Text 1. Music
Speaking about art first of all we think of music, painting, theatre and cinema. It is not an easy task to deal with all aspects of art. That’s why we’ve decided to speak briefly about some of the most outstanding representatives. We’ll start with a famous Russian composer Pyotr Tchaikovsky (1840—1893). Almost everybody knows «The Nutcracker Suite» with its «Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy» and «Waltz of the Flowers». «The Nutcracker Suite» was written as a ballet, but many more people have heard the music than have seen the ballet. Christmas programme certainly would not be the same without this group of gay dances. They were written by Tchaikovsky. He wrote music of many kinds — operas, songs, symphonies, ballets and piano concerts. Not all his music is gay, some is sad. Some of his other compositions are almost, if riot quite,— as well-known as «The Nutcracker Suite». Among them are the «Swan Lake» and «Sleeping Beauty» (ballets), the «Romeo and Juliet» (overture), the «Eugene Onegin», «Mazzeppa», «Iolanta», «The Queen of Spades» (operas), the «Piano Concerto in В-flat minor», and the Symphony N 6; called the «Pathetic».
Many of Tchaikovsky’s writings are very tuneful. Several popular songs have tunes borrowed from them. Two songs were written to T. G. Shevchenko’s poetry.
Tchaikovsky was born in a small town in the Ural mountains. His father was a mining engineer. As a boy Tchaikovsky loved music, but he did not think of giving his life to it. He planned to be a lawyer. When he was old enough, he began to study law. But at 21 he decided that music was much more interesting and entered the conservatory at St. Petersburg. After he graduated five years later, he was made a professor in Moscow Conservatory. Along with his teaching, he wrote a great deal of music.
His compositions are so popular now that it is hard to believe that at first they were not at all popular. But for ten years all his operas were failures and no one paid much attention to anything else he wrote. His home life, moreover, was not happy because of his unhappiness and lack of success, he became ill and had to give up his teaching.
At last his music won the praise it deserved. Tchaikovsky was only 53 when he died, but he lived long enough to know that his music was being played far and wide over the world.
Yon can't do without this vocabulary:
the «Nutcracker Suite» — «Лускунчик»
«Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy» — танець феї драже
«Waltz of the Flowers» — «Вальс квітів»
a bailet — балет
a gay dance — веселии танець
an opera — опера
a symphony — симфонія
a piano concerto — концерт для фортепіано
if not quite — якщо не зовсім
the «Swan Lake» — балет «Лебедине озеро»
the «Sleeping Beauty» — балет «Спляча красуня.»
«Romeo and Juliet» overture — увертюра «Ромео і Джульєтта»
«Eugene Onegin» — опера «Євгеній Онєгін»
«Queen of Spades» — опера «Пікова дама»
«Pathetic» — «Патетична» tuneful — мелодичний
the Ural mountains — Уральські горн
a mining engineer — гірничий інженер
to be made a professor — стати професором
to be a failure — зазнати невдачі
to pay attention to — приділяти увагу
to give up — припинити
to win the praise — завоювати похвалу
to deserve — заслуговувати
far and wide over the world — в усьому світі
Texts for Supplementary Reading German composers
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685—1750) composer, violinist, church organist.
George Frederic Handel (1685—1759) spent much of his life in England, composing operas and oratorios. Eight years before he died he became blind and relied upon his old friend and copyist to commit his music to paper.
The two giant figures of Bach and Handel created in the first half of the 18th century. Their differences are perhaps greater than their similarities. Bach wrote essentially for himself while Handel was composing to please his wide public. Bach always remained in central Gernamy; Handel was widely travelling. Bach was devoutly religious, almost ascetic; Handel was more a man of the world.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770—1827) was born in Bonn, at 17 lie went to Vienna, was recognized by Mozart. He was never married. Gradually became deaf. The symphonies, nine in number, rank as the greatest ever written and are unequalled in beauty.
devoutly — щиро, побожно
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732—1805) is known as the «father of symphony»
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756—1791) — among the loveliest and grandest works are his three great symphonies
Haydn composed 104 symphonies. Mozart’s symphonies are not so different in form from Haydn’s, but he put more emotional feeling into his works.
Frederic Francois Chopin (1810—1849) — Polish pianist and composer, son of French father and Polish mother. He has been called «the poet of the piano»
Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (1804—1857), was the first important Russian composer of the national school and famous for his operas «Ivan Sussanin» and «Russian and Lyudmila», based on a poem by Pushkin. He undoubtedly influenced the socalled «Five»:
Alexander Porfyryevich Borodin (1833—1887), composer who taught chemistry and founded a school of medicine for women. He wrote two symphonies, the opera «Prince Igor» and others.
Caesar Antonovich Cui (1835—1918), composer. He graduated from Military Academy, professor, general. He wrote three operas, some plays and essays.
