Paintings and Painters. Art museums
Read, translate and retell in brief.
Water-Colour and Drawing
From the beginning to the end of his life Turner's one paramount artistic aim was the representation of light and atmosphere. It is only by degrees that he arrived at that perfect mastery of his means that we find in his best drawings. There is a gradual transition from tinted drawing to local colouring, and a gradual increase of the number of processes employed to give variety of quality and texture; but always without using white and opaque pigments. Throughout life he constantly used water-colour for immediate studies from nature; and amid the thousands of sketches which form part of his priceless bequest to the nation, every variety of scenery in England and abroad may be found represented, treated in the most varied manner, some being simply a few blots of colour to show the relation of light and tone between two objects, others careful studies of single, and a few finished pictures. Besides these there are numerous rapid pencil sketches of unerring draughtsmanship, details of foliage and architecture, forms of mountains and trees, birds, beasts, and men in every variety of action and attitude.
(from C. Turner, «Short History of Art»)
paramount — высший, первостепенный • вищий, першорядний
representation — изображение, образ; представление • зображення, образ; уявлення
tinted drawing — подкрашенный рисунок • підфарбований малюнок
texture — передача поверхности предметов в произведениях искусства • передача поверхні предметів у мистецьких творах
opaque — непрозрачный, светонепроницаемый, темный • непрозорий, світлонепроникний, темний
blot — пятно • пляма
rapid pencil sketch — быстрый набросок карандашом • швидкий начерк олівцем
foliage — листва; лиственный орнамент • листя; листяний орнамент
First Meeting With Oil-Painting
An oil-painting caught and held him... He forgot his awkward walk and came closer to the painting, very close. The beauty faded out of the canvas. He stared at what seemed a careless daub of paint, then stepped away. Immediately the beauty flashed back into the canvas. «A trick picture» was his thought... He did not know painting. He had been brought up on chroinos and lithographs that were always definite and sharp, near or far. He had seen oil-paintings, it was true, in the show-windows of shops, but the glass of the windows had prevented his eager eyes from approaching too near.
(from J. London, «Martin Eden »)
to fade out — постепенно уменьшать четкость изображения • поступово зменшувати чіткість зображення
to step away — посторониться, уйти прочь • відійти геть
to approach — приближаться • наближуватися
In the Low Countries during the seventeenth century the still life achieved great popularity and varied from simple, clear assemblages of crockery, clay pipes, bread, and cheese, to tables groaning beneath a lash disorder of goldsmith’s work, lobsters and grapes. Among these new types was the flower piece, which has enjoyed continuous popularity until the present day. Many artists practised both kinds of still-life painting, and combinations of flowers with fruit were popular. On the typical flower piece the blossoms and grasses were usually arranged in a jug or vase as for a domestic decoration, and the container disposed on a table or stone ledge, often with fallen petals or buds, snails and insects, sometimes birds’ nests, scattered with an artful casualness about its base.
(from «Art Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum »)
the Low Countries (Holland) — Голландия • Нідерланди (Голандія)
to enjoy continuous popularity — быть постоянно популярным • постійно бути популярним
Man-Made in Still-Life Painting
The American «Magic Realist» William Harnett concentrated on painting a man-made world, but always excluding man, so that his works never represent human beings, but only representations of human beings, deprived of all the personal history and psychology that one can detect in a Rembrandt portrait.
In museums, one often sees the less sophisticated visitors gaping at the works of artists who have been able to imitate most realistically the grain of wood of a tabletop, or who have placed a fly on the shining skin of an apple. Harnett had to earn his living, in nineteenth-century New York, by painting such trompe-l’oeil compositions to decorate public bars, and it appears that he never sold a single picture, in his lifetime, to any of the important American art- collectors of his day. He did manage, however, to become a celebrity, for a while, among the Broadway journalists who frequented the bars where his paintings were exhibited. One of these happened to represent a still-life arrangement of various objects that included a dollar-bill which looked as if it could be literally lifted out of the picture and taken away in one’s pocket.
(from «Dialogues on Art» by E. Rodity)
excluding — исключительный • виключний
deprived of smth. — лишенный ч.-л. • позбавлений чогось
less sophisticated visitors — посетитель с менее утонченным вкусом • відвідувачі з не надто витонченим смаком
to gape at smth. — широко разевать рот, глазеть на ч.-л., изумляться • роззявити рота, витріщатися на щось, дивуватися
trompe-l’oeil — оптическая иллюзия • оптична ілюзія
J. Constable. Flatford Mill on the River Stour (National Gallery)
It was left fox Constable to give landscape painting its final dispatch. For the first time the vivid green of nature invaded the domain of landscape painting.
«Flatford Mill on the River Stour,» painted in 1817, shows that even then he had developed a style that was conspicuous for its intimate naturalism. He had brought painting out of doors.
The scene is typically English. In the near foreground a horse with a boy on its back is being attached to the towing rope of a barge floating idly on the stream. In the distance is a lock and the buildings of the mill. To the right of the picture stretches a level expanse of pasture, interspersed with trees. The time is early summer, when the foliage is heaviest and the grass has not lost the freshness of spring. Green shadows dapple the sunlit sward, and over all is a soft and tranquil sky.
(from R. N. D. Wilson, «The National and Tate Galleries»)
J. Constable — Джон Констебль, английский художник-пейзажист (1776—1837) • Джон Констебл, англійський художник-пейзажист (1776—1837)
dispatch -решение • рішення
vivid — яркий, ясный • яскравий, ясний
tlomain[do'mein] — область, сфера • область, сфера, царина
conspicuous — видный, заметный, бросающийся в глаза • видний, помітний, що впадає в око
to dapple — покрывать(ся) круглыми пятнами • вкритися круглими плямами
sward — газон; дерн • моріг; дерн
tranquil sky — спокойное небо • спокійне небо
Joseph Mallord William Turner (1755—1851) presents us with one of the many paradoxes of English Romantic art. He was essentially self-taught, but was also a fervent and lifelong supporter of the royal academy. He led an essentially solitary, misanthropic and even squalid life, and yet he was ambitious for social recognition and royal patronage; in some ways a rough-hewn cockney humorist in the tradition of English satirical art, he also brought to English painting its most sustained sense of the tragedy of landscape.
The son of a London barber, Turner passed his adolescence as the humble assistant to printsellers and architectural draughtsmen. He entered the RA Schools in 1789, began exhibiting topographical watercolours in 1790 and his first oil, a marine, in 1796. Turner established his reputation and fortune early through topographical commissions for publishers and private patrons, was elected ARA in 1799 and, at an exceptionally young age, RA in 1802. He quickly developed a prominent position in the art life of the capital: he was Professor of Perspective at the Academy 1807—1837 (although he only lectured 1811—1828); from 1807 to 1819 he publicized his work in a superb series of engravings entitled Liber Studiorum. In 1804 he opened his first private gallery, and in the late 1820s he conceived a plan to leave the contents of his gallery and studio to the nation, together with almshouses for aged landscape artists. Complications in the will prevented this plan from being realised.
Turner was always a dedicated traveller; he visited many parts of Britain in the 1790s and in 1802 made the first of several trips to the Continent (France and Switzerland). Holland and Germany were visited in 1817 and Italy 2 years later. Towards the end of his life he made repeated excursions to Venice and to Switzerland, and his last foreign tour was in Normandy in 1845. He was always especially attracted to the sublime scenery of mountains and to those river, lake and coastal sites which would allow him to explore the broad and luminous effects of sky reflected in water.
Turner never lacked for patronage, but from the 1820s he began seriously to assemble a comprehensive selection of his major works himself, sometimes buying them up in the sale-room, for preservation in what he hoped would be his Turner Gallery. This applied to oils; watercolours he took less seriously, and yet it was the procedures developed for making extensive series of water-colours after 1815 that shaped his whole approach to painting during the last 30 years of his life. He would lay in a large number of designs at the same time and work them up simultaneously until they were finished, abandoning many in various sages of completion along the way. Thus his bequest to the nation includes many works which were never finished, and these include many of his most popular canvases like Yacht Approaching Coast (1840; Tate) and Norham Castle, Sunrise (1845; Tate). The procedures of oil and water-colour were, indeed, intimately related throughout Turner’s career; and, in more general terms, the effects of the small-scale book-illustrations of the late 1820s and 1830s (such as the vignettes for Samuel Rogers’ Italy of 1830) may be felt in many oils of the last 2 decades of Turner’s life, and especially in the series of small canvases of the early 1840s* of which Peace: Burial at Sea (1841—1842; Tate) is perhaps the best- known example. Turner’s reputation was, and is, based on his extraordinary capacity to evoke the nuances of natural and artificial light; yet his ambitions led him constantly into the study of history, mythology and natural philosophy, and to embody these studies in his art. Only recently has attention been redirected to his subject-matter, to his extensive knowledge of the art of the past, and to the literary aspects of his mind and production, aspects to which it is fair to say we owe both his astonishing range of themes and the peculiar intensity which he brought to subjects of sublime nature.
Although Turner’s early mature work had a limited influence on a number of younger painters, his later style had very little effect in England. It is in France in the years around 1900 that we must look his successors.
(from «Encyclopedia of British Art»)
J. M. W. Turner — Вильям Тернер, английский художник-пейзажист (1775—1851) • Вільям Тернер, англійський художник-пейзажист (1775—1851)
fervent — страстный • пристрасний
solitary — одинокий • самотній
squalid — нищенский, убогий • жебрацький, вбогий
ambitious — честолюбивый, амбициозный • честолюбний, амбіційний
patronage — покровительство • патронаж, покровительство
rough-hewn — грубый, неотесанный • грубий, неотесаний
sustained — постоянный • постійний
adolescence — юность • юність
humble — скромный • скромний
printseller — продавец гравюр • продавець гравюр
marine — морской пейзаж • морський краєвид
ARA (Associate of the Royal Academy) — младший член Королевской Академии • молодший член Королівської Академії
RA (Royal Academician) — академик Королевской Академии • академік Королівської Академії
conceive — задумать • задумати
almshouse — богадельня • богадільня
sublime — величественный • величний
comprehensive — обширный • обширный
to abandon — оставлять, покидать • залишати, покидати
bequest — наследство • спадщина
vignette — виньетка • він’єтка
burial — похороны • похорон
to evoke — вызывать • викликати
to embody — воплощать • втілювати
mature — зрелый • зрілий
successor — наследник, преемник • нащадок, спадкоємець
Text 20- 7
J. M. W. Turner. Calais Pier. Seascape
Turner in all probability was the most imaginative artist England has ever produced.
