Англійська мова: Навчальний посібник - П.О. Бех 1992

Everything about time
Practice exercises

1. What do we call timepieces which:

use shadows?

use liquid — рідину? use sand?

have a face and hands?

which are on the walls, towers, etc?

which people wear on the wrestle?

II. Which answers are true?

The first sundials were used

a) in 1042.

b) about 3,500 years ago.

c) three centuries ago.

The day was divided into

a) 10 hours.

b) 20 hours.

c) 12 hours.

The watches were made

a) about 200 years ago.

b) in 1881.

c) about 500 years ago.

III. Ask the questions to have the following answers:

1. In ancient time people used natural phenomena to tell the time.

2. The time between sunrise and sunset was divided into 12 equal parts.

3. The night was divided into 12 hours, too.

4. Water clocks were used in Greece more than 2,000 years ago.

5. There are 60 seconds in a minute.

Text 1. Days of the Week

The seven days of the week are named in honour of the sun, the moon, and five of the planets. The five planets are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. These were the only planets the people of long ago new about. The sun, the moon and these five planets were supposed to take turns rulling over the days. The seven days from the sun’s day to the sun’s day became the week.

Sunday is the sun’s day.

Monday is the moon’s day.

Saturday is Saturn’s day.

Tuesday is Mars’ day.

Wednesday is Mercury’s day.

Thursday is Jupiter’s day.

Friday is Venus’ day.

«Tuesday», «Wednesday», «Thursday» and «Friday» do not sound at all like «Mars’ day», «Mercury’s day», «Jupiter’s day» and «Venus’ day». The names of these four days came about in this way. The planets were named for Roman gods and goddesses.

Mars was the Roman god of war. Mercury was the messenger of the god. Jupiter was the king of the gods. Venus was the goddess of beauty.

The old Norse gods and goddesses were very much the same as the Roman ones. But they had different names. The names Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday came from Norse gods Tuesday is «Tin's day».

Wednesday is «Woden’s day.

Thursday is «Thor’s day».

Friday is «Frigg’s day».

We cannot change the number of days in a year without getting dates all out of place in the seasons. Our year is made for us by the journey of the Earth around the Sun. We cannot change the length of the day. The day is made for us by turning of the earth on its axis. But there is no reason why we have seven days in a week. We could have had any number of days we liked. Five-day, eight-day and ten-day weeks have all been tried. If the people of long ago had known about Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, we might have ten days in a week instead of seven. But we are so used to seven now that few people would want it to change.

Words and phrases

in honour — на честь

Mercury — Меркурій

Venus — Венера

Mars — Марс

Jupiter — Юпітер

Saturn — Сатурн

these five planets were supposed to take turns ruling over the days — вважалося, що ці п’ять планет по черзі керують днями

Sunday — неділя

Monday — понеділок

Tuesday — вівторок

Wednesday — середа

Thursday — четвер

Friday — п’ятниця

Saturday — субота

Roman gods and goddesses — римські боги та богині

the messenger of the god — посланець, вісник бога

Norse — норвезький

Tiu — Т’ю

Woden — Воден

Thor — Top

Frigg — Фріг

Uranus — Уран

Neptune — Нептун

Pluto — Плутон

Text 2. Months of the Year

In Ukrainian the name of each month has a rather clear origin: січень, лютий, березень, and so on And what about English months? When did their names come from? Here is a brief explanation:

January — the name of the first month was dedicated by Romans to the god with two faces, Janus

February — this was the Roman festival of purification

March — this name of month was given in honour of Mars — Roman god of war

April — the month in which the earth opens for the growth of plants (aperio — to open)

May — this month was named in honour of a goddess of growth or increase

June — the month of Juno (a woman of imposing figure, one of the brightest of the minor planets or asteroids)

July — the month named after Julius Caesar

August — this month was named in honour of the Emperor Augustus as this month was identified with memorable events in his career

September — the Latin word septem means seven; (the seventh month according to the ancient Roman year, which began in March)

October — the eighth month of the ancient Roman year (octa — eight)

November — the ninth month of the ancient Roman year (novem — nine)

December — the tenth month of the ancient Roman year (deca — ten)

Text 3. Years, years, years

Twelve months make up a year. Each year has a number. To tell the date of an event, we give the number of the year. We say, for instance, that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

The years are numbered from the year that was supposed to be the one in which Christ was born. To give the date of earlier events, they count back from the year 1. Then В. C. is put after the number. В. C. stands for «before Christ», Sometimes initials A. D., which stand for Latin words Anno Domini, are put. These words mean «in the year of our Lord».

