Розмовні теми частина 2 - Т. М. Гужва 2003

Mass Media
Texts

Read the texts, give a summary and discuss them.

Text 21-1

American Radio and Television

Mass media (that is the press, the radio and television) play an important part in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. «After all,» say American media men, «news is not what happens — it is what you see or read about in mass media.» In other words, mass media mould public opinion.

Millions of Americans in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers. The daily paper dominates family life at breakfast, TV dominates the life of the family most of the time. The TV set is not just a piece of furniture. It is someone who is «One of the family». It is also a habit forming drug impossible to resist. The radio is turned on most of the time, creating a permanent background noise. It does not interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while doing some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car.

On the radio one can hear music, plays, news, and various commentary and discussions called forums. At a forum several authorities exchange views on social, economic and political problems, as well as on books of common interest. A number of sides are repre sented so that the listeners can hear various opinions. Such broadcasts are popular with the listeners. A peculiar feature of the American radio is soap opera. It is a sentimental serial drama dealing with domestic problems and meant for housewives. Soap opera is usually broadcast every day. Most people find soap opera boring.

Various radio and TV games, such as a quiz programme on TV, also attract a large audience. During a radio panel-game listeners of the radio send questions to the studio to be answered by the members of the panel, who compete for the best results. During TV quiz programmes questions are answered by TV viewers.

There is a lot of advertising on American TV and radio. Some of the TV and radio stations are owned by big corporations or individuals. The owners can advertise whatever they choose. To advertise their goods commercial firms buy TV and radio time. So most of radio and TV time is taken up by advertisements. The firms also sponsor shows and programmes that make people buy their goods. For instance, to attend a show or to take part in a quiz programme you may have to send to the studio the required number of empty cartons, boxes or wrappings (depending on what product the sponsoring firm is selling). People are attracted by such programmes not only because they provide entertainment. A valuable prize is usually promised for the correct answer to the main question, such as a video or radio cassette-recorder or a stereo music centre. Americans are very optimistic. Their optimism makes them believe in luck and buy things which they may not need at all. The sponsoring firm makes a great profit on such programmes. The more people attend the show, the greater is the profit of the firm.

Advertising promotes business and benefits businessmen but often annoys the general public. The play you are watching on TV may be interrupted several times by an appeal to use a new perfume or detergent, or drink a certain kind of beer. Though Americans are used to everything being advertised, watching such programmes gives one a headache instead of providing relaxation. Sometimes the patience of the viewer snaps and he turns off the TV set without ever learning who murdered the innocent old lady, hijacked the plane, forged the cheques, poisoned the wife of the millionaire, kidnapped his daughter or committed some other crime. The viewer will never know if the police caught the burglar who robbed the bank or if the criminal escaped being punished.

To convince the viewer that a certain product is the best and to persuade him to buy it takes not only a lot of imagination but also a lot of time. The same advertisement is repeated dozens of times every day, which bores the viewers.

According to some critics the immense cultural possibilities of American mass media are used mainly for the purpose of selling people more things than they really need. Freedom of speech, as some critics declare, allows great commercial firms to pull the rest of the people down to their own intellectual level.

But it is hardly fair to say that American mass media do not try to raise the cultural-level of the people or to develop their artistic taste and with great professional skill. Radio and television bring into millions of homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and educational programmes. Radio stations broadcast about ten thousand hours of musical programmes weekly. Many programmes are made up almost entirely of classical music.

There is a lot of education both on the radio and on television. For instance, you can take a TV course in history, political economy, management, banking and in many other subjects, or learn a foreign language by radio. Educational TV firms and programmes are shown in schools and colleges as a part of the curriculum.

The opinion that all commercial programmes are of little artistic value can also be disputed.