An islander bom and bred, he was the first to reveal to his fellow islanders the beauty of the sea. He had far passed his apprenticeship when he produced the Саlais Pier. Possibly it owes a little to the Dutch masters, but it is informed with a vigour that is quite its own. French fishing-boats are putting out to a not too friendly sea, and athwart them the English packet under brown sails is entering the harbour. In the foreground a magnificent curb of wave, crisped like a shell, portrays the conflict of wind and tide. The pier is crowded with figures, noticeable among whom is a woman in a red dress, who appears to be gesticulating to a fisherman in the boat below.
A storm would seem to be either brewing or disintegrating and from its murky violence the lighting of the picture is derived. It is no mere studio effect. No less than Constable he has gone out of doors. In appearance he was somewhat of a bluff old salt, and one likes to think that it was his sea eye which observed the white and angry line of foam along the horizon. An unrigged ship beating up the Channel adds to the vivid atmospheric effect.
For all its bustle and episodic animation this picture confines and delights the eye within the limit of its compass. This is evidence of its unity of composition. The colouring is masterful. A sombre harmony holds together all the varying and shifting sources of light.
(from R. N. D. Wilson, «The National and Tate Galleries»)
to reveal — открывать; показывать • відкривати; показувати
apprenticeship — учение, ученичество • навчання, учнівство
vigour — сила, энергия; законность, действительность • сила, енергія; законність, дійсність
athwart — поперек, перпендикулярно, против • поперек, перпендикулярно, навпроти
harbour — гавань • гавань
crisped like a shell — ясно очерченный, как остров • чітко окреслений, як острів
tide — морской прилив, поток, течение • морський приплив, потік, течія
pier — пирс, пристань • пірс, пристань
murky violence — мрачная сила • похмура сила
to derive — происходить • відбуватися
bluff old salt — грубовато-добродушный опытный моряк • грубувато-добродушний досвідчений моряк
foam — пена; (поэт.) море • піна; (поет.) море
bustle — суматоха, суета • шарварок, суєта
animation — воодушевление, живость, оживление • натхнення, жвавість, пожвавлення
to confine — здесь: притягивать • тут: притягувати
sombre — мрачный, угрюмый • похмурий, сумний
Thomas Gainsborough (1727—1788) was with Richard Wilson one of the founding fathers of the British landscape school in the 18th century and also one of the greatest and most original portrait painters of his day. Unlike Wilson he did not adhere consciously to the classical tradition, but created works of a delicacy and poetic sensibility which caused Constable to say «On looking at them, we find tears in our eyes and know not what brings them.» Though all his works are to a degree consistent in feeling, his work changed considerably as he moved from his provincial origins in Sudbury (Suffolk), spending long periods in Ipswich, Bath and London, where he finally achieved great eminence. About 1739, already, it appears, a prodigy, he was sent to London, as a pupil of Gravelot where he absorbed something of the French Rococo and both the elegance of Hayman and the directness of Hogarth. By 1745 he had his own studio in London and in 1748 he presented to the Foundling Hospital a brilliant view of the Charterhouse.
He returned to Sudbury in 1748, remaining there until he moved to Ipswich in 1752. The masterpiece of the Sudbury period is undoubtedly «Mr. and Mrs. Andrews.» At first his Suffolk paintings were strongly Dutch in flavour, showing the influence in particular of Jacob van Ruisdael, but by the mid 1750s he was moving towards a more French pastoral in which rustic lovers are often seen within a warmer and more sympathetic setting. His portraits on the other hand remain relatively conventional and is only towards the end of the Ipswich period that he began to experiment with ways of giving the flesh a greater vibrancy of touch.
With his arrival in Bath in 1759 Gainsborough began to throw off all vestiges of provincialism and make a reputation for himself as a portrait painter of facility and grace, working for more sophisticated patrons and gaining a wider experience of such great predecessors as Rubens and Van Dyck whose works he could see in neighbouring country houses. His first great portrait in the Van Dyck manner was «Mrs. Philip Thicknesse» (1760), which is notable for the virtuoso handling of the drapery.
Though he had difficulty in selling them he continued to paint as many landscapes as portraits, seeking an intense poetic response, not so much from observation of nature as from the inward contemplation of his own feelings for nature. His handling of landscape became more translucent and free, and the subjects more nostalgic and removed from the workaday.
The works of his London period, from 1774 until his death in 1788, were at first characterized by an expansiveness and monumentality in both portrait and landscape, presenting a conscious challenge to the greatest masters of the past in each genre. «The Watering Place» (1777) was a direct response to the landscape paintings of Rubens. More sympathetic perhaps are his paintings of his musical friends like «Johann Christian Fischer» (1780), which is elegant and sophisticated yet also genial, recalling his own delight in playing and hearing music. The great achievements of his last years were in the integration of figure and setting in a series of group portraits, and in the development of «Fancy Pictures » in which rustic figures, usually children, are posed in a landscape or by a cottage door. These late pictures present a contrasting vision of the elegance of the town and the simple delights of rustic life which is at the heart of own complex feelings; they generate a poetic melancholy which is enhanced by an ever greater freedom of brushwork.
(from «The Encyclopedia of British Art»)
Thomas Gainsborough — Томас Гейнсборо, английский художник (1727—1788) • Томас Гейнсборо, англійський художник (1727—1788)
to adhere to — придерживаться • дотримуватися
delicacy — изящество, утонченность • витонченість
sensibility — восприимчивость • сприйнятливість
eminence — высокое положение • високе становище
prodigy — чудо, диво • чудо, диво
Foundling Hospital — детский дом • дитячий дім
Charterhouse — Чартерхаус (больница, позднее — школа в Лондоне) • Чартерхаус (лікарня, пізніше — школа в Лондоні)
pastoral — пастораль • пастораль
rustic — сельский, деревенский • рустикальний, сільський
conventional — традиционный • традиційний
vibrancy — трепет • трепетний
predecessor — предшественник • попередник
inward — внутренний • внутрішній
translucent — полупрозрачный • напівпрозорий
challenge — вызов • виклик
to enhance — усиливать • посилювати
As a landscape painter Gainsborough was influenced in his early years by Dutch seventeenth century pictures seen in East Anglia; and the landscape backgrounds in his Ipswich period portraits are all in that tradition. But during his Bath period he saw paintings by Rubens and thereafter that influence is apparent in his landscape compositions. The landscapes of Gainsborough’s maturity have spontaneity deriving from the light rapid movement of his brush; but they are not rapid sketches from nature, he never painted out-of-doors; he painted his landscapes in his studio from his drawings, and from the scenes which he constructed in a kind of model theatre, where he took bits of cork and vegetables and so on and moved them about, and moved the light about, till he had arranged a composition. It is possible that some of his preliminary black and white chalk landscape drawings were done out-of-doors; but the majority were done in the studio from memory when he returned from his walk or ride; and some of the finest of the drawings, the «Horses by a Shed, » for example, resulted perhaps from a combination of the two procedures — a rough pencil note made on the spot and reconsidered in terms of composition with the aid of his candle and the model theatre after dinner. At his highest level he went far beyond the current formulae and achieved a degree of integrated three-dimensional arrangement.
(from Reginald Wilensky «An Outline of English Painting»)
Ipswich period — Gainsborough lived in Ipswich since 1750, in 1759 he moved to Bath, and in 1774, to London.
Rubens — Питер Рубенс, фламандский художник (1577—1640) • Пітер Пауль Рубенс, фламандський художник (1577-1640)
apparent — видимый, явный, очевидный, несомненный • видимий, явний, очевидний, безсумнівний
preliminary — предварительный • попередній
formulae (pi.) — формулы, формулировки, доктрины • формули, формулювання, доктрина
three-dimensional arrangement — стереоскопическое (объемное) расположение • стереоскопічне (об’ємне) розташування
The countryside around his birthplace (East Bergholt, Suffolk) is pastoral and gently undulating, marked chiefly by the low hills flanking Dedham Vale, along which meanders the River Stour. The artist’s father owned mills on the banks of the river, made navigable by locks in the 18th century. This landscape setting of his early years had a far reaching effect on Constable’s art. His choice of subjects came to be limited to a small group of places in which his affections were deeply engaged, all sharing the pastoral quality of the scenes of his childhood, in which men pursued the traditional labours he had seen on the banks of the Stour River and in the nearby fields.
He went to London in 1799 to begin his formal artistic training in the schools of the Royal Academy. At this time the model for landscape painting in England was still the classical ideal landscape of the 17th century. Works by Claude Lorrain, Nicholas Poussin and Gaspard Poussin were in every large collection, and the contemporary artist was expected to conform to the principles of formal composition, lighting, and detailed finish which marked their pictures and even to imitate their tonality, distorted though this might be by a century or more of discoloured varnish. Constable realized that within such limitations he could not paint the English countryside as he saw it, and in his search for more suitable methods he created his own art.
In 1802 he began the practice of sketching in oils in the open air, a form of study which he continued throughout his life. To him they were the exercises and the raw material out of which he could create more ambitious and logically constructed landscapes.
