Англійська мова: Навчальний посібник - П.О. Бех 1992

Great Britain

Official name — The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Status — Parliamentary monarchy

Area — 244,100 square kilometres

Population — 56,000,000

Capital — London

Languages — English (official), Gaelic (Scotland, Ireland), Welsh (Wales)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. Ireland consists of Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic.

No place in Great Britain is far from the sea. The little country has eastern, southern, and western coasts. It is washed by the Atlantic ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. It also has many good harbours easy to reach from any part of the country. England’s fisheries are famous. West winds from the sea bring rain and help to make English winters mild. That is why the climate of the British Isles is normally mild.

Great Britain is a highly-developed industrial country. The older fields of industry are shipbuilding, coal-mining, textile, metallurgical industries and the newer ones are electronics and electrical engineering, chemical, aircraft, automobile industries. All of them are very important for Great Britain. The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh and Cardiff. Oxford and Cambridge are called University towns.

Administratively Great Britain Is divided into 55 counties.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. The Queen is formally at the head of the state. But in fact the country is ruled by the Parliament consisting of two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The Prime Minister is head of the Government.

Comities of Great Britain

County England

Abbreviation

Ukrainian equivalents

Avon

Ейвон

Bedfordshire

Beds.

Бедфордшір

Berkshire

Berks.

Беркшір

Buckinghamshire

Bucks.

Бакнигемшір

Cambridgeshire

Cambs.

Кембріджшір

Cheshire

Ches.

Чешір

Cleveland

Клівленд

Cornwall

Corn.

Корцуол

Cumbria

Камбрія

Derbyshire

Derby.

Дербішір

Devonshire

Девоншір

Dorsetshire

Dors.

Дорсетшір

Durham

Dur.

Дарем

Essex

Ess.

Ессеке

Gloucestershire

Glos.

Глостершір

Hampshire

Hats.

Гемпшір

Hereford and Worcestershire

H & W

Херефорд і Bycтершір

Hertfordshire

Herts.

Хартфордшір

Humberside

_

Хамберсайд

Isle of Wight

I. W.

Айл-оф-Уайт

Kent

Кент

Lancashire

Lancs.

Ланкашір

Leicestershire

Leics.

Лестершір

Lincolnshire

Linсs.

Лінкольншір

Manchester Greater

Манчестер

Merseyside

Мерсісайд

Norfolk

Norf.

Норфолк

Northamptonshire

Northants.

Нортгемптоншір

Nottinghamshire

Notts.

Ноттингешір

Oxfordshire

Oxon.

Оксфордшір

Shropshire

Salop.

Шропшір

Somersetshire

Som.

Сомерсетшір

Staffordshire

Staffs.

Стаффордшір

Suffolkshire

Suff.

Суффолкшір

Surrey

Sy.

Суррей

Sussex East

Східний Суссекс

Sussex West

Sx.

Західний Суссекс

Tyne and Wear

Тайн

Warwickshire

Warks.

Уорішір

West Midlands

Уест-Мідленд

Wiltshire

Wilts.

Уїлтшір

Yorkshire North

Yorks.

Північний

Yorkshire West

Йоркшір Західний

Yorkshire South

Йоркшір Південний

Channel Islands

C I

Йоркшір Нормандські

Isle of Man

IOМ

острови Айл оф Мен

Wales

Clwyd

Клуїд

Dyfed

Довед

Glamorganshire

Glam.

Гламораншiр

West Glamorgan

Західний ГламораншІр

South Glamorgan

Південний ГламораншІр

Gwent

Гвент

Gwynedd

Гуїнедд

Powys

Поуїс

Northern Ireland

Antrim

Антрім

Armagh

Армах

Down

Даун

Fermanagh

Фермана

Londonderry

Лондондеррі

Tyrone

Тірон

Scotland

Borders

Бодез

Central

Сентрал

Dumfries

Дамфріс

Galloway

Голуей

Fife

Файф

Grampian

Грампіан

Highland

Хайленд

Lothian

Лотіен

Orkney

Оркні

Shetland

Шетленд

Strathclyde

Стратклайд

Tayside

Тейсайд

Western Isles

Уест Айлз

You can’t do without this vocabulary:

Gaelic — гельський, гельська мова

Welsh — уельський, валлійський

isle — острів

harbour — гавань, порт

fishery — рибальство

mild — м’який

textile — текстильний

ship-building — суднобудування

metallurgical — металургійний

electronic engineering — електронна техніка

aircraft — авіація, авіаційний

automobile — автомобіль, автомобільний

Birmingham — Бірмінгем

Glasgow — Глазго

Liverpool — Ліверпуль

Manchester — Манчестер

Edinburgh — Едінбург

Cardiff — Кардіфф

Oxford — Оксфорд

Cambridge — Кембрідж

county — графство

parliamentary monarchy — парламентська монархія

to rule — правити

the Parliament — парламент

the House of Commons — палата громад

the House of Lords — палата лордів

the Prime Minister — прем’єр-міністр

LONDON

London, one of the greatest cities in the world, is the capital of Great Britain, and the cradle of British tradition and culture.

London, with a population of more than 8 million people, is the largest city in the world after Tokyo and New York. It stands on the two banks of the river Thames. The historical centre of London is the City.

The City is the financial centre of the United Kingdom. Here you can find St, Paul’s Cathedral. Not far from it is the tallest tower which was built by Sir Christopher Wren in memory of the Great Fire of London in 1666. It is 61 metres tall. Fleet Street is famous for newspapers offices of «Financial Times», «Daily Telegraph» and some others.

The Houses of Parliament stretch along the Thames’s North Bank. The Union Jack (the flag of the U. K.) flies from Victoria Tower only when the Parliament is in session. Big Ben, the famous clock, is also in one of the Towers. Near the Parliament, in Westminster Abbey, is Poet’s Corner, containing the tombs and monuments of famous poets, writers and musicians: Geoffrey Chaucer, Milton, Dickens, Handel and many others.

One of the best known museums is the British museum, with its library, reading room and the collection of manuscripts. The National Gallery, which has one of the world’s greatest art collections is in Trafalgar Square. Nelson Column can also be found in this square.

The biggest department stores can be found in Oxford Street. Bond Street is famous for its elegant shops. There are some parts of London, which have some distinctive features. For example, the West End is famous for fashionable shopping and entertainment centres, the East End is industrial district, Westminster is the place for government offices, the City is a financial centre, Soho is known for international (Greek, Italian, Indian) restaurants and a lot of entertainments.

London has a number of nice parks and gardens, such as Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Covent Garden. There are very many theatres, cоncert halls, cinemas in the capital.

The oldest underground railway system called «tube», is still one of the largest in the world. There are more than 275 stations. The famous red «doubledeckers» are also an important part of the public transport system. So, London, rich in history and culture, parks and shops, always welcomes its visitors.

You can’t do without this vocabulary:

a cradle — колиска the City — Сіті

St. Paul’s Cathedral — Собор св. Павла

Sir Christopher Wren — Христофор Рен

to be in session — засідати

Westminster Abbey — Вестмінстерське абатство

a tomb — могила

Trafalgar square — Трафальгарська площа

elegant — вишуканий

Soho — Coxo

Kensington Gardens — Кевсінгтон-Гарденз

Hyde Park — Гайд-парк

Covent Garden — Ковент-Гарден

a doubledecker — даблдекер, двоповерховий автобус

Texts for Supplementary Reading

Do you know John Doe?

If a bank wanted to show people how to write a check, it might show a check signed «John Doe». John Doe is not a real name. It stands for «somebody, no one knows who», or for «anybody». Lawyers often use this name in legal papers. Everyone is supposed to know that there is no such person as John Doe.

Do you know John Bull?

There is no such person as John Bull. He stands for the people of England, just as Uncle Sam stands for the people of the United States. But in his picture he does not look at all like Uncle Sam. He is always short and stout. He wears leather breeches, high boots, and a funny flat hat. Often he has a club in one hand and a bulldog beside him.

Words and phrases

a lawyer — юрист

a legal paper — офіційний документ

to look like — бути схожим

at all — зовсім

short and stout — невисокий на зріст і повний

leather breeches — шкіряні брюки

high boots — чоботи

flat hat — капелюх з плоскими полями

a club — палиця





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