to play an important part — играть важную роль • відігравати важливу роль

society — общество • суспільство

to entertain smb. — развлекать к.-л. • розважати когось

after all — в конечном счете, в конце концов • врешті решт

in other words — другими словами, иначе говоря • іншими словами, інакше кажучи

to mould [mould] public opinion — формировать общественное мнение • формувати громадську думку

to dominate smth. — занимать главенствующее положение где-либо • панувати в чомусь

to resist smb. (smth.) — сопротивляться, оказывать сопротивление к.-л. (ч.-л.) • опиратися, чинити опір комусь (чомусь)

peculiar — специфический, особый, не похожий на других • специфічний, особливий, не схожий на інших

feature — черта, особенность • риса, особливість

boring — скудный, навевающий скуку; надоедливый • нудний, набридливий; що навіює нудьгу

quiz programme — викторина • вікторина

panel — группа специалистов, собравшихся для обсуждения общественно важного вопроса • група фахівців, що зібралися для обговорення громадське важливого питання

to compete for smth. — соревноваться, бороться за получение ч.-л. • змагатися, боротися за одержання чогось

to own smth. — владеть ч.-л. (иметь собственность) • володіти чимось (мати власність)

to advertise — рекламировать ч.-л. • рекламувати щось  

commercial — торговый; содержащий рекламные объявления; финансируемый за счет рекламных объявлений (о телевидении и радио) • комерційний; що містить рекламні об’яви; що фінансується за рахунок рекламних оголошено (на радіо і телебаченні)

advertisement — реклама • реклама

cartons; wrappings — оберточный материал; всевозможные контейнеры из мягкого картона • обгортковий матеріал; контейнери з картону

to make a profit on smth. — получить прибыль из ч.-л. • одержувати прибуток від чогось

appeal [to do smth.] — призыв (сделать ч.-л.) • заклик (до чогось)

detergent — стиральный порошок • пральний порошок

to murder smb. — убивать к.-л. • мордувати когось

innocent — невинный • невинний

to hijack a plane — угонять самолет • уганяти літак

to forge smth. — подделывать ч.-л. • підробляти щось

to kidnap smb. — похищать ребенка • викрадати (захоплювати) дитину

to commit [a crime, murder, etc.] — совершить (преступление, убийство и т.п.) • вчинити (злочин, вбивство і под.)

burglar — грабитель, взломщик • грабіжник, ведмежатник

to rob a bank (a flat, etc.) — ограбить банк (квартиру и т.п.) • пограбувати банк (квартиру і под.)

to escape smth. [doing smth.] — избежать ч.-л.; бежать откуда-либо (из тюрьмы, плена) • уникнути чогось; втекти звідкилясь (із в’язниці, полону і под.)

to convince smb. of smth. [that...] — убедить к.-л. в ч.-л. (в том, что...) • переконати когось в чомусь (в тому, що...)

artistic taste — художественный вкус • художній смак

with [great] professional skill — с (большим) профессиональным мастерством • зі значною професійною майстерністю

to be of great artistic value — иметь большую художественную ценность • мати велику художню цінність

to dispute smth. — обсуждать ч.-л., ставить под сомнение, оспаривать ч.-л. • обговорювати щось, вагатися в чомусь

Text 21-2

The Tube

By far, the most popular leisure time activity is watching television. There is at least one TV set in 98% of American households, and many have two or three. Two thirds of homes also have a videocassette recorder (VCR), which is capable of recording and playing back sound and picture. Television satisfies many of the other interests that Americans enjoy — sports, news, music, theater, and movies. For those that are at home during the day, there is afternoon fare consisting of game shows and serialized dramas commonly called «soap operas. » (The opera part of the name comes from the complicated plots and incredible story lines. «Soap» comes from the fact that, in pre-television days, the sponsors of serialized radio dramas were sellers of soap and other products purchased by listeners.) For pre-school children, TV offers clever programmes that educate while entertaining. Saturday mornings are also for the children, who are «treated» to hours of animated cartoons. At dinnertime, the local and national news is broadcast for a half hour or an hour. Evening entertainment consists mostly of situation comedies (sitcoms) which portray some aspect of life (family, singles, elderly, and so forth) in a «humorous» way. Every other line of dialogue is expected to produce a laugh. In case it doesn’t, recorded laughter is provided. There are also adventure shows, dramas, and various weekly shows which have the same cast of characters and general theme but a different story each week.

The production of television programmes is dominated by three national networks. They are the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). These are privately owned companies that sell advertising time for a profit. Most television stations are affiliated with one of those networks, which provides programming to the member stations. As a result, programmes produced by a network are broadcast all over the nation. Another network, the Public Broadcasting System, is a non-commercial company funded by public and private grants. Much of the broadcasting on the network is without advertising. Because it does not depend on advertising for support, it can broadcast programmes that do not appeal to mass audiences, such as the plays of George Bernard Shaw or William Shakespeare, concerts, and in-depth discussions of news events.

