Weather and seasons
What is the weather going to be? This question is really several questions in one. It means: will the sky be cloudy or dear? Will any rain or snow fall? How warm or cool will it be? How much moisture will there be in the air? From what direction will the wind come? Will the wind be gentle or strong?
Rain, snow, hail, sleet, frost, and dew are all a part of the weather. So are cold waves, heat waves, clouds, breezes, gales, thunderstorms, and hurricanes.
In some parts of the world the weather stays very much the same day after day. In other places it changes often. A summer day that starts out to be bright and sunshiny may end with a thunderstorm. In the same way a cold and cloudy winter morning may be followed by a clear and springlike afternoon.
In places where the weather changes often, everyone is interested in it. But not everyone wants the same kind of weather. A farmer may want a rainy day because his crop needs rain. His neighbour may want a sunshiny day because it is time for him to harvest. Some people may be glad to see a heavy snowstorm because they want to go skiing. Others may not like the snow at all because it blocks the roads and makes travelling hard. Not everyone is happy when there is a week of warm, shiny weather in early spring. Some people know that the snow is melting so fast that rivers will flood.
Even if a person does not mind heat or cold or rain or snow, the weather is important to him. Bad weather may ruin crops so that food will cost more. It may cause forest fires, flood homes and so on. The weather affects the lives of all of us in a great many ways.
fair of face — гарний на вигляд
grace — привабливість, люб'язність
woe — лихо, невезіння
Once Mark Twain said: «Everyone talks about the weather, but no one ever does anything about its. Today this saying is not altogether true.
We have learned to make the weather inside our houses anything we want it to be. We can make the air warmer. Or we can cool it off. We can put more moisture in it if it is too dry. Or, if it is too damp, we can take some of the moisture out of it. We can turn on lights if it is dark and cloudy out of doors. And by simply turning the switch of an electric fan we can start a pleasant breeze blowing.
Even out of doors we have begun to experiment with changing the weather. We can make fogs disappear from airplane landing fields and cause rain. But probably we have to take the weather as it comes.
Usually the weather depends upon season we live in. The season is characterized by distinctive temperature, rainfall, vegetation and the like, which occurs at different times in different regions and is determined by the position of the Earth in relation to the Sun.
There are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. There are three months in every season.
In spring the days become longer and nights shorter. The sun shines warm. Bright spring sun-rays begin to melt snow in the fields and in the streets, icy sheet on the rivers and lakes. The trees begin to bud and soon tiny green leaves begin to appear. Birds come back from the south. The fruit trees begin to blossom. The farmers begin to sow fields. Nature awakens.
In summer the days are the longest and the nights are the shortest. It is very hot. People have holidays and vacations. They spend much time on the seashores, river beaches, in the forests and in the mountains. It is a good time to become sunburnt, to swim, to pick mushrooms, and berries, to gather flowers, in short, to have a good rest. Summer — this is the time of rains, showers and thunderstorms, lightnings. Sometimes it’s raining cats and dogs.
In autumn the days become shorter and nights longer. The sky is often cloudy. This is a rainy season. But there are some sunny days in late September which are called Indian summer. It is getting colder. Pupils and students resume their study. The farmers begin to harvest what they have sowed in spring. A proverb says: «As you sow, you shall now». The tree leaves, grass turn yellow and gold and fall By the way fall Is the name of autumn in American English. Birds fly away to the south to come back in spring. Nature begins to wither. Late autumn welcomes winter.
In winter the days are the shortest and the nights are the longest. The sky is grey, the sun shines but doesn’t warin. Soon it will snow, perhaps heavily and the ground will be covered with a white sheet. The weather gets frosty. The greatest holidays in winter are Christmas and New Year. And we say on these days «Merry Christmas» and «Happy New Year».
You can’t do without this vocabulary:
a rainfall — злива
a snowfall — снігопад
cool — прохолодний, свіжий
moisture — волога, вогкість
a gentle (strong) wind — слабкий (сильний) вітер
hail — град
sleet — сльота
frost — мороз
dew — роса
breeze — легкий вітерець, бриз
gale — сильний вітер, буря, шторм
thunderstorm — грім
lightning — блискавка
hurricane — ураган
crop — посів
to harvest — збирати врожай
to go skiing — ходити на лижах
to go skating — ходити на ковзанах
to block the roads — блокувати шляхи
everyone — кожен
a neighbour — сусіда
to flood — заливати, затопляти, виходити з берегів
even if — навіть якщо
to ruin — (по)шкодити
to cause — викликати
no one — ніхто
altogether — зовсім
anything — будь-який
damp — вогкість
turn on/off — вмикати/вимикати
a switch — вмикач
a fan — фен
to make something do — змусити щось зробити
an airplane landing field — поле для посадки літаків, аеродром
distinctive — відмінний, характерний
vegetation — рослинність
and the like — і тому подібне
to occur — траплятися, відбуватися
to determine — визначати, встановлювати
sun-ray — сонячний промінь
icy sheet — крига
to bud — пускати бруньки, паростки; розпукуватися
tiny — крихітний
to blossom — цвісти, розцвітати
to sow — сіяти
to awaken — пробуджуватися, прокидатися
to become sunburnt — загорати
to pick (mushrooms, berries) — збирати (гриби, ягоди)
to gather (flowers) — рвати (квіти)
shower — злива
a seashore — берег моря
a river beach — річковий пляж
It’s raining cats and dogs — ллє як Із відра (про дощ)
Indian summer — бабине літо
to resume — відновлювати, знову продовжувати
to winter — в’янути, марніти
Mind the differences:
It is hot — It gets hotter Жарко — Стає жарко
The leaves are yellow — The leaves get yellow
Листя жовте — Листя стає жовтим (жовтіє)
The days are shorter — The days get shorter
Дні короткі — Дні коротшають
It is dark — It gets dark
Темно — Темніє
The weather is warm — The weather gets warmer
Тепла погода — Погода стає теплішою
It is cold — It gets colder
Холодно — Стає холодно
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
Climate may be hot, cold, dry, wet, mild, tropical and subtropical, insular and continental.
Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain time or over a certain short period. Weather is connected with atmospheric pressure, temperature, rainfall, cloudiness and wind.
Weather can be good, bad, fine, excellent, beautiful, rainy, snowy, stormy, dry, hot, cold, warm, cool, pleasant.
When the seasons begin:
Spring — March 20—21
Summer — June 21—22
Autumn — September 22—23
Winter — December 21—22