He sold his first painting to a stranger in 1814 and was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1819. Having become through his marriage and the death of his parents financially independent, he felt confident enough to embark upon a series of large canvases, the subjects of which were taken from the banks of the River Stour and which he exhibited in successive years at the Royal Academy. The first of these was «Flatford Mill on the Stour» (1817, London, Tate Gallery), followed by «The Hay Wain» (1821, London, National Gallery), « View on the Stour near Dedham» (1822, San Marino, California, Huntington Art Gallery) and « The Leaping Horse» (1825, London, Royal Academy). His range of subjects was further extended in 1819, when he moved his wife and family for the summer months to Hampstead, a village on a hill in the northern outskirts of London, then surrounded by open country. This move became an annual custom until, eventually, he took a house in Hampstead. Here he began a long series of sky studies, based on the conviction that only one aspect of sky was consistent with a peculiar kind of illumination of the objects on the ground. Many of these studies showing the foliage of bushes and trees in motion and lit by gleams from a cloud-tom sky are in the Victoria and Albert Museum and are among his most dramatic sketches. On the backs of these and other cloud studies he usually recorded the date, the time of the day and the weather conditions prevailing at the time they were painted.
Sometimes Constable worked out his composition in a full-scale design, exactly the size of the version he was going to exhibit. These full-scale designs were naturally carried to a lesser stage of completion than the final version and accordingly preserve to modem eyes more of the immediate impact of the artist’s creative genius. Well-known examples are those made for « The Hay Wain» (1821) and «The Leaping Horse».
With the exhibition of «The Hay Wain » at the Royal Academy in 1821 Constable’s work became known to French artists, notably Gericault. Recognition outside his own country reached the climax in 1824, when «The Hay Wain» and «A View on the Stour Near Dedham » were exhibited in the Salon and excited great admiration and heated critical discussion. «The Hay Wain» was awarded a gold medal, and Constable’s influence over the younger French artists, in particular Delacroix, dated from this event.
In 1824 Mrs. Constable’s increasingly poor health caused Constable to take her to Brighton, a fashionable seaside resort on the south coasts. At this time his style of painting was changing from the serenity of the middle years of his career. He became more and more concerned with what he called «the chiaroscuro of Nature,» a term covering the broken lights and accents caused by the reflections of sunlight on wet leaves and darks in the sky and the shadowed landscape. He used his palette knife increasingly and worked over and elaborated his surface incessantly to give effect of texture in water, trees, fields and sky. To Constable’s contemporaries his painting looked unfinished, and the glazed highlights with which he enhanced them became known as «Constable’s snow.»
In 1829 his wife died, and election in that year to full membership in the Royal Academy he regarded as belated and without significance.
From this time onward Constable was subject to fits of depression. He had been left with a family of seven young children and forced himself into extra exertions on their behalf.
During his lifetime Constable’s originality and uncompromising temper prevented wide recognition of his merits among both artists and the public in England, though he had devoted friends and admirers and sold a fair amount of work to private patrons.
In France, however, he was quickly accepted as an important figure. After the exhibition of « The Hay Wain» at the Salon in 1824, a number of his paintings were exhibited elsewhere. His influence upon Delacroix, particularly in the use of colour, is well-known. Equally important was his impact upon the painters of the Barbizon school and through them and Delacroix he came to permeate the whole approach to landscape painting in France. Any influence upon the impressionists seems to have been indirect. In England he inspired no painters of any importance, though there were a number of minor imitators, and it was not until his influence was transmitted through France back to England in the later part of the 19th century that Constable became a force in English painting. He was, however, paid the compliment of being one of the most frequently forged artists of the 19th century. There was evidently a steady demand for his work at not too high prices.
(from Encyclopedia of World Art)
to embark — начинать ч.-л. делать • починати щось робити
eventually — в конечном счете, в конце концов, со временем • врешті решт, в кінцевому рахунку; згодом
conviction — убеждение, уверенность, убежденность • переконаність, впевненість
foliage — листва, лиственный орнамент • листя, листяний орнамент
gleam — слабый свет, проблеск, луч, отблеск, отражение • слабе світло, зблиск, промінь, відблиск, відбиття
genius — гений, одаренность, гениальность, дух • геній, обдарованість, геніальність, дух
serenity — ясность, безмятежность • ясність, спокій, безтурботність
chiaroscuro — светотеневой эффект • світлотіньовий ефект
palette knife — мастихин (инструмент, применяемый в живописи) • мастихин (інструмент, що вживають в малярстві)
forged artist — художник, картины которого подделывают (делают копии картин) • художник, картини якого підробляють (малюють копії його картин)
British Art in the First Half of the 20th Century
As it were, the New English Art Club, founded in 1885 and the Glasgow School which began about the same time with similar objectives, were the first organized revolts — since the Pre-Raphaelites — against the banalities of academic painting. The New English and the Glasgow programmes were a return to plain naturalism and for this direction they were indebted to Whistler as a forerunner and to the impressionist movement across the Channel. The New English artists, one of whom was Wilson Steer, thought first calling themselves «The Society of Anglo French Painters,» an indication of their respect for Paris as an art centre, where most of the early members had been trained. Whistler, of course, had shown the way to Paris long since, by his own training there, and by the connections he continued to maintain with French artists during his long stay in England (another factor, to be sure, in this de-insularizing of British painting was the foundation in the 1870s of the Slade School at the University of London, with the Frenchman Legros at its head. Thereafter the Royal Academy schools were no longer able to monopolize the training of students).
From the 1880s until the opening of World War I the history of British painting is marked by a slow and rather tentative absorption of impressionist principles of light and colour. By the time the next shock was applied to British taste by Roger Fry and his 1910 and 1912 exhibitions of post-impressionist art (including Van Gogh, Cezanne, Matisse and Picasso), the New English had developed a mild impressionist academy of its own. Sickert, meanwhile, a pupil of Whistler and later a great admirer of Degas, had developed a more astringent impressionism in contrast to the somewhat anemic New English variety. He became a mentor of a new group of younger English artists, including Spencer Gore, Harold Gihman and Charles Ginner, who founded the Camden Town Group in 1911. Their programme, following Sickert, might be described as the practice of a kind of middle-class realism in opposition to the fashionable interiors of academic painting or the mild aestheticism of the average New English painter.
In 1915 Wyndham Lewis launched his short-lived vorticism movement, an attempted synthesis of cubism and futurism elements. However accentric the movement may now seem, it was an important sign that, together with Fry’s exhibitions and preachments, the British painter was at last being brought into direct contact with the mainstream of continental art. Many only tested the water, so to speak, in the cubist and constructivist torrents abroad. In the 20s only one, Ben Nicholson, immersed himself completely.
Not until the 30s, in fact, and the appearance in England of a new continental movement, surrealism, were the inhibitions of progressive painters in Britain released to an important degree. And here the explanation may be that surrealism developed at a time when artists like Sutherland and Nash, admirers of the paintings of Blake, were conditioned by their own literary predilections to appreciate the surrealists’ exploration of the subconscious world. The sculptor, Henry Moore, the most important British artist of the 20th century, also combines in his work in the 30s a worship of prehistoric stone forms with an appreciation of surrealist imagery.
While the dominant force in British paintings during the 30s was a surrealist-infused neo-romanticism, there was a strong countermovement among certain painters, led by William Coldstream and Victor Pasmore. In 1937 they established a school in Euston Road, London, with the purpose of teaching students to return to the object, or as they expressed it, «to keep their eyes on what they saw.» Coldstream’s and particularly Pasmore’s painting have romantic and Whistlerian overtones, but by contrast with the interpretation of nature which Sutherland, Nash and their followers have practised, the Euston Road School painters were urban realists. Their school, as a school, disbanded in 1939. There are, however, still traces of its influence in post-war British painting and a young group of social realists, led by Jack Smith and Edward Middleditch, may be considered a tough child of Euston Road.
During World War II, with all contacts with the Continent severed, there was a notable increase in artistic vitality in Britain, which reflected а community of feeling between artists and public during a period of heroic struggle for survival. «Modem» artists were accepted, as they had never been before, for public commissions to record and interpret the impact of war on country and people. Sutherland, Nash and Moore all did outstanding paintings or drawings, and achieved through their absorption of modem means of expression a dramatic vividness of imagery which rose far above mere documentary illustration.
Since the war the development of painting in Britain has been diverse and it therefore difficult of definition. Following the international trend, some British painters have turned to abstraction, not always with too much conviction. Victor Pasmore, however, has become a fanatic convert to constructivism, and younger painters such as William Scott and Alan Davie have worked in the expressionist phase of the abstract movement. At the opposite pole are the young social realists already mentioned. In between these two currents, the native neo-romantic tradition, stimulated by continental expressionism and surrealism, is stronger than any other. Its best and most eccentric recent exponent is Francis Bacon.