For those that want more TV than the regular stations provide, cable TV is available in many parts of the country. To receive cable TV, one must pay a monthly subscription fee. Wires and a special tuner are attached to the TV set to enable the subscriber to receive the cable broadcasts. Cable stations tend to specialize in one type of programmes. There are stations for sports, movies, music videos, business, health, and the arts. Unlike commercial stations, programmes on cable TV are not usually interrupted for commercials.

Many people have criticized television programming. They complain that it does not challenge the intellect, shows too much violence, and appeals to the least educated of viewers in order to get the largest audience. To a great extent, these criticisms are correct. But there are also many excellent TV programmes available for people who are selective in their viewing.

Television has become the main source of information and entertainment for the average American. It is estimated that by the time a child reaches 18, he or she has spent almost twice as much time watching TV as in the classroom. Many people are concerned about TV’s influence. News is edited and condensed to fit into two or three minutes per event. Unrealistic family and social situations are portrayed, with all problems easily solved within a half hour, giving the young a distorted view of life. How has TV affected the young people who grew up watching it? Unquestionably, children learn a lot from TV shows, but not all of it is appropriate or positive. American concerns about the low level of many popular TV shows has led to TV’s insulting nickname, «the boob tube ». Moreover, many educators believe that today’s American students read and write less than students-of earlier generations because so much of their knowledge has come to them via TV and film rather than the printed word.

products purchased by listeners — продукция, покупаемая слушателями • продукція, що купується слухачами

in a humorous way — в юмористическом стиле • в гумористичному стилі

privately owned companies — частные компании • приватні компанії

to affiliate — присоединяться, устанавливать связи • приєднуватися, встановлювати зв’язки

cable TV — кабельное телевидение • кабельне телебачення

to attach to smth. — присоединяться к чему либо, прикрепляться) • приєднуватися до чогось

the main source of information and entertainment — основной источник информации и развлечения • головне джерело інформації та розваг

to estimate — оценивать, подсчитывать приблизительно • оцінювати, приблизно підраховувати

Text 21-3

Sound Broadcasting in Great Britain

The BBC operates four domestic sound broadcasting services from 59 transmitting stations, and two main groups of external broadcasting services from 37 high power, high frequency transmitters in the United Kingdom and from two (used for relay purposes) at Tebrau, near Singapore. Until recently, the domestic sound services were broadcast solely on long and medium wave-lengths, allocated to the United Kingdom under Copenhagen Agreement of 1948, which aimed at minimising interference between the broadcasting stations of the participating countries. However, the growth in the number of European broadcasting stations after that date (there are now twice as many as in 1948) so diminished the effectiveness of the Agreement that, in 1955, the BBC began to establish a network of very high frequency (VHF) transmitters. By 1958, fifteen permanent VHFtransmitting stations had been built and put into operation and the VHF service is now available to some 93 per cent of the population. The VHF stations broadcast the Home Service appropriate to the region in which they are situated, as well as the Light Programme, the Third Programme and Network Three, and for all these services greatly improved reception is assured. Seven more such stations have been approved by the Postmaster General.

There are 157 studios for the domestic sound programmes, of which 61 are in London and 96 at various centres in the regional areas. The external services use 32 London studios. There are also semi-automatic studios which can be operated in 14 different centres in the United Kingdom by a programme official without the attendance of an engineer.

external — внешний, иностранный • зовнішній, іноземний

solely — единственно; только, исключительно • тільки, виключно

to allocate to — размещать в, распределять, назначать • розміщати в, розподіляти, призначати

to diminish — уменыиать(ся), убавлять(ся); ослабевать; унижать • зменшувати(ся), слабнути; принижувати

available — доступный; имеющийся в распоряжении • доступний; що є у розпорядженні

to appropriate to (for) — подходящий, соответствующий, свойственный • що підходить, відповідний, властивий

to assure — гарантировать, обеспечивать • гарантувати, забезпечувати

to approve — одобрить, утверждать, санкционировать • схвалювати, затверджувати, санкціонувати

Text 21-4

Domestic Services

The domestic sound seivices, which produce over 20,000 programme hours a year, are designed to cater for the varying tastes of a diverse listening public. They consist of the Home Service, the Light Programme, the Third Programme, and Network Three.

