Англійська мова: Навчальний посібник - П.О. Бех 1992

Literatures

«Beowulf» is a famous English poem. It is more than 1,000 years old. The poem is named for its hero, a mighty warrior. Beowulf, the poem tells, saved a Danish tribe by battling the monster Grendel and then diving deep into the sea to kill the mother of the monster. Beowulf in time became king of his tribe. He was killed in a fight with a dragon. The story is exciting, but not many people today can read it as it was written. For it was written in Old English, which is very different from the English of today.

No one knows who wrote «Beowulf». But we do know of some great English writers who wrote in the days of Old English, Much of the writing in England in those days was done in monasteries.

Chaucer is often called the father of English literature. He wrote in what we now call Middle English. Middle English is now much more like the English of today than is Old English. Some of it, in fact, is rather easy to read.

There have been many great English writers from Chaucer’s time on. The list below gives a few of them. Most of the writers in this list have written poems or stories which all people enjoy.                

Geoffrey Chaucer

1340 — 1400

Poems, The Canterbury Tales

Williams Shakespeare

1564 — 1616

Poems and plays, Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet

John Milton

1608—1674

Poems, Paradise Lost

Daniel Defoe

1660—1731

Stories, Robinson Crusoe

Jonathan Swift

1667—1746

Stories, Gulliver’s Travels

William Wordsworth

1770—1850

Poems, Daffodils

Sir Walter Scott

1771—1832

Poems and stories, Ivan- hoe

Lord George Gordon Byron

1778—1824

Poems, Childe Harolde’s

Pilgrimage, Don Juan

Percy Byssche Shelley

1792—1822

Poems, To a Skylark

John Keats

1795—1821

Poems

Lord Alfred Tennyson

1809—1892

Poems

William Makepeace Thackeray

1811—1863

Stories, Vanity Fair

Charles Dickens

1812—1870

Stories, Pickwick Papers

Robert Browning

1812—1889

Poems

Charlotte Bronte

1816—1855

Stories, Jane Eyre

Emily Bronte

1818—1848

Stories and poems

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)

1819—1880

Stories

Christina Rossetti

1830—1894

Poems, Who Has Seen the Wind?

Lewis Carrol (Charles Dodgson)

1832—1898

Stories, Alice in Wonderland

Robert Louis Stevenson

1850—1894

Stories and poems, Treasure Island

Rudyard Kipling

1865—1936

Poems and stories, Just So Stories

A. A. Milne

1882—1956

Poems and stories, Winnie-the-Pooh

You can’t do without this vocabulary:

Beowulf — «Беовульф» (стародавній англо-саксонський народно-героїчний епос VII—VIII століть; дійшов у рукопису X століття, що зберігається в Британському музеї. В епосі розповідається про подвига скандінавських героїв)

a mighty warrior — могутній воїн

a Danish tribe — датське плем’я

the monster Grendel — потвора Грендель

to dive — пірнати, стрибати у воду                

a dragon — дракон

monastery — монастир

as well — також

to enjoy — насолоджуватися

Answer the following questions:

1. Did you read Jonathan Swift’s «Gulliver’s Travels»?

2. Who is the author of «Alice in the Wonderland»?

3. When did Charles Dickens live and what novels did he write?

4. What did Robert Louis Stevenson write?

5. What did you read from the list above?

6. Do you enjoy poems? What poems can you recite?

Text 1. Daniel Defoe (1660—1731)

While he was still in school in London, Daniel Defoe decided to be a writer. His early writings after he grew up were mostly pamphlets. One of his pamphlets displeased some men in the government, and Defoe was thrown into prison. As soon as he was freed, he went on with his writing.

He was 60 years old when he wrote the book which made him famous. It was called «The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe». In those days it was considered a waste of time to read «made up» stories. Defoe based his book on the true story of Alexander Selkirk, a sailor who had been shipwrecked on a desert island. But Defoe made up most of the adventures of his hero. Readers thought the whole story was true.

Although Defoe wrote other books, none was as well liked as «Robinson Crusoe». It has been translated into many languages.

Words and phrases

writings — писання, літературні твори

a pamphlet — памфлет

to displease — дратувати, сердити

to be thrown into prison — кинути до в’язниці

as soon as he was freed — коли його було звільнено

to go on — продовжувати

to make somebody famous — зробити когось відомим

«The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robins in Crusoe» — «Життя і незвичайні пригоди Робінзона Крузо»

to be shipwrecked — зазнати корабельної аварії

a desert island — безлюдний острів

to make up — вигадувати

I. Retell Daniel Defoe's life story.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. When did Defoe write the book which made him famous?

2. Did you read this book in translation or in the original?

3. Which translation did you read: Russian or Ukrainian? Who is the translator?

Text 2. Mark Twain

(1835—1910)

Samuel Langborne Clemens, known to most people as Mark Twain, was born and spent his boyhood in a small town on the Mississippi River. When he grew up, he became a river pilot.

Later he went west and worked as a newspaper reporter. While he was on this job he began to sign his articles «Mark Twain». From then on Clemens used Mark Twain as his pen- name.