(from Andrew Ritchie «Masters of British Painting»)
Wilson Steer — Вильсон Стир, английский художник, писавший картины в духе импрессионизма (1860—1942) • Вілсон Стир, англійський художник, що малював картини в дусі імпресіонізму (1860—1942)
the Slade School — школа изобразительных искусств, названная в честь коллекционера Феликса Слайда (1770—1868), который оставил деньги на ее создание • школа образотворчого мистецтва, названа на честь колекціонера Фелікса Слайда (1770—1868), який залишив гроші на її створення
Alphonse Legros — Альфонс Легро, французский художник, литограф и скульптор (1837—1911) • Альфонс Легро, французький художник, літограф і скульптор (1837—1911)
Roger Fry — Роджер Фрай, английский критик и художник, представляющий искусство импрессионизма в Англии (1866—1934) • Роджер Фрай, англійський критик і художник, репрезентант мистецтва імпресіонізму в Англії (1866—1934)
the Camden Town Group — общество художников, творчески близкое к французским постимпрессионистам • товариство художників, творчо близьких до французьких імпресіоністів
vortieism — вихризм (от vortex — вихрь) • вихризм (від vortex — вихор)
cubism — кубизм, модернистское течение в изобразительном искусстве, которое выдвинуло на первый план формальную задачу конструирования объемной формы на плоскости • кубізм, модерніська течія в образотворчому мистецтві, яке висунуло на перший план формальне завдання конструювання об’ємної форми на площині
futurism — футуризм, авангардистское направление в изобразительном искусстве, выражающее совмещение разных точек зрения, многократное умножение очертаний фигур, их деформацию, разложение по пересекающимся «силовым» линиями и плоскостям, резкие контрасты цвета • футуризм, аванардиський напрям в образотворчому мистецтві, що виражає суміщення різних точок зору, багатократне помноження обрисів фігур, їхню деформацію, розкладання по пересічним «силовим» лініям і площам, різкі контрасти Світла
Ben Nicholson — Бен Николсон, главный представитель британского абстракционизма (р. 1894) • Бен Ніколсон, головний представник британського абстракціонізму (нар. 1894 р.)
surrealism — сюрреализм, авангардистское направление в художественной культуре, опирающееся в своей эстетике на произвольное подсознательное озарение; одно из воплощений иррационализма • сюрреалізм, аванардиський напрям в художній культурі, що у своїй естетиці спирається на довільне підсвідоме осяяння; одне із втілень ірраціоналізму
neo-romanticism — неоромантизм, комплекс течений в художественной культуре, которые возникли как реакция на позитивизм в идеологии и натурализм в искусстве и возродили ряд эстетических принципов романтизма • неоромантизм, комплекс течій в художній культурі, які виникли як реакція на позитивізм в ідеології і натуралізм у мистецтві та відродили ряд естетичних принципів романтизму
constructivism — конструктивизм, одно из авангардистских течений, использовавшее теорию «конструирования» окружающей среды • конструктивізм, одна з аванардиських течій, що використовувала теорію «конструювання» довкілля
Portrait. Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa (Gioconda)
She is represented sitting in front of a marble balcony. The left arm rests on arm of the seat, and the fingers fold over the end of it. The right hand, perhaps the most perfect hand ever painted, lies lightly over the left hand and wrist. On sleeves and bodice the pleats of the satin dress take the light, and worked along the braid, as it were a sign manual of the artist, is one of the interlacing patterns. The curling auburn hair escaping at either side from the veil, and just brushing the bosom as it falls, has perhaps the most resemblance to the earlier work. The eyes look out at you, grey, devoid alike of eyelash or eyebrow, heavy-lidded, languorous yet strangely intent. The face is full and of a southern type, and the lips are smiling. She was listening to music while he painted, so Vasari tells us. Beyond balcony a strip of herbage has a warm russet glow, and road river wind away on either side in labyrinthine coils amidst the fretted rocks to where, in the far distance, shadows are deep and still water lies among the hills.
(from Edward Mc Curely, «Leonardo da Vinci»)
marble — мраморный • мармуровий sleeves — рукава • рукави
bodice — корсет, лиф (платья) • корсет, ліф (сукні)
auburn — каштанового цвета; темно-рыжего цвета (о волосах) • каштанового кольору; темнорудого (прю волосся)
resemblance — сходство • подібність
herbage — травяной покров • трав’яний покрив, трави
russet — красновато-коричневый цвет • червонувато-брунатний колір
labyrinthine — подобный лабиринту, запутанный • лабіринтоподібний, заплутаний
fretted rocks — размытые скалы • розмиті скелі
Air and Colour
The paintings that laughed at him merrily from the walls were like nothing he had ever seen or dreamed of. Gone were the flat, thin surfaces. Gone was the sentimental sobriety. Gone was the brown gravy in which Europe had been bathing its pictures for centuries. Here were pictures riotously mad with the sun. Withlight and air and throbbing vivacity. Paintings of ballet girls backstage, done in primitive reds, greens, and blues thrown next to each other irreverently. He looked at the signature. Degas.
There were a group of outdoor scenes along a river bank, caught with all the ripe, lush colour of midsummer and a hot overhead sun. The name was Monet. In all the hundreds of canvases that Vincent had seen, there was not as much luminosity breath, and fragrance as in one of these glowing pictures. The darkest colour Monet used was a dozen times lighter than the lightest colour to be found in all the museums of Holland. The brushwork stood out, unashamed, every stroke apparent, every stroke entering into the rhythm of nature. The surface was thick, deep, palpitant with heavy blobs of ripe, rich paint.
He studied the technique closely, and saw that Monet put elemental colours next to each other without gradation, that many details were barely suggested, that colours, lines, lights and shades did not end with definite precision, but wavered into each other.
«Just as the eye sees them waver in nature,» said Vincent.
After the time he caught one of the simple expedients by which painting had been so completely revolutionized. These painters filled the air of their pictures solid! And that living, moving, replete air did something to the objects that were to be seen in them.
Vincent knew that, for the academicians, air did not exist: it was just a blank space in which they placed rigid, set objects.
But these new men! They had discovered the air! They had discovered light and breath, atmosphere and sun; they saw things filtered through all the innumerable forces that live in that vibrant fluid. Vincent realized that painting could never be the same again. Photographic machines and academicians would make exact duplicates, painters would see everything filtered through their own natures and the sun-swept air in which they worked. It was almost as though these men had created a new art.
(from I. Stone, «Gust for Life»)
sobriety — умеренность, здравость, уравновешенность • поміркованість, врівноваженість
riotously — буйно, шумно • бурхливо, шумно
vivacity — живость, оживленность • жвавість, пожвавленість
irreverently — непочтительно • непоштиво, зневажливо
signature — подпись • підпис
Degas — Эдгар Дега, французский художник (1834— 1917) • Едгар Дега, французький художник (1834—1917)
Monet — Клод Моне, французский художник (1840— 1926) • Клод Моне, французький художник (1840—1926)
Vincent van Gogh — Винсент ван Гог, голландский художник (1853—1890) • Вінсент ван Ґоґ, нідерландський художник (1853—1890)
fragrance — аромат, благоухание • аромат, пахощі
apparent — видимый; явный, очевидный • видимий; явний, очевидний
precision — точность, четкость • точність, чіткість
A Glance at a Studio
Reynolds’ studio was a small, square-shaped one. His sitters sat in an armchair, which moved on castors; it was placed on a kind of dais a foot and a half above the floor. For thirty years some of the most famous English men and women of the latter half of the eighteenth century posed in it.
When working Reynolds held his painting palette by a long handle. He painted with brushes 18 inches in length; he worked always standing, and he placed his canvas on his easel close by his sitter, almost side by side. This was remarked as a peculiarity in his mode of painting by Lady Burlington, who sat to him and whose portrait by Reynolds is one of his finest full-lengths, and as brilliant in colour as when it left Reynolds’ studio.
Reynolds worked with great rapidity; and could paint some half dozen sitters a day, while in the full flush of his power. He began his work early, breakfasted at nine, and by ten o’clock was standing before his easel. His sitters generally began to arrive at eleven o’clock. He worked steadily away till four o’clock, he then gave the remainder of the afternoon and the evening to the society of his friends.
(from G. R. Sutherland, «SirJ. Reynolds»)
Reynolds — Джошуа Рейнолдз, английский художник (1723—1792) • Джошуа Рейнолдс, англійський художник (1723-1792)
painting palette — мастихин (инструмент, применяемый в живописи) • мастихин (інструмент, що вживають в малярстві
easel — мольберт • мольберт
rapidity — скорость • швидкість
Pictorial Art in Ukraine
Ukraine preserves numerous historical sites which testify that Ukrainian culture goes back thousands of years. Even now one can admire the mosaic and fresco images on the walls of St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kyiv — «The Mother of God,» «Jesus Christ With the Apostles,» «Jesus Christ the King of Heaven.» Among the best-known icons of the 14th-16th centuries are «St. George the Dragon Slayer» and «Virgin Mary of Volyn.»
The influence of the European Renaissance on Ukrainian culture is traced to the second half of the 16th century. Petro Mohyla played a significant role in the development of art.
A new genre of portrait painting appeared in the late 16th century, as evidence of the maturity of humanistic ideas in society. In Eastern Ukraine realistic portraits — later of noted religious figures — were sometimes a part of an icon composition («The Vifrgin Mary’s Protective Veil»).
The 17th—18th centuries were marked by an upsurge in Ukrainian pictorial art. A new style appeared, known as Ukrainian — or Cossack — baroque. Using various plastic techniques, the painters strove to convey their characters’ psychological condition, their linkage to the surrounding reality. The most prominent creations of that period include icons from Kyiv’s cathedrals and Good Friday church in Lviv.
Pictorial masterpieces dating from the 16th—18th centuries were created by Ivan Rutkovych («Prayer,» from Potelych) and Iov Kondzelevych, author of the so-called «Bohorodchany Iconostasic of Manyavsky Skyt. » At that period the colourful gentle composition «Cossack Mamai» became traditional. Common for these portrayals is the image of a fearless Cossack sitting with legs tucked under him, playing the bandura and smoking the pipe.
A new stage- in the development of Ukrainian art began at the turn of the 19th century. A lot of paintings dealing with historical themes and daily life appeared. At that period such gifted portraitists as Dmytro Levytsky and Volodymyr Borovykovsky created their works.
Taras Shevchenko stands out as a key figure in the mid-19th century Eastern and Central European art. Trained by Brullow’s school of Romantic Classicism, he succeeded in reaching the spiritual depths of the Romantic Movement and took a step toward stark realism.
Ukrainian folk realities, the heroic past of the Zaporizhian Cossacks and scenic environs are reflected in the works of artists of the second half of the 19th century. Among the prominent names of that period are A. Trutovsky, S. Vasylkivsky, S. Svitoslavsky, P. Levchenko, M. Pymonenko. It was in Ukraine that the career of Ilya Repin (1844—1930), an outstanding Russian painter, began. Among his prominent creations of that period are «The Cossacks, » «Black Sea Freemen, » «Vechornytsi, » a portrait of T. Shevchenko.