The Home Service, which occupies some 18 hours a day, is planned to serve the broad middle section of the community. It provides a wide range of musical programmes (with particular emphasis on the great standard works of music) and plays (including the classics and contemporary drama). The principal news and information programmes, discussions on domestic and foreign affairs, party political broadcasts, special programmes for children and young people (e.g. «Children’s Hour,» and «Broadcasts for Schools»), religious programmes, and «outside broadcasts» (which take the listener to national occasions and sporting events) are also produced on the Home Service. In addition the Home Service is the vehicle for regional broadcasting, which is the genetic term for programmes specially complied for listeners in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, the north of England, the Midlands and the west of England. All these services carry items from the basic Home Service, together with programmes produced within the region; the Welsh Service also broadcasts a daily bilingual programme.

The Light Programme, which occupies some 18 hours a day, is intended for those who wish to enjoy relaxation and distraction in the least demanding form. Entertainment programmes are the main feature; they include light music and dance music as well as variety programmes, short plays, programmes for women and children (e. g. «Woman’s Houк" and «Listen with Mother") and regular news summaries and bulletins. There are also frequent «outside broadcasts» on the Light Programme, and commentaries on sport.

The Third Programme, which normally occupies three hours in the evening (five on Saturdays and Sundays) is planned for minority audiences. The range, style and presentation of the programmes, which include music, drama, talks and features, are intended to satisfy listeners’ intellectual maturity and cultural interests. The programme claims on the one hand to be contemporary and forwardlooking, and on the other to represent the artistic achievements of the past; it has an international flavour in that many of the plays presented are translations of European drama or are by American authors, and many of the talks are about foreign political thought and cultural activities in countries overseas.

Network Three, which occupies between one and two hours on weekday evenings, provides programmes of specialized interest, mainly programmes of the spoken word. It is intended as a means of meeting the practical need (e.g., for further education, learning a foreign language, or acquiring expert information on various aspects of hobbies or work) of groups of people, which cannot properly be met during the evening hours by the other services.

Each of the domestic sound services has its own characteristics, but the Home Service and the Light Programme are planned together and are sometimes synchronized for a part of the day, while the Third Programme is coordinated with the other two, so far as is practicable, to ensure the widest possible choice of programmes for listeners.

(from «Britain: an Official Handbook»)

to cater (for) — обслуживать зрителя, посетителя (о театрах и т. п.); стараться доставлять удовольствие • обслуговувати глядача, відвідувача (про театри і под.); старатися надавати задоволення

diverse listening public — разнообразные слушатели • різноманітна слухацька аудиторія

The Home Service Programme — главная программа, первая программа, транслирующая основные внутренние и политические новости, музыкальные программы, пьесы, программы для детей, программы религиозного содержания • головна програма, перша програма, що транслює основні внутрішні та політичні новини, музичні програми для дітей, релігійні програми

to comply — уступать, соглашаться; исполнять (просьбу), подчиняться • погоджуватися, виконувати (прохання), підпорядковуватися

bilingual — двуязычный; говорящий на двух языках • двомовний, білінгвальний

The Light Programme — легкая программа или вторая программа • легка програма або друга програма

distraction — развлечение; отвлечение внимания • розвага; відволікання уваги

news summary — сводка новостей • блок новин

The Third Programme — третья программа, транслирующая классическую музыку, театральные представления и политические очерки • третя програма, яка транслює класичну музику, театральні п’єси і політичні нариси

minority — меньшинство; меньшее число, меньшая часть • меншість; менша частина

to intend — намереваться, иметь в виду, предназначать; значить, подразумевать • мати намір, мати на увазі, скеровувати

to satisfy — удовлетворять, соответствовать, отвечать (требованиям) • задовольняти, відповідати (вимогам)

intellectual maturity — зрелость ума • зрілість розуму

to claim — требовать; претендовать; заявлять права на ч.-л.; утверждать • вимагати; претендувати; заявляти права на щось; затверджувати

flavour — привкус, особенность; аромат, запах • присмак, особливість; аромат, запах

Network Three — радиопрограмма, транслирующая различные обучающие программы • радіопрограма, що транслює різноманітні навчальні програми

to synchronize — синхронизировать; совпадать по времени • синхронізувати; співпадати в часі

practicable — осуществимый, реальный; полезный, могущий быть использованным, настоящий • здійсненний, реальний; корисний, що може бути використаний

to ensure — обеспечивать, гарантировать • забезпечувати, гарантувати

Text 21-5

Television Broadcasting in Great Britain

In 1936, the BBC launched the world’s first public television service. By 1958, this service was being transmitted from 20 stations and was available to over 98 per cent of the population.