The Romans counted their years from the date of the founding of Rome. The Greeks counted their years from the date of the first Olympic Games.

Bronze Age in Britain began in 1900 В. C.

Queen Victoria died in 1901 A. D.

Rome was founded in 753 В. C.

Viking attacks on Britain began in 793 A. D.

Words and phrases

to make up — складати

for instance — наприклад

Columbus — Колумб

В. G.— до нашої ери

A. D.— нової (нашої) ери

Christ — Христос

to count years — вести літочислення

to found — засновувати

Olympic Games — Олімпійські ігри

I. Answer the following questions:

1. Which is the shortest day and the longest night of the year? Which is the longest day and the shortest night of the year?

2. Which day is as long as the night?

(Answer: September 23, June 22, March 21, December 22)

II. Say: What’s the time now? або What time is it now?

1.00

12.00

2.05

11.55

3.10

7.30

It is

4.15

o'clock

a. m.

now.

It’s

11.50

p. m.

5.20

10.45

9.25

6.40

III. Say what’s the day today (What day is It today?)

Today is

Sunday

(Today’s)

Monday

It is

Tuesday

(It’s)

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

IV. Say what’s the date today?

Today is

1st

first

January

(Today’s)

2nd

second

February

It is the

3d

third of

March

(It’s)

4th

fourth

April

5th

fifth

May

6th

sixth

June

7th

seventh

July

8th

eighth

August

9th

ninth

September

10th

tenth

October

11th

eleventh

November

12th

twelfth

December

V. How to write and read dates?

13th — thirteenth, 14th — fourteenth

25th January 1992

25.01.1992 or 25/01/92      

The twenty fifth of January, nineteen ninety two

VI. Read the following dates:

27.06.1952

18.09.1921

8.07.1949

5.03.1952

12.10.1986

31.05.1957

27.04.1975

2.01.1955

13.02.1927

3.02.1963

VII. Ask the questions to have the following answers:

1. It’s five o’clock by my watch.

2. It’s a quarter past three.

3. Today is Friday.

4. It’s May.

5. It was in 1989.

6. Yesterday was Thursday.

7. It’s the fifth of June.

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1. What’s the first month of the year?

2. the second season of the year?

3. the third day of the week?

4. the fourth month of the year?

5. the fifth day of the week?

6. the sixth month of the year?

7. the seventh day of the week?

8. the eighth month of the year?

9. the ninth month of the year?

10. the tenth month of the year?

11. the last day of the week?

12. the last month of the year?

13. What day comes after Tuesday?

14. What month comes after February?

15. What year comes after 1992?

IX. Choose the right answer:

There are (There’re):

minutes

an hour?

3 months

seconds

a minute?

24 hours

hours

a day and night?

7 days

days

a week?

10 days

days

a fortnight?

52 weeks

days

a month?

4 weeks

How

days

are

a year?

12 months

many

weeks

there in

a year?

4 seasons

weeks

a month?

10 years

months

a year?

60 minutes

seasons

a year?

100 years

years

a decade?

60 seconds

years

a century?

365 or 366 days

28 or 29,

30 or 31 days

X. Say under which signs of the Zodiac were you and your friends or relatives born?

21st Jan.— 19th Feb.

Aquarius the Water Carrier — Водолій

20th Feb.— 20th March

Pisces the Fishes — Риби

21st March — 20th April

Aries the Ram — Овен

21st April — 20th May

Taurus the Bull — Телець

21st May — 20th June

Gemini the Twins — Близнята

21st June — 20th July

Cancer the Crab—Рак

21st July — 19th/22nd Aug.

Leo the Lion — Лев

20th/23rd Aug.— 22nd Sept.

Virgo the Virgin— Діва

23rd Sept.— 22nd Oct.

Libra the Scales — Терези

23rd Oct.— 21st Nov.

Scorpion the Scorpion — Скорпіон

22nd Nov.— 20th Dec.

Saggitarius the Archer — Стрілець

21st Dec.— 20th Jan.

Capricorn the Goat — Козерог





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