(from magazine «Computer Systems»)
to preserve — сохранить • зберегти ’’The Mother of God» — «Богородица Оранта» • «Божа Матір» (Богородиця Оранта)
«Jesus Christ with the Apostles» — «Иисус Христос с апостолами» • «Ісус Христос із апостолами»
«Jesus Christ the King of Heaven» — «Иисус Христос-Пантократор» • «Icyc Христос-Пантократор»
«St. George the Dragon Slayer» — «Георгий Победоносец» • «Георгій Побєдоносець» (Юра Змієборець)
«Virgin Mary of Volyn» — «Волынская богоматерь» • «Волинська Божа Мати»
maturity — завершенность, зрелость • завершеність, зрілість
«The Virgin Mary’s Protective Veil» — «Покрова» • «Покрова»
upsurge in Ukrainian pictorial art — бурное оживление украинской живописи • бурхливе пожвавлення українського малярства
Cossack baroque— Казацкое барокко • Козацьке бароко
linkage to the surrounding reality — связь с окружающим миром • зв’язок із навколишнім світом
Good Friday churches in Lviv — Пятницкие церкви во Львове • П’ятницькі церкви у Львові
«Prayer» by Ivan Rutkovych — картина «Моление» Ивана Рутковича • картина Івана Рутковича «Моління»
«Bohorodchany Iconostasis of Manyavsky Skyt» — «Богородчанский иконостас Скита Манявского» • «Богородчанський іконостас Скиту Манявського»
«Cossack Mamai» — «Казак Мамай» • «Козак Мамай»
key figure — центральная фигура • центральна фігура
«The Cossacks» — «Казаки пишут письмо турецкому султану» • «Козаки пишуть листа турецькому султану»
«Black Sea Freemen» — «Черноморская вольница» • «Чорноморська вольниця»
«Vechomvtsi» — «Вечерницы», картина русского художника Ильи Репина (1844—1930) • «Вечорниці», картина російського художника Іллі Репіна (1844—1930)
Ukrainian Painter. Juri Nikitin’s Paintings
Juri Nikitin is a well-known Ukrainian painter. Juri Nikitin, bom 1958, graduated from the Kyiv Art Institute in 1983, got diploma of theatre artist. In his pictures Juri Nikitin illuminates timeless relationship of events, aspiration of Spirit for self-knowledge. Coming into contact with mystery he shows the way of improvement of the one’s own soul. Interpreting the style peculiarities of his pictures in the row of modem trends one can deduce a Middle Age formula having characterized it as «Mystic romanticism.» Reviving deep humanist traditions kept in Christian faith artist’s work call for sincerity of feelings, nobility of impulses.
Most of us see our life on a mundane level, as a world of cares and understanding problems which exist parallel with the world of lofty feelings and images. Nikitin’s paintings made us see the yawning chasm between the two worlds. His famous paintings are «Beheading of St. John the Baptist,» «Carrying the Holy Grail, » «Finding of Moses, » «St. Roch,» «Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth, » «Jerusalem, » «Ex- calibut Sword,» «A Gothic Motif » etc. The titles testify to the artist’s interest in Christian philosophy and secular culture of medieval Europe.
Yuri craves for genuine spiritual values, which makes itself felt not only in his paintings but also in his lifestyle. Superficially his pictures resemble West European paintings of the Northern Renaissance. His style is redolent of that of Pieter Bruegel the elder and Jan van Dyck.
But the similarities of paintings of the 16th and the 20th century have nothing in common with ordinary stylization. There are internal bonds between them. For Nikitin the Bible remains the book of books just as it was for his colleagues 400 years ago.
As a painter, Nikitin is practically indifferent to contemporary life. He is a kind of people destined to rise above the humdrum existence and help others to see the light.
aspiration — стремление, сильное желание • прагнення, сильне бажання
to deduce — выводить (формулу, заключение, следствие) • виводити (формулу, наслідок, висновок)
Christian faith — христианская вера • християнська віра
sincerity — искренность • щирість
nobility — благородство, великодушне, величие • шляхетність, велич, великодушність
mundane — мирской, земной • мирський, земський
lofty feelings — высокие чувства • високі почуття
yawning chasm — зияющая бездна (пропасть) • разверзла безодня (прірва)
to testify — свидетельствовать • свідчити
secular culture — вековая культура • вікова культура
medieval — средневековый • середньовічний
to crave for — страстно желать, жаждать • пристрасно бажати, прагнути
genuine spiritual values — истинные духовные ценности • справжні духовні цінності
superficially — внешне, поверхностно • зовнішньо, поверхово
to resemble — походить, иметь сходство • скидатися, бути схожим на
redolent — напоминающий • що нагадує
similarity — сходство, подобие • подібність
to have nothing in common with smth. — не иметь ничего общего с ч.-л. • не мати нічого схожого (спільного) з будь-чим
The Museum of Russian Art in Kyiv
The Kyiv Museum of Russian Art (founded in 1922) has one of the largest collections of works of art by Russian artists, ranging from the twelfth century to our day. It was based on collection of the Tereshchenko family of industrialists and other private collections. Severe in form, the building of the museum was erected in 1882—1884.
The exhibits are arranged in thirty-five rooms in the three storeys of the building. The most ancient work in the section of old Russian art from the 12th to 17th centuries is the large icon of Sts. Boris and Gleb, the first canonized Russian saints and the young sons of Volodymyr Sviatoslavich.
The sonorous colour scheme is characteristic of the 16th century icons of the Deesis and Feast tiers which are close in manner to icons done by painters of the Dionysius circle.
Russian art of the 18th century is excellently represented by its portrait painting. Dmytro Levitsky, one the most poetic of the artists of the latter half of the 18th century, reveals the delicate charm of the epoch in his portraits of an unknown woman in blue (1784) and of the writes Ivan Dolhorukov (1782). Among the large collection of portraits of another great master of late 18th and early 19th centuries, Vasyl Borovykovsky. His portrait of Vera Arsenyeva (1795) attracts our spiritual attention.
The collection of paintings of the first half and mid-19th century is characterized by a skilful section of works. «The portrait of Maria Pototska, Her Sister Sophia Shuvalova and Ten-years-old Ethiopian Girl» (1835—1836), painted in a romantic vein, is one of the most charming efforts of Orest Kiprensky. The works of Vasyl Tropinin are well represented too. Romantic and realistic tendencies are combined in the portraits of Prince Oleander Meshchersky (1849) and Semion Likhonin (1841) by Karl Brullow.
The display of mid-19th century art is rounded off with the small but tragic picture «The Gamblers» (1852) by Pavlo Fedotov, the leading artist of the so-called natural school.
The endeavours of Russian painters of the latter half of the 19th century are displayed by works of Mykola Hay, executed at different periods of his activity. The canvas of Vasyl Perov, «God’s Fool» (1875—1879), showing a lone figure in the snow, is outstanding in its vitality. Ivan Kramskoi occupies a large place in the display. His «Contemplator» (1876) awoke great interest in Fedir Dostoyevsky. The paintings by Ilya Repin in the museum show only certain sides of this talented artist’s work. On display is the «Head of a Peasant» (1880—1883), the dramatic image of Gogol’s character in «Notes of a Mad Man, » «Poprishchin "(1882), and the painting «St. Nicholas of Myra Delivers the Three Innocent Men» (1889), in which persons sentenced to death are depicted with moving sincerity. The brightly coloured canvas of Victor Vasnetsov «Three Tsarevnas of the Underground Kingdom» (1884), on a theme from a Russian fairy-tale is among the more significant and characteristic of his works.
In the same hall we find works by the famous history painter Vasyl Surikov, paintings and poetic landscapes by Vasyl Polenov, Apollinary Vasnetsov and Isaac Levitan.
A separate room is provided for the studies and paintings of V. Vereshchagin, I. Aivazovsky, M. Vrubel, M. Nesterov, V. Serov, K. Korovin, B. Kustodiev and other artists, all of them members of the most important art groups of the early 20th century, such as World of Art, Union of Russian Artists, and Jack of Diamonds.
sonorous — высокопарный • пишномовний, високо- парний
endeavour — попытка, стремление • спроба, прагнення
sentenced to death — приговоренный к смерти • засуджений до страти
sincerity— искренность • щирість
The Museum of Ukrainian Art in Kyiv
The Museum of Ukrainian Art was built by Vladyslav Gorodetsky as Kyiv’s first City Museum of Antiquities and Art, according to a design by Boitsov. It was open in 1899. In 1936 the historical section withdrew to an independent organization, and the Museum of Ukrainian Art was formed. The large collection of paintings, drawings and sculptures embraces all periods of the development of Ukrainian Fine Arts and is arranged in twenty-one rooms.
The oldest exhibit displayed in the museum is the wooden polychrome relief of «St. George with Scenes from His Life » produced in the 13th century, and in the 14th century — icon of the «Virgin Hodegetria » from the town of Lutsk in Volyn.
The end of the 16th and the early 17th centuries were marked by the establishment of a narrative tendency in icon painting. The desire of the artist to show what he saw in his visual environment — the specific features of everyday life and costume — was quite evident. Dramatic scenes depicted in some icons reflect the events of the people’s fight against the Polish and Lithuanian invaders. The early 17th century icon «Passions» is a memorial of these times.
Among numerous icons of the late 17th and early 18th centuries are «The Intercession,» which contains a portrait of the hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and «St. Barbara and St. Catherine.»
Late Baroque art is represented by icons of the Deesis tier from iconostasis of the Church of the Resurrection on the village of Berezna in the vicinity of Chernihiv (1760s). In the next room we find the largest collection of Ukrainian portrait art and folk art. The formal portraits of Cossack commanders are extremely effective. The portrait of the young monk Prince Dmytro Dolhoruky (1769) by the prominent Kyivan painter Samuel is worth attention too. In this portrait he skilfully emphasized the character’s chaste dignity.