The BBC television service broadcasts a maximum of 50 hours of programmes a week, with permitted extensions (averaging 10 hours) for outside and other broadcasts of a special character. In the course of a year, the service broadcasts more than 7,000 items on a national network, made up of studio productions, outside broadcasts, films, and relays from the continent of Europe.

BBC studio productions come from the London Television Theatre at Shepherd’s Bush; eight main London studios; and fully equipped regional studios at Manchester, Birmingham, Cardiff, Glasgow, Bristol and Belfast. In addition, eight small interview studios (used mainly for short insertions into the news) have been established in London, Scotland, Wales, and in the north, midland and west of England regions. The Television Film Department of the BBC is housed at the Ealing film studios; and Television News and newsreel programmes originate from a specially equipped studio at Alexandra Palace, London. The studios at the Television Centre in London (which has been specifically designed for television purposes) starts coming into use in 1961.

Outside broadcasting (which during the year 1957—1958 transmitted nearly 1,000 programmes, providing about 18 per cent of the total BBC television output) covers most parts of the United Kingdom with its mobile units, presenting programmes both of national and of specifically regional interest, and also brings scenes of events in Europe to viewers in the United Kingdom.

The first regular independent television (ITV) service was inaugurated in September 1955, by a programme transmission from the ІТА London station at Beaulieu Heights, Croydon. By 1958, programmes were being transmitted for 50 hours a week, with permitted extensions averaging a further 10 hours a week, from 7 stations in all parts of Great Britain, and approximately three- quarters of the total number of homes with television sets were able to receive ITV.

ITV programmes are produced at modem studio centres in London, Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, Cardiff, Southampton and Newcastle. The establishment of these studios is the direct result of the ITA’s policy of encouraging the casting or for transmission to one or more of the other regions through the link system operated by the Authority.

Generally speaking, both the BBC and the ITV services provide programmes of music, drama, light entertainment, variety, and films. Broadcasts for schools are produced on five days in the week both by the BBC and by Associated-Rediifusion Ltd. under contract with the ITA. Religious broadcasting is also a feature of both services, as are programmes on the arts, children’s and family programmes, interviews with outstanding personalities, investigations into matters of public interest, news reports covering international, national, and local events, and outside broadcasts, mainly of sport.

Advertising is altogether excluded from the television programmes of the BBC, as from their sound programmes. The ITA broadcasts advertisements (on which the programme companies depend for their revenue) subject to the relevant provisions in the Television Act, namely, that there should be no sponsoring of programmes by advertisers, that all advertisements should be clearly distinguishable as such and recognizably separate from the rest of the programme, and that the amount of time given to advertising should not be so great as to detract from the value of the programmes as a medium of entertainment, instruction and information. The ITA has also agreed rules with the Postmaster General about certain classes of broadcasts (including, in particular, religious services) in which advertisements may not be inserted and, on the advice of the Advertising Advisory Committee, has drawn up certain «principles for television advertising» with a view to the exclusion of misleading advertisements from the programmes broadcast by the Authority. The cost of inserting advertisements in the ITA service is borne by the advertisers, who pay the programme companies for advertising time.

(from «Britain: an Official Handbook»)

to launch — начинать; пускать в ход, предпринимать, запускать • починати; пускати вхід, застосовувати, запускати

extension — протяжение, распространение; удлиннение • протяжність, розповсюдження; подовження

to inaugurate — открывать (памятник, выставку, и т. д.); начинать • відкривати (пам’ятник, виставку і под.); починати