Mylii Alexeyevich Balakirev (1837—1910), composer whose works are the piano fantasia «Islamey» (Ісламей) and symphonic poem «Tamara».
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839—1881), composer whose masterpieces is the opera «Boris Godunov» after the play by Pushkin, «Khovanshchina», «Sorochintsy Fair» and the piano suite «Pictures at an Exhibition».
Nickolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844—1908), composer whose works include the operas «The Snow Maiden», «Sadko», «The Tsar’s Bride» and suite «Schekherezade».
Mikola Vitaliyovich Lyssenko (1842—1912) Is the Ukrainian composer, pianist, conductor and founder of Ukrainian classical music. He graduated from Kyyiv University in 1865, studied in Leipzig Conservatory and Petersburg Conservatory. He wrote nine operas, among them «Natalka Poltavka», «Taras Bul’ba», «Eneida» and many other pieces.
Text 2. Painting
Everyone agrees that Leonardo da Vinci (1452—І519) was one of the greatest of all painters. His painting «The Last Supper» Is probably the most famous painting in the world. But Leonardo would be famous if he had never painted a stroke. For he was also a great inventor. He invented the wheelbarrow, the military tank, and roller bearings. He made plans for dozens of weapons and machines. He even experimented with airplane and submarine modes. Besides, Leonardo was great as a scientist and engineer. He was also a poet, a musician, and a sculptor. Perhaps no other person in history has ever learned so much in a lifetime. Certainly no one ever deserved more to be called a genius.
Leonardo was born in the village of Vinci in Italy. As a small boy he lived most of the time with his father’s parents. Leonardo was a beautiful boy, with curly hair and bright blue eyes. When his father found out that the boy was interested in painting, he sent him to an excellent painter and teacher. One day Leonardo painted a beautiful angel in one of his teacher's pictures. «You are a greater painter than I», said the teacher, «I will paint no more».
In a few years Leonardo’s father decided that he would pay no more to the teacher. His son, he thought, was spending too much time studying rocks arid plants, watching birds to find out how their bodies work, and building models of machines. But Leonardo stayed on as his teacher’s helper. Me stayed till he was nearly 25. Then he set out to paint for himself, first in Florence, then in Milan and Venice, and at the end of his life in France.
Leonardo had ideas that other painters liked to copy. «Let them», he said, «I will originate. They can copy».
Thus great painter left behind only a few paintings. He had many ideas for pictures and made many wonderful pen and ink sketches. But he had so many other interests that he found it hard to sit and paint for hours at a time.
Some of his paintings have been lost because he liked to experiment. He used colours mixed with wax to paint a wonderful mural of a cavalry battle, but the wax melted and the picture was ruined.
«The Last Supper» is on the wall of a chapel in Milan. This picture was famous long before it was finished.
There is such beauty in Leonardo’s paintings that they are as hard to describe as beautiful music. The faces of his people are full of expression. He used light and shade in a new way to make people look very lifelike.
One of Leonardo’s paintings is called «Mona Liza», It is the picture of a woman with a faint smile on her face. The painting was ordered by the woman’s husband. But Leonardo liked it so much that he kept it for himself. He took it to France with him when he went to spend tire last years of his life as a court painter to the king of France. Now it is one of the greatest treasures of the Louvre in Paris.
You can’t do without this vocabulary:
Leonardo da Vinci — Леонардо да Вінчі
to paint a stroke — малювати, робити штрихи
a wheelbarrow — тачка
a roller bearing — роликовий підшипник
a genius — геній
a curly hair — кучеряве волосся
a rock — скеля
plants — рослини
to set out — починати
wax — віск
mural — фреска
«Last Supper» — «Тайна Вечеря»
to look lifelike — бути схожим як у житті
a faint smile — ледь помітна усмішка
a court painter to the king — придворний художник короля
treasures — скарби
Louvre — Лувр
Some famous names in painting:
Constable (1776—1837), an English landscape- painter
Goya (1746—1828), a Spanish painter and engraver
Michelangelo (1475—1564), an Italian painter, sculptor, architect and poet
Monet (1840—1926), a French painter
Raphael (1483—1520), an Italian painter
Rembrandt (1606—1669), a Dutch painter
Rubens (1577—1640), a Flemish painter
Titian (1477—1576), an Italian painter
Turner (1775—1881), an English landscape-painter
Van Gogh (1853—1890), a Dutch painter
Words and phrases
a landscape-painter — пейзажист
an engraver — гравер
a sculptor — скульптор
an architect — архітектура
Text 3, Theatre
I like to go to the theatre. I prefer to go to the drama treatres. I like to see Ukrainian, Russian and foreign plays. Once I saw English play in English, which was in the Theatre-on-Podil. Normally I like to read the play before seeing it on the stage. Since it’s not an easy task to buy tickets on the eve of the performance I usually book tickets well in advance. I saw a lot of plays in Kyyiv Ukrainian and Russian Drama Theatres. In the Ukrainian Drama Theatre I saw dramas by M. Gogol («Christmas Night»), M. Bulgakov («Master and Margarita»), I. Franko («The Stolen Happiness»), Sholem Aleichem («Tevye the Milkman»), O. Kolomiyets («The Wild Angel») and others. In the Russian DramaTheatre I saw Karel and Joseph Chapelt's «The Insect Play», Arthur Miller’s «The Price», V. Nabokov’s «The Event». When I am in other towns I try to go to the theatre. During my trip to Moscow I saw Chekhov’s «Cherry Orchard», «Sea-gull», «The Three Sisters» in Moscow Art Theatre; Ostrovsky’s «The Forest», «The Thunderstorm», My dream is to see at least some Shakespeare’s plays in the original. W. Shakespeare wrote many plays, among them «Othello», «Hamlet», «Romeo and Juliet», «Midsummer Night’s Dream», «Macbeth», «King Lear», «Much Ado About Nothing», «Twelfth Night» and many others.