Clemens worked on other newspaper, travelled, and gave lectures.

Clemens spent his summers on his farm. There he wrote «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer», published in 1876. Tom in the story is really Mark Twain. Huckleberry Finn is his close boyhood friend, Tom Blankenship. The book tells of the boys’ exciting adventures.

Later Clemens wrote a sequel, «The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn». «Tom Sawyer» and «Huckleberry Finn» are among the most popular books ever published in the United States. Among Mark Twain’s other books are «Joan of Arc», «Life on the Mississippi».

Words and phrases

Samuel Langhorne Clemens — Семісель Ленхори Клеменз boyhood — дитинство

the Mississippi River — p. Міссісіпі

to grow up — виростати

a river pilot — лоцман

from then on — з того часу

a pen-name — псевдонім

«The Adventures of Tom Sawyer» — «Пригоди Тома Сойєра»

Huckleberry Finn — Гекльбері Фіни

exciting — захоплюючий

a sequel — продовження

«Joan of Arc» — «Жанна д’Арк»

I. Retell Mark Twain’s life story.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What was Mark Twain’s real name?

2. You read «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer», didn’t you?

3. Did you enjoy reading this book?

4. What did you like about this hook?

Text 3. Jules Verne (1828—1905)

In 1958 an atomic submarine, the «Nautilus», made history by sailing under the polar ice cap and crossing the North Pole. In a book written about 100 years ago another «Nautilus» cruised under the ice cap at the South Pole. This earlier «Nautilus» was in «Twenty Thousands Leagues Under the Sea», a book by Jules Verne.

Jules Verne was born in France. As a boy he was interested in machinery, sailing, and writing. He and his brother Paul had an old sailboat in which they explored the river near their home.

The boys’ father was a lawyer, and Jules was sent to Paris to study law. Jules, however, soon decided that writing was his main interest. He joined a club of scientific writers. This group studied the balloon, and Jules wrote an adventure story which he called «Five Weeks in a Balloon». Geography had been his favourite subject at school, and he wanted to describe as many different parts of the world as possible in his writings.

Verne is remembered and his books are still read partly because they are good adventure stories. But Verne also forecast many inventions that we have today. He believed that the world would some day have airplanes, submarines, television, dirigibles and long-range weapons.

«Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea» and «Around the World in Eighty Days» are among his most popular stories». The latter was first published as a newspaper serial in Paris.

Verne kept in a notebook every idea or bit of information he came across with that he thought might be useful in his writing. In his study lie had a large map of the world on which he marked all the routes travelled by his heroes. When he died at the age of 77, he had written more than 50 books.

Words and phrases

Jules Verne — Жюль Верп

submarine — підводний човен

Nautilus — Наутилус

to make history — робити, творити історію

polar ice cap — полярний лід

North Pole — Північний полюс

cruise — крейсувати

league — ліга (міра довжини)

machinery — техніка

sailing — мореплавство

Paul — Поль

sailboat — парусник

to explore — досліджувати, вивчати

to join — вступати (до клубу, організації)

bаllооn — повітряна куля

forecast — передбачати, завбачати

invention — винахід, вигадка

airplane — аероплан, літак

dirigible — дирижабль

long-range weapons — зброя дальнього радіусу дії

the latter — останній (з двох названих)

serial — роман у кількох частинах

to come across with — зустрічати з

route — маршрут

A talk at the examination

Teacher: Which is your favourite book in English? Applicant: This is «The Old Man and the Sea» by Ernest Hemingway.

T.: Will you say a few words about him and his literary heritage?

A.: Yes, I’ll try to. Hemingway is an American novelist of new technique, much influenced many writers and readers the world over. His name is associated with the so-called «lost generation» of the twentieth, the war in Spain, and the antifascist movement.

He has created the «Hemingway hero», a character of complete honesty, virility and great sensitiveness. His style, known as the. «Hemingway style», is marked by simplicity am: nten.se objectivity. E. Hemingway is a depictive writer.

E. Hemingway has written a number of novels and short story collections, among them such as: «In our time» (1924), «A Farewell to Arms» (1929), «For Whom the Bell Tolls» (1940), «The Old Man and the Sea» (1952). He became a Noble prize winner due to the story «The Old Man and the Sea». This story is otic of the well-known works of this progressive American writer. I’ve read this book in the original and I've liked it very much. The author depicted the characters of the old man and the boy and their relations very vividly and skillfully. The scenes of fishing and fighting of the old man with the huge fish are masterpieces of depictive writing. The old man’s life is hard but he can overcome difficulties.

It helps us a lot in our self-education to read about such strong characters’ behaviour in so difficult conditions of life.

Possible examiner’s questions on the topic:

1. What is the main idea of the story?

2. What impressed you most of all in this story, I mean any event, any character’s behaviour, any scene of fishing, etc.?

3. What other books in English did you read? Were they adapted? You read them in the original, didn’t you?

4. What is your favourite book written in your native language? Say a few words about the book and the author of the book, will you?

5. What kind of literature do you prefer to read: science fiction or detective novels, historic or adventure stories?

6. Have you got a library at home? Do you use school library? any other library?





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