dress and evening shoes, sandals, casuals, pumps, slippers, play-shoes and shoes for summer wear, children’s shoes, mules are made of fabrics such as canvas, poplin, satin, crepes, velveteen, silk, cotton, felt, wool, brocade.
Synthetics have not proved to be very popular for uppers in shoe industry.
The bottoming parts (soles, heels, insoles, etc.) are cut from appropriate leather or other materials the main properties of which are: resistance to wear, resistance to water, flexibility, the ability «to breathe», resistance to slip on wet surface, ability to a good finish on the edge, rigidity, lightness of weight, extreme durability, abrasive friction, thickness, etc.
The most important of the accepted sole materials are: leather, vulcanized rubber, crepe rubber, rubber latex, urethane, etc.
Light weight, flexible, rugged and cheap, urethane is being used for all types of soles — thick and thin, rigid and flexible — for dress shoes, sport casuals, tennis sneakers, etc.
The methods for shoe construction can be chosen according to purpose, material and modem fashion.
Different methods for shoe construction are based on different ways of attachment of sole and upper. They are: welted, silhouwelt, moccasin, machine-sewn, cemented, riveted, direct moulded construction, etc.
At any time the designer has to keep in mind three goals: purpose, material and method. But there is an important factor the designer should consider while making boots and shoes — that is fashion. Fashion has influenced shoe design in time and space.
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the essential characteristics of upper materials?
2. What materials are used for the upper of shoes?
3. What are the main properties of soles?
4. What methods for shoe construction do you know?
II. Speak on processes and operations of making footwear:
— processes and operations in footwear manufacture;
— the work of modem factory;
— upper materials and their essential characteristics;
— the bottoming parts, their main properties;
— the methods for shoe construction;
— three goals while making boots and shoes.