The art of the late 18th century definitely broke with icon-painting traditions of the past. The trends toward realism and romanticism assumed a leading place in Ukrainian painting and graphics in the first half and middle of the 19th century. The museum displays Vasyl Tropinin’s portraits of peasants clearly demonstrating these trends. A lofty romantic attitude to people and to his native land is characteristic of the paintings and drawings of Taras Shevchenko. His last «Self-portrait» (1861) is especially full of dramatic undertones. The poetry of old homesteads and national costumes, the beauty of the Ukrainian landscape, and somewhat sentimental scenes of everyday life have found their place in painting, water-colours and sketches from nature by T. Shevchenko’s contemporaries and followers, such as Vasyl Sternberg, Ivan Sokolov, K. Trutovsky. Realistic traditions of genre painting were developed by artists of the 19th century. Famous Ukrainian genre paintings, «Wedding in Kyiv Province» (1891), «At the Well Rivals » (1909) and a dramatic scene from provincial life of the country, «Victim of Fanaticism» (1899), by Pimonenko were very popular even outside Ukraine. A student of Ilya Repin, A. Murashko, felt the influence of other Western European Art’s trends. Landscape paintings has an important place in the exhibition. Here we can see the lyrical canvases of S. Svetoslavsky, І. Trush, and N. Burachek.
F. Krichevsky, who has taught several generations of contemporary painters, such as Tetyana Yablonska and Hryhory Melikhov, is represented by a large number of paintings. His triptych «Life "painted in realistic traditions. A large number of exhibits are by young painters and graphic artists, who came forward with their new artistic ideals. Visiting the museum the art lover may trace the progress of Ukrainian art during the 700 years of its existence.
Antiquity — античность; древность, старина • античність; давнина
«The Intercession» — «Заступничество» • «Заступництво»
vicinity — окрестности, район • околиці, район
in the vicinity of — поблизости; около • поблизу, навколо
dignity — чувство собственного достоинства • почуття власної гідності
to assume — принимать (на себя) • брати (на себе)
homestead — усадьба; участок • маєток; ділянка
triptych — триптих • триптих
The Treasury of Art
Of course, I saw the Hermitage, the great museum which Catherine the Great started with her private collection, and which today is one of the prized possessions of Russia. Really, it belongs to the culture of the world. To visit the Hermitage, as I did, two hours one day and two hours another day, is to sense what you miss. Here is a place to spend cherished hours, a few each day, to absorb the splendours — two of the world’s 14 Da Vincis, a sculpture by Michelangelo, numerous Titians, the largest collection of Rembrandts anywhere. There are Spanish art. French art, Dutch art, German art; treasures of Peter the Great, trophies of Russian victories at war.
In America, art museums in Philadelphia, New York, Washington, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco — any of the large cities — have examples of some of the old masters. Perhaps, if the treasures of these museums were grouped together, they might approach the munificence of the Hermitage. But the riches of the Hermitage would dwarf any one of them. My strongest feeling as I left Leningrad was that I hadn’t done the Hermitage justice.
(from J. A. Livingston, American journalist)
When you go to a museum, don’t call it an excursion. Call it a visit. An excursion is a short journey, a pleasant trip, a ramble to the country, to the seaside or to the mountains, made by a number of people, and has nothing to do with museums.
possession — собственность • власність
to absorb — впитывать, поглощать • всотувати, поглинати
splendour — блеск, великолепие, пышность • блиск, пишність
treasure — сокровище • скарб
trophy — добыча, трофей • здобич, трофей
munificence — щедрость • щедрість
to dwarf — создавать впечатление меньшего размера • створювати враження меншого розміру
A Deal Of Paint
I am a painter. I like painting more than anything else, except obvious things like food and drink, that all sensible people like. As a painter, I have quite a lot of talent — I’m not sure yet how much — and a fairly complete mastery of most of the technical requirements; that is, I am an instinctive colourist, and my composition is interesting.
I have my difficulties, but who does not? I get on fairly well with people, and I ought to be quite as successful as a dozen other painters — but I am not. I never have been since my very first one-man show, when I was discovered by the critics, taken up — and very quickly put down again — and sold out.
«Sold out» is the just phrase. I was twenty-two after that show. Apart from quite a lot of money, the way I understand it, I had one oil painting left, three drawings, and very little common sense, my most valuable remaining possession. The common sense prevented me from believing what the critics said and considering myself a genius, and not only a genius but a painter who would always be able to live by painting exactly what he wanted to paint when he wanted to paint it.
I did, however, think that I could probably afford to marry Leila, rent my own studio, and stop being a student.
But I have never had another show which sold like that first one, although I am a better painter than I was then. My work is as contemporary as any; of course it is how can anyone intelligent and honest paint behind his time, deliberately or by accident? By more and more critics support what is called Action Painting and Other Art, when a painter is trying to be as different from anyone else as he can. Anyway, it has been clear ever since that first sell-out show that I have an old way of seeing things and am really an academic.
My second show went fairly well because Other Art had not then got very far. But ever since... Not that I don’t sell a certain amount privately. I do. To the uneducated and even the halfeducated my work seems to give a good deal of pleasure.
However, in the last two years things have got very tight. We can’t pay the quarter’s rent and we can’t afford not to, so something had to be done. So my applying for a most unpleasant job which my uncle could give me. I got it. Start next Monday...
When I got back from the interview, Leila was sitting in the studio, which she seldom does, as it was a working-room entirely. She said, «Hi, Bill. You’ll never guess what’s happened.»
I thought it was something awful because she hadn’t even asked me about the job. I said, «What?»
«Garrard came — just before lunch.» Garrard is my dealer, and I’d been trying to get him to come and look at my work and arrange for a show for the last year. Dealers!
I sat down and asked Leila what he wanted.
«He came because there’s Mrs. Spencer Thompson who’s interested in having you paint a small portrait of her daughter. She’s American and very rich and she wants you to paint it.»
«Very nice of her. She must have seen one of the early portraits. Did you make Garrard look at the work? Did he say anything about a show?»
Leila went bright pink and opened her eyes much too wide as she does when she’s surprised. She said, «It’s the most extraordinary thing. It’s really awfully funny, I suppose, but I think you’ll be furious. I was just cleaning up in here a bit as you were out.»
I said, «I wish you wouldn’t. The still life on the easel’s wet — it doesn’t want a lot of dust sticking to the surface.»
This is what I always say when Leila cleans the studio, and while I was saying it I looked round for the first time. The studio has a parquet floor, and to protect it I have a large piece of hardboard in front of my easel to catch the worst drips of paint.
Now the piece was on the easel and my still life was leaning against the wall.
I said, «Good God! What on earth? Leila!» and jumped up to take it off the easel and throw it on the floor again and make sure my «Jars in a Window » — which was coming along rather well — was all right.
Leila jumped up too and stood between me and the easel.
«Bill, listen a minute. It’s Garrard. Not me. Of course I wouldn’t.»
«Garrard? What do you mean?»
«He was looking at the pictures explaining how the gallery was booked up for a year and how he couldn’t really promise you a show till next year and saying, «Mm,» to each picture instead of «Ah,» like he does when he likes them, and suddenly he saw the hardboard leaning against the wall...»
«What was it doing there?»
«I told you, I was cleaning. I’d picked it up to sweep underneath it» He said, «Ah,» at once, and then he stepped back and said, «Ah ha!» with his head on one side.
And then he turned to me and said, «Leila, my dear, I’m very glad to have this opportunity to talk to you with Bill not here. I thought — I felt — that there must be something like this. Tell me — why is he holding out on us?»
I saw it all, but I couldn’t really believe it.
«He didn’t really think it was an abstract?»
«He did. He not only thought it was an abstract, he thought it was wonderful. He said he’d always known you had it in you, as soon as you caught up withcontemporary thought. That was why he’d never worried you, and always tried to help us keep going. You can’t hurry genius. And he’d know you were that ever since he gave you your first show.»
We rocked with laughter. I moved to take the board off the easel again.
Leila held my arm. «Listen, Bill. He wants to buy it.»
«Buy it. Didn’t you tell him?»
She opened her eyes again. «No, I didn’t. I couldn’t really. I suppose I should have, but it would have made him look too silly. He’d have hated us for ever after. I just said I didn’t think you’d sell it.»
«I sure won’t. It’s too absurd.»
She began to dance, quoting Garrard. «And now Leila, my dear, show me the rest. Is there enough for a full show? When did this start?»
«Yes, I tell you. So I said — I’m sorry, Bill, but I couldn’t think what to do — that you did not want to talk about them and had told me not to let anyone see them, but I’d tell you what he said.»
«He said, ‘I’ll ring him up this afternoon. Leila, my dear, I must go now, but I want you to know how splendid, how really splendid, this development is in your husband’s work, I’m sure you do know, because you’re one of the intelligent wives. Tell me, how many paintings are there?»’
«I said I didn’t know. And he sighed and said, ‘Ah, well. He ought to be able to manage a show next spring at the latest. Tell him I’ll be ringing him, and tell him not to waste time with the portrait. It’s not worth his while. And this one — if he wants to part with it, I’ll buy it myself. That’ll show him what I think of the new work.’ That’s absolutely accurate word for word reporting, Bill. I’ve been sitting here going over it to make sure I wasn’t mad or anything.»
We were both quite silent and serious for a minute as we thought about it. I stood in front of the easel and looked at the board carefully.
I remembered that I’d been reading something about Action Painting in America at breakfast yesterday and when I came in to the studio I was, I thought, in the necessary emotional condition, it was anger and a sort of despair.
So I threw a lump of crimson, the colour of anger, down on to the board. And then I threw down a lump of lemon chrome and stamped on it.
And then I was ashamed of myself for being so childish, and anyway that is not the way one wastes good paint, which is expensive. So I went on with my «Jars in a Window,’’ feeling tired and sad.
But you see, it meant that the board on the floor wasn’t entirely an accident. Some kind of emotional purpose had gone into it. Which is what the action painters claim. And perhaps Garrard had felt it — perhaps it does communicate...
Leila doesn’t know about this.
So now whay shall I do? What a thing to find lying in wait for you on your return from taking a white-collar job at eleven pounds a week. Because this board is big, forty inches by fifty. Even at my present prices, I shouldn’t sell for under three hundred, Garrard knows that. I could probably get four out of him. And I can’t paint him thirty more for an exhibition.