Sometimes і go to Opera and Ballet Theatre. I have already seen Rimsky-Korssakov’s «The Tsar’s Bride» (opera), G. Verdi's «II Trovatore», S. Prokoffyev’s «Cinderella» (ballet), P. Tchaikovsky’s «Swan Lake» (ballet), «The Nutcracker» (ballet), M. Lyssenko’s «Taras Bul’ba» (opera), «Natalka Poltavka» (opera), M. Mussorgsky’s «Khovanshchina» (opera).
Names of Plays:
«Christmas Night» —- «Різдвяна ніч»
«Master and Margarita» — «Майстер і Маргарита»
«The Stolen Happiness» — «Украдене щастя»
«Tevye the Milkman»—«Тев’є-Тевель» («Тев’є-молочник»)
«The Wild Angel» — «Дикий ангел»
«The Insect Play» — «Із життя комах»
«The Price» — «Ціпа»
«The Event» — «Подія»
«The Cherry Orchard» — «Вишневий сад»
«The Sea-gull» — «Чайка»
«The Three Sisters» — «Три сестри»
«The Forest» — «Ліс»
«The Thunderstorm» — «Гроза»
«Othello» — «Отелло»
«Hamlet» — «Гамлет»
«Romeo and Juliet» — «Ромео і Джульєтта»
«А Midsummer Night's Dream» — «Сон у літню ніч»
«Macbeth» — «Макбет»
«King Lear» — «Король Лір»
«Much Ado About Nothing» — «Багато галасу даремно»
«Twelfth Night» — «Дванадцята ніч»
Text 4. Cinema
There are many different kinds of films: feature films, horror films, thriller films, concert films, theatrical films, newsreels, animated cartoon films, foreign films dubbed in the mother tongue, documentaries. Films may be mute and sound, ordinary and wide-screen, black-and-white and colour.
At the first outset there were mute, ordinary black-and- white films. Nowadays the latter films are our history and oftener we prefer sound films to mute ones, wide-screen to ordinary, colour to black-and-white. Why oftener prefer? Because sometimes we may see ordinary, mute, black-and- white films with a tremendous pleasure. For example, those with great Charles Chaplin.
Usually we see films either in the cinema or on the TV and probably we see more and various films on the TV. But from time to time І go to the cinema. I prefer that one situated in our district. It is called «Bratisslava». The last film І saw in this cinema was an American film «Gone with the wind», dubbed into Russian.
It was a beautiful film. In my boyhood I liked «А Cat in Top Boots», «Captain Grant’s Children», «The Fate of a Man» and other films. Later I saw «War and Peace», «Hamlet», «Othello», «Oliver Twist» and many others. Now I like to see all sorts of films chiefly on the TV as I have already said. Especially I am fond of Walt Disney’s cartoons «Duck Tales». These days we may see many video films. They are as a rule the newest ones produced in the west. Among them horror films and thrillery cowboy films.
Types of films and names of some of them:
a feature film — художній фільм
an horror film — фільм жахів
a thriller (film) — трілер
a concert film — фільм-концерт
a newsreel — кінохроніка
an animated cartoon film (cartoon) — мультиплікаційний фільм (мультфільм)
a dubbed film — дубльований фільм
a documentary — документальний фільм
a mute/sound film — німий/звуковий фільм
an ordinary/wide-screen film — звичайний/широкоекранний фільм
black-and-white/colour film — чорно-білий/кольоровий фільм
«А Cat in Top Boots» — «Кіт у чоботях»
«Captain Grant’s children» — «Діти капітана Гранта»
«The Fate of a Man» — «Доля людини»
«War and Peace» — «Війна і мир»
«Duck Tales» — «Качині історії».