Texts on specialities
The principles of knitting and knitted fabrics
New words to be remembered:
fabric тканина, полотно
to ladder (to run) спускати (про петлю)
underwear нижня білизна
appearance зовнішній вигляд
knitwear трикотажні вироби
Knitting is the second of the fundamental methods of making fabrics. Instead of the two sets of threads lying at right-angles to each other that make up woven cloth, the structure of ordinary knitted fabric consists of a series of loops made from a single thread running continuously through the fabric.
Knitting may be thus defined as the interlacing of one continuous yam in such a way as to form loops which are interlocked to make cloth.
Thus, the essential element of knitting is the loop. A loop is a very small length of yam, drawn through another loop. Each row of loops is linked up with the preceding row and is dependent on the loops which surround it.
Briefly, a knitted fabric is produced by making yams into loops and connecting the loops together to form a fabric. If the yams become broken in any place, the fabric will «run» or «ladder» for several stitches and leave a hole.
Owing to the nature of the texture, knitted goods are very elastic and yield readily to any movement of the body, taking the wearer without causing discomfort. This makes it particularly suitable for underwear. Due to the air spaces between the loops, knitted garments are usually warmer than those made from ordinary woven material.
There are two distinct types of knitted fabrics:
1. Fabrics that are knitted with one continuous yam, back and forth across (or round and round) the fabric, are made either circular or flat and are constructed to give elasticity — a necessary requirement for such items as hosiery, underwear, sweaters, gloves.
2. Fabrics that are knitted with many yams travelling in a more or less vertical direction. These fabrics differ in structure, appearance and elasticity from the former ones. They are always flat fabrics and cannot be fashioned. They are very durable fabrics and do not «ladder» or «run» easily.
These fabrics, because of their non-laddering qualities, are now employed for gloves, dresses, shirts and all classes of underwear.
For certain purposes knitted fabrics of both the former and the latter type are superior to woven goods, and there is every reason to believe that a still greater expansion of the knitting industry will take place within some years.
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the structure of ordinary knitted fabric consist of?
2. What is the essential element of knitting?
3. What is a loop?
4. What happens when the yam breaks in any place of a knitted fabric?
5. What makes knitted fabric particularly suitable for underwear?
6. Why are knitted garments warmer than those made from woven material?
II. Speak on knitting and knitted fabrics:
— the structure of knitted fabrics;
— the essential elements of knitting;
— the texture of knitted goods;
— two distinct types of knitted fabrics: a) circular or flat; b) flat, cannot be fashioned, do not «ladder’' or «run».