I could, of course. I could paint six by this evening and show them to him tomorrow.
And they might be very interesting surprising if they conveyed the mixture of emotions I feel at this moment.
(from Elisabeth Ayrton)
obvious — очевидный • очевидний
sensible — разумный • розумний
colourist — художник-колорист • художник-кольорист
to get on fairly well (with) — ладить довольно хорошо (с) • доволі добре ладити (з)
sold out — распродан • розпроданий
just — здесь: справедливый • тут: справедливий
apart from — помимо • попри
common sense — здравый смысл • здоровий глузд
to prevent (from) — мешать • заважати
genius — гений • геній
(can) afford — (быть в состоянии) позволить себе • (бути спроможними) дозволити собі
to rent — брать в аренду • брати в оренду, орендувати
contemporary — современный • сучасний
deliberately — умышленно • навмисно
by accident — случайно • випадкового
academic — художник-традиционалист • художник-традиціоналіст
certain amount — некоторое количество • деяка кількість
uneducated — необразованный • неосвічений
quarter’s rent — квартальная плата за квартиру • квартальна плата за квартиру
to apply for a job — обращаться за работой • звертатися по роботу
entirely — полностью • повністю
awful — ужасный • жахливий
dealer — посредник по продаже ч.-л. • посередник з продажу, дилер
to go pink — покраснеть • почервоніти
extraordinary — необычный • незвичайний
furious — взбешенный, яростный • роззлючений
easel — мольберт • мольберт
parquet — паркет • паркет
hardboard — картон • картон
drips of paint — капли краски • краплі фарби
to lean against — прислоняться к • притулятися до
underneath — внизу, под • внизу, під
to catch up (with) — догнать • догнати
rocked with laughter — покатались со смеху • зайтися сміхом
silly — глупый • дурний
absurd — нелепый • абсурдний
to quote — цитировать • цитувати
intelligent — умный • розумний
to manage a show — набрать достаточное количество картин для выставки • набрати достатню кількість картин для виставки
at the latest — самое позднее • найпізніше
to waste time — терять время • втрачати
to part with — расстаться с • розлучитися з
accurate — точный • точний
word for word reporting — дословный пересказ • дослівний переказ
go over smth. — размышлять о ч.-л. • роздумувати про щось
despair — отчаяние • відчай
lump of crimson — сгусток темно-красной краски • згусток темночервоної фарби
to stamp — растоптать, растереть • розтоптати, розтерти
to be ashamed of — стыдиться ч.-л. • соромитися чогось
to waste — портить, бесцельно растрачивать • псувати, марнувати
accident — случайность • випадковість
to claim — заявлять, утверждать • заявляти, стверджувати
to communicate — передавать(ся), сообщать(ся) • передавати, повідомляти
to convey — выражать, передавать • виражати, передавати
mixture of emotions — гамма чувств • гама почуттів
Give a summary of the facts of the story. Use as many words as possible from the text. In addition the following phrases may be helpful:
It’s interesting lo note; the main characters are; though the facts show; the point of the story is; it is obviously; there is no doubt; needless to say; on the whole; what is more; it strikes me that; I am inclined to believe that; as far as I am concerned; apparently; contrary to popular belief; in other words; in conclusion; to sum up.
Answer these comprehension questions:
1. What did the painter think about himself?
2. What was his short career as a painter like?
3. What did his common sense prevent him from thinking?
4. What could he afford to do after his first one-man show?
5. Why did nobody want to buy his works? Was there anything wrong with them?
6. Why did he have to apply for an ordinary job?
7. What news did Leila tell him?
8. Why did Bill get angry with Leila?
9. What painting appeared to Garrard best of all? Why?
10. What was Garrard planning to do for Bill? Why did he now make up his mind about the show for Bill?
11. Did Bill think there was something in Abstract Painting? Did he think that his hardboard conveyed some of his emotions?
12. Do you think Bill will paint more pictures for an abstract show?
1) Reproduce the episodes (or situations) in which the following words or phrases are used.
2) Use some of these phrases in sentences or situations of your own.
To get on fairly well with people; sold out; common sense; can afford to do smth.; contemporary; an academic; to apply for a job; to guess; to go pink; to clean up; to look silly; an intelligent wife; to waste time; to be ashamed of oneself; by accident; to convey the mixture of emotions; a certain ammount; to rock with laughter; to lean against; to give a good deal of pleasure; to stick to the surface; a white-collar job.
Find facts from the story to support these statements.
1. Bill was a talented painter.
2. Garrard was an experienced dealer.
3. Leila was a good wife.
4. Abstract Art may convey emotions.
Describe these episodes. Make use of words or phrases from the text wherever possible.
1. Leila tells Bill the news.
2. Garrard notices the kind of painting he appreciates.
3. Garrard leaves a message with Leila to be passed on to Bill.
4. Bill makes his first attempt at self-expression in Abstract Art.
Discuss these statements or express your opinion on them. The following phrases may be helpful:
In my assessment...
The way I see it...
It’s not as simple as all that...
I don’t want to be biased...
He is deserved...
There was more luck than talent in Bill’s success.
Bill will paint more and more abstracts for Garrard and waste his talent.
Abstract art may have a great future. It is not just a fashionable trend that will soon pass.
Art for Heart’s Sake
«Here, take your juice,» said Koppel, Mr. Ellsworth’s servant and nurse.
«No,» said Collis P. Ellsworth.
«But it’s good for you, sir!»
«The doctor insists on it.»
Koppel heard the front door bell and was. glad to leave the room. He found Doctor Caswell in the hall downstairs.
«I can’t do a thing with him,» he told the doctor. «He doesn’t want to take his juice. I can’t persuade him to take his medicine. He doesn’t want me to read to him. He hates TV. He doesn’t like anything!»
Doctor Caswell took the information with his usual professional calm. This was not an ordinary case. The old gentleman was in pretty good health for a man of seventy. But it was necessary to keep him from buying things. His financial transactions always ended in failure, which was bad for his health.
But the old man hated it when somebody interfered in his affairs and ordered him to do things.
«How are you this morning? Feeling better?» asked the doctor. «I hear you haven’t been obeying my orders.»
«Who is giving me orders at my time of life? Am I to ask for permission every time I want to do something? Am I to be punished for disobedience?» The doctor drew up a chair and sat down close to the old man. He had to do his duty.
«I’d like to make a suggestion,» he said quietly. He didn’t want to argue with the old man.
Old Ellsworth looked at him over his glasses. The way Doctor Caswell said it made him suspicious.
«What is it, more medicine, more automobile rides to keep me away from the office?» the old man asked with suspicion.
«Not at all,» said the doctor. «I’ve been thinking of something different. As a matter of fact I’d like to suggest that you should take up art.»
«But still... I don’t mean seriously of course,» said the doctor, glad that his suggestion had been taken calmly enough. «Just try. You’ll like it.»
Much to his surprise the old man agreed. He only asked who was going to teach him drawing.
«I’ve thought of that too,» said the doctor. «I know a student from an art school who can come round once a week. If you don’t like it, alter a little while you can throw him out.»
The person he had in mind and promised to bring over was a certain Frank Swain, eighteen years old and a capable student. Like most students he needed money. Doctor Caswell kept his promise. He got in touch with Frank Swain and lessons began. The old man liked it so much that when at the end of the first lesson Koppel came in and apologized to him for interrupting the lesson, as the old man needed a rest, Ellsworth looked disappointed.
When the art student came the following week, he saw a drawing on the table. It was a vase. But something was definitely wrong with it.
«Well, what do you think of it?» asked the old man stepping aside.
«I don’t mean to hurt you, sir, but, there is one thing I want to draw your attention to...,» began Swain.
«I see,» the old man interrupted, «the halves don’t match. I can’t say I am good at drawing.» He added a few lines with a shaky hand and painted the vase blue like a child playing with a picture book. Then he looked towards the door.
«Listen, young man,» he whispered. «I want to ask you something before old Juice comes again. I don’t want to speak in his presence.» «Yes, sir,» said Swain with respect.
«I’ve been thinking... Could you afford the time to come twice a week or perhaps three times?»
«Sure, Mr. Ellsworth,» the student said respectfully. «When shall I come?»
They arranged to meet on Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
As the weeks went by, Swain’s visits grew more frequent. The old man drank his juice obediently. Doctor Caswell hoped that business had been forgotten forever.
When spring came, Ellsworth painted a picture which he called Trees Dressed in White. The picture was awful. The trees in the picture looked like salad thrown up against the wall. Then he announced that he was going to display it at the Summer Show at the Lathrop Gallery. Doctor Caswell and Swain didn’t believe it. They thought the old man was joking.
The Summer Show at the Lathrop Gallery was the biggest exhibition of the year. All outstanding artists in the United States dreamt of winning a Lathrop prize.
«We’ve got to stop him. It’s our duty,» said Koppel. He insisted that they should do something about it.
«No,» said the doctor. «We can’t interfere with his plans now and spoil all the good work we’ve done. Besides I can’t order that he should take the picture back.»
To the astonishment of all three Trees Dressed in White was accepted for the Show.
Young Swain went to the exhibition one afternoon and blushed when he saw Trees Dressed in White hanging on the wall. As two visitors stopped in front of the strange picture, Swain rushed out. He was ashamed that a picture like that had been accepted for the show. He did not want to hear what they might say.
However Swain did not give up teaching the old man. Every time Koppel entered the room he found the old man painting something. Koppel even thought of hiding the brush from him. The old man seldom mentioned his picture and was unusually cheerful.
Two days before the close of the exhibition Ellsworth, received a letter. Koppel brought it when Swain and the doctor were in the room. «Read it to me,» asked the old man putting aside the brush he was holding in his hand. «My eyes are tired from painting.»
The letter said: «It gives the Lathrop Gallery pleasure to announce that Collis P. Ellsworth has been awarded the First Landscape Prize of ten thousand dollars for his painting Trees Dressed in White.»
