Official name — Ukraine
States — Sovereign State
Area — 603,700 square kilometers
Population — 51,200,000
Capital — Kyyiv
Languages — Ukrainian
Ukraine is a sovereign state. It has its own territory, higher and local bodies of state power (the Supreme Soviet and local Soviets) and government, national emblem, state flag and anthem.
The population of Ukraine are Ukrainians (73,6 %). Besides, Russians (21,1 %), Jews (1,3 %), Byelorussians (0,8 %), Moldovians (0,6 %), Poles and Bulgarians (0,5 % each) and other nations and nationalities live here. There are 24 administrative regions and the Cremcan autonomous republic in Ukraine. The geographical position of Ukraine is very favourable to the development of its relations with countries of Europe, as well as with the countries throughout the world. It borders on the Russian Federation, Byelorussia, Moldova, Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, Hungary, Romania.
95 % of the Ukrainian area is flat and the rest of it is mountainous. The Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains make up those 5 % of its area. Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the sea of Azov and it has very important ports. The major rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the Bug, the Donets and others.
Ukraine has many industrial raw materials, it has rich deposits of iron, metals, coal, oil, gas, different ores and other natural resources. The country has metallurgical and heavy industries.
It is the agricultural country.
Scientists of Ukraine make a great contribution in our science. The Academy of Science of Ukraine includes many outstanding scientists and research workers famous for their important discoveries and inventions. Great success has been achieved by Yev. Paton Research Institute of Electric Welding, the Research Institute of Cybernetics, Superhard Materials, and others.
Ukraine has an ancient history. It has its own original culture and arts. Ukraine has many professional theatres and Philharmonic societies. The State Symphony Orchestra of the Ukraine, the Hrihory Vcryovka Ukrainian People’s Choir, the Transcarpathian People’s Choir, the «Dumka» State Honoured Choir, the Honoured Bandore Players Choir, (he Dance Company of the Ukraine are known not only in the country but all over the world.
Over the last years people of Ukraine display a keen interest in the Ukrainian history and cultural and artistic heritage. Many names and masterpieces have been revived. There is a new approach to the development of culture, arts, languages. A special state programme for the Development of the Ukrainian language and Other National Languages in Ukraine has been adopted to translate the law «On Languages in Ukraine» into life.
Now Ukraine establishes new relations with countries throughout the world. It sets direct contacts with them signing agreements and treaties.
Ukraine is one of the founding members of the United Nations Organization and participates in the work of many international organizations.
You can’t do without this vocabulary:
Ukraine — Україна
a status — статус
Ukrainian — український
sovereign — суверенний
a state power — державна влада
the Supreme Soviet — Верховна Рада
a national emblem — герб
an anthem — гімн
a Jew — єврей, єврейка
a Byelorussian — білорус, білоруска
a Moldovian — молдаванин, молдаванка
a Pole — поляк, полька
a Bulgarian — болгарин, болгарка
a region — область
favourable — сприятливий
Poland — Польща
Czechoslovakia — Чехо-Словакія
Hungary — Угорщина
Romania — Румунія
flat — рівнинний
mountainous — гористий
to wash — омиватися
major — головний
the Dnieper — p. Дніпро
the Dniester — p. Дністер
the Bug — p. Буг
the Donets — p. Донець
raw materials — сировина
deposit — родовище
iron — залізо
coal — (кам’яне) вугілля
oil — нафта
gas — (природним) газ
ore — руда
natural resources — природні багатства
metallurgical — металургійний
heavy industry — важка промисловість
industries — галузі промисловості
agricultural — сільськогосподарський
to make contribution — зробити внесок
to achieve success — досягти успіхів
Research Institute of Electric Welding — Науково-дослідний інститут електрозварювання ім. Є. О. Патона
cybernetics — кібернетика
superhard materials — надтверді матеріали
ancient — древній, стародавній
original — самобутній
art — мистецтво
the State Symphony Orchestra — Державний симфонічний оркестр
the Hrihory Veryovka Ukrainian People’s Choir — Український народний хор ім. Григорія Верьовки
the Transcarpathian People’s Choir — Закарпатський народний хор
the «Dumka» State Honoured Choir — Державна заслужена хорова капела «Думка»
the Honoured Bandore Players Choir — Заслужена капела бандуристів
to display a keen interest — виявляти великий інтерес
heritage — спадщина
artistic — художній, мистецький
to revive — відроджувати
to translate into life — впроваджувати у життя
to establish relations — встановлювати відносини
to set contacts — встановлювати контакти
to sign an agreement (treaty) — підписувати угоду (договір)
a founding member — член-засновник
The city of Kyyiv is an industrial, scientific, administrative anti cultural centre of Ukraine. It is the capital of Ukraine and the seat of the Supreme Soviet and the Cabinet of Ministers. The Ukrainian capital Kyyiv is one of tire largest and oldest cities of Europe. Kyyiv is one of the most ancient cities. In 1982 it was 1500 years old. It was called «the Mother of All Russian Cities». It has the population of 2,6 million and occupies an area of 790 square kilometres.
Kyyiv is located on the picturesque banks of the Dnieper River. Kyyiv is famous for its beauty. The streets of Kyyiv are broad and straight. There are a lot of chestnut trees and flowers in the city.
As one of the oldest cities of Europe it has many places of historic interest. Among them Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, the St.Sophia’s Cathedral, the Golden Gate, the monuments to Bohdan Khmelnitski, and Prince Volodimir and others. In the park of Immortal Glory there is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, over which an eternal fire burns.
There are many fine museums in Kyyiv: the State Historical Museum, the Museum of Ukrainian and Russian Art and so on. Kyyiv is famous for its theatres such as Opera House (Taras Shevchenko Opera and Ballet Theatre), the Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre, the Lesya Ukrainka Russian Drama Theatre and others.
Kyyiv is the centre of education and science. Many scientific research institutes, colleges, the University are in the city.
No wonder that Kyyivites are proud of their city.