Swain became dumb with astonishment. Koppel dropped the glass with juice he was about to give Ellsworth and did not bend to pick up the fragments. Doctor Caswell managed to keep calm. «Congratulations, Mr. Ellsworth,» said the doctor. «Fine, fine... Frankly, I didn’t expect that your picture would win the prize... Well... Anyway I’ve proved to you that art is more satisfying than business.»
«Art is nothing. I bought the Lathrop Gallery,» said the old man highly pleased with the effect of his deception.
(from R. Goldberg)
art for heart’s sake — искусство для души • мистецтво для душі
juice — сок • сік
servant — слуга • слуга
nurse — няня, нянька; медсестра, сиделка • няня; медсестра, доглядальниця
to be good (bad) for smb. — быть полезным (вредным) к.-л. • бути корисним (шкідливим) комусь
to insist (on smth.) — настаивать (на ч.-л.) • наполягати (на чомусь)
to insist that smb. should do smth. -настаивать на том, чтобы к.-л. сделал ч.-л. • наполягати на тому, щоб хтось щось зробив
to persuade smb. to do smth. — убедить к.-л. сделать ч.-л. • переконати когось щось зробити
medicine — лекарство • ліки
to take (a) medicine — принимать лекарство • пити ліки
ordinary — обычный, привычный • звичайний, звичний
case — случай (из врачебной или судебной практики) • випадок (з лікарської або юридичної практики)
to be in good (bad) health — иметь хорошее (плохое) здоровье • бути (не) при здоров'ї
pretty — довольно, в достаточной мере • доволі, достатньо
to keep smb. from doing smth. — удерживать к.-л. от совершения к.-л. действия, не давать (мешать) к.-л. делать ч.-л. • стримувати когось від здійснення чогось, перешкоджати комусь щось зробити
to end in failure — заканчиваться неудачей • завершитися невдачею
to interfere in smth. — вмешиваться во ч.-л. • втручатися у щось
to interfere with smb. (smth.) — мешать к.-л. (ч.-л.) • заважати комусь (чимсь)
affairs — дела (личные, международные и т. п.) • справи (особисті, міжнародні і под.)
to order smb. to do. smth. (to order that smb. should do smth.) — приказывать к.-л. делать ч.-л. • наказувати комусь щось робити
order — приказ • наказ
to obey smb. (smth.) — повиноваться, подчиняться к.-л.
(ч.-л.) • коритися комусь, чомусь permission — разрешение • дозвіл
to ask smb. for permission (to do smth.) — просить у к.-л. разрешения (сделать ч.-л.) • питати в когось дозволу (щось зробити)
to punish smb. (for smth.) — наказывать к.-л. (за ч.-л.) • карати когось (за щось)
(dis)obedient — (не)послушный • (не)слухняний close to smb. (smth.) — рядом с к.-л. (ч.-л.) • поруч з кимсь (чимсь)
duty — долг • обов’язок
to do one’s duty — выполнять (свой) долг • виконувати (свій) обов’язок
suggestion — предложение • пропозиція
to make a suggestion — делать (вносить) предложение, подавать мысль • вносити пропозицію, подавати думку
to suggest smth. — предлагать ч.-л. • пропонувати щось
to suggest that smb. should do smth. — предлагать, чтобы к.-л. сделал ч.-л. • пропонувати щоб хтось щось зробив
to argue with smb. about smth. — спорить с к.-л. о ч.-л. • сперечатися з кимсь про щось
the way smb. does smth. — то, как (способ, метод, которым к.-л. делает ч.-л.) • те, як (спосіб, метод, в який хтось щось робить)
to keep away from smb. (smth.) — держаться подальше от к.-л. (ч.-л.) • триматися якнайдалі від когось
to keep smb. (smth.) away from smb. (smth.) — держать (удерживать) к.-л. (ч.-л.) от к.-л. (ч.-л.) • стримувати когось (щось) від когось (чогось)
to take up art (drawing, etc.) — заняться искусством (рисованием и т. п.) • зайнятися мистецтвом (малюванням і под.)
still — тем не менее • тим не менше
to have smb. (smth.) in mind — иметь к.-л. (ч.-л.) в виду • мати когось (щось) на увазі
capable — способный • здібний
to keep one’s promise — сдержать (свое) обещание • дотримати (свого) слова
to get in touch with smb. — вступать в контакт (связываться) с к.-л. • нав’язати стосунки з кимсь (зв’язатися)
to apologize to smb. (for smth., for doing smth.)— извиняться перед к.-л. (за ч.-л.) • вибачатися перед кимсь (за щось)
to disappoint smb. — разочаровывать к.-л. • розчаровувати когось
to be disappointed — разочаровываться • розчаровуватися
something is wrong with... — с... что-то не в порядке (не так) • з... щось не до ладу (щось не так)
to step aside — отходить в сторону, сторониться • відходити вбік, сторонитися
to draw smb.’s attention to smb. (smth.) — привлекать ч.-л. внимание к к.-л. (ч.-л.) • привертати чиюсь увагу до чогось, когось
to be good at smth. (at doing smth.) — быть способным к ч.-л., умело выполнять ч.-л. • бути здібним до чогось, добре щось виконувати
to paint smth. blue (red, etc.) — красить ч.-л. в голубой (красный и т.п.) цвет • фарбувати щось у блакитний (червоний і под.) колір
in smb.’s presence — в ч.-л. присутствии • в чиїйсь присутності
to arrange to do smth.. — договариваться делать ч.-л. • домовлятися щось робити
frequent — частый • частий
obediently — послушно, покорно • слухняно, покірно
awful — ужасный • жахливий to announce — объявлять • оголосити, анонсувати
to display smth. — выставлять ч.-л. • виставляти щось
show, exhibition — выставка • виставка
to dream of smth. (of doing smth.) (dreamt, dreamt)— мечтать о ч.-л. (о том, чтобы...) • мріяти про щось (про те, щоб...)
to do smth. about it — принимать меры, действовать, делать ч.-н. (в отношении ч.-л.) • вживати заходи, діяти, робити щось (щодо чогось)
astonishment — изумление • подив to blush — краснеть (от стыда) • червоніти (від сорому)
to be ashamed that... — стыдиться того, что... • соромитися того, що...
to accept — принимать (не отвергать предлагаемого) • сприймати (не відкидати пропонованого)
to give up smth. (doing smth.) — бросать ч.-л., отказываться делать ч.-л. • кидати щось, відмовлятися щось робити
to hide — прятать (к.-л., ч.-л.); прятаться • ховати (щось, когось), ховатися
brush — кисть • пензель
to mention — упоминать о ч.-л. • згадувати про щось
cheerful — бодрый, веселый • бадьорий, веселий to award smb. with smth. — награждать к.-л. ч.-л. • нагороджувати когось чимсь
to drop smth. — ронять ч.-л. • падати, випадати
to be about to do smth. — собираться сделать ч.-л. • готуватися щось зробити
to bend (bent, bent) — наклоняться • нахилятися
to pick smth. up — подбирать (поднимать) ч.-л. • піднімати (підбирати) щось
to keep calm (silent, quiet, etc.) — сохранять спокойствие (хранить молчание, соблюдать тишину и т. п.) • зберігати спокій (мовчання, дотримуватися тиші і под.)
to prove smth. (to smb.) — доказывать ч.-л. (кому-либо) • доводити щось (комусь)
to prove to smb. that... — доказывать к.-л., что... • доводити комусь, що...
to be pleased (with smth.) — быть довольным (ч.-л.) • бути задоволеним (чимсь) deception — обман • обман
Answer the questions:
1. Why wasn’t Koppel satisfied with the behaviour of his patient?
2. Why wasn’t Ellsworth an ordinary case?
3. What was Frank Swain?
4. What proves that Ellsworth liked to be taught painting?
5. What picture did Ellsworth paint?
6. What happened two days before the close of the exhibition?
7. What did the letter received by Ellsworth say?
8. How did everybody react to the news that Ellsworth had got the prize?
9. Which of Ellsworth’s words show that Doctor Caswell hadn’t proved to the old man that art was more important than business?
For each sentence place the letter of the best meaning in the space provided:
1. Ellsworth was
a) seriously ill;
b) in pretty good health for his age;
c) in the pink;
d) as fit as a fiddle;
e) out of sorts;
f) not up to the mark.
2. Every time Koppel saw Doctor Caswell he said that the old man
a) was obedient;
b) was disobedient;
c) liked television;
d) hated television;
e) took medicine obediently;
f) didn’t want to take his medicine.
3. Doctor Caswell
a) always kept calm;
b) was impatient and rude;
c) was polite and patient;
d) didn’t like to argue;
e) was always quarrelling with his patients;
f) didn’t like his job.
4. All of Ellsworth’s transactions
a) ended in failure;
b) were bad for his health;
c) helped him a lot;
d) didn’t help him at all;
e) were of great importance for his health;
f) did him a lot of harm.
5. Ellsworth hated it when somebody
a) interfered with his affairs;
b) ordered him to do things;
c) kept him from buying things;
d) suggested things that kept him in the office;
e) suggested something that kept him away from his office;
f) interrupted him while he was doing something.
6. When the old man accepted the doctor’s suggestion, the doctor
a) was embarrassed;
b) was touched;
c) got angry;
d) was glad;
e) was very much surprised;
f) got excited.
7. When the first lesson was interrupted, the old man
a) was glad;
b) got angry;
c) felt sorry;
d) got frightened;
e) was disappointed;
f) was very pleased with it.
8. The old man painted a picture and announced that he wanted
a) to throw it away;
b) to tear it up;
c) to give it to Doctor Caswell;
d) to hang it in the office;
e) to display it at the Summer Show at the Gallery;
f) to present it to one of the museums;
g) to give it to one of his friends.
9. When doctor Caswell heard that the old man was going to send his picture to the show, he thought that the old man
a) was doing the right thing;
b) had gone mad;
c) was sure to get the prize;
d) was joking;
e) was saying a lie;
f) was making fun of him.