ITA (Independent Television Authority) — телевизионная компания, конкурирующая с Би-Би-Си • телекомпанія, конкурент Бі-Бі-Сі

approximately — приблизительно; почти • приблизно; майже

Associated-Rediffusion Ltd. — радиокомпания, занимающаяся трансляцией передач из центра • радіокомпанія, що транслює передачі з центру

outstanding personalities — выдающиеся личности • видатні особистості

investigation — расследование, следствие; (научное) исследование • розслідування, слідство; (наукове) дослідження

to exclude (from) — исключать; не выпускать, не допускать (возможности т.д.) • виключати; не випускати, не допускати (можливості і под)

advertisement — объявление, реклама, анонс • оголошення, реклама, анонс

revenue — годовой доход • річний доход

relevant — уместный, относящийся к делу • доречний, що стосується справи

amount — количество • кількість

to detract — умалять, уменьшать; порочить, клеветать • зменшувати; ганити, зводити наклеп

Advertising Advisory Committee — совет по вопросам рекламы • рада з питань реклами

Text 21-6

TV — A Child’s Friend or Enemy?

Much can be said in favour of television because of the fact that it is a medium for transmitting information. This means that it can both entertain and educate a child, helping him to accumulate knowledge and learn about the world, while keeping him amused. Television is also undoubtedly a convenient option for many busy mothers, acting as a «babysitter» much of the time while they get on with everyday chores.

On the other hand, much of what is shown on television is unsuitable for younger children, painting a misleading picture of life which includes murder, bad language and unnecessary violence. This can have a harmful effect on a child’s perception of events, meaning that he will become accustomed to such behaviour and see nothing wrong with it.

Television can also have the effect of turning a child into a zombie, who will have difficulty relating to other people after spending long hours sitting uncommunicatiVely in front of moving images.

(From Virginia Evans and Jenny Dooley)

to accumulate — аккумулировать, накоплять • акумулювати, накопичувати

option — выбор, альтернатива, вариант • вибір, альтернатива, варіант

chores — рутинная, домашняя работа • рутинна, хатня робота

misleading — вводящий в заблуждение, обманчивый • що вводить в оману, обманливий, облудний

perception — восприятие, ощущение • сприйняття, відчуття

Text 21-7

One Day’s Radio and Television

My wife had to stay in bed for a week recently because of a strained back. She had both television and radio to entertain her, and as I never have time to look at more than an hour’s programme a day, or to listen for even less than that to the radio, she gave me her impressions of a typical day’s output.

There are four radio programmes, two of them beginning with a news bulletin at 5:30 a.m. and ending with news at 2 a.m. next day, but as both these two programmes contain so much light music of the type she doesn’t like, my wife depended on the other two for news bulletins.

Even before she took to her bed she had been listening to radio more and more because, she said, the news programmes seem to be «more closely argued» than on television, although very often the same expert commentators are used. Perhaps it is an advantage to trust to the words, after all, and do without the face of the newsreader and the people who are interviewed?     -

Every day at 1 p.m. on the radio, for instance, William Hardcastle interviews people involved in the news — sailors or experts, for example, who were concerned with the oil tanker which was aground near Southampton, and which we were all afraid might pollute much of our south coast through leaking oil. At 5 p.m. there is «a more gossipy news programme,» and both these programmes seem to say more, somehow, than the television news bulletins.

The good news programmes begin very early, at times when men are shaving in the morning; they already quote from the morning papers, especially when they disagree with each other about important items of news, and sometimes there are «live» contributions from BBC correspondents «on the spot,» in Egypt and Israel perhaps, in Canada or the United States.

It is impossible even to list all the educational programmes during school hours, the children’s programmes just after school, or the plays and dramatized versions of novels which are to be heard every day. On the day we chose as typical, my wife picked out three other programmes as particularly interesting, a report from Montreal on the reasons for unrest in Quebec, a Mozart performance by the Vienna Baroque Ensemble, and the famous «Any Questions?»

In this a team of distinguished people from all walks of life — politics, the stage, literature, science, industry, etc., visit a different town each week and answer questions sent up by the audience who come to hear them. About two-thirds of these usually concern current affairs, and the others are about more personal matters such as «Should a wife and husband pool all their earnings?»

Listeners to this programme send in their comments by letter, and a selection of these is broadcast a few days later in a programme called «Any Answers?» The main subject that week was the government’s new financial measures, and the letters expressed very strong opinions indeed, both against and in favour.

Television morning programmes, like radio programmes, are mainly educational, but I was told I ought to watch, some time, a children’s puppet programme in the afternoon — « The Magic Roundabout' — clever and amusing!

Most of the older men in Britain, however (as well as some of their wives) would have switched at 8 p.m. to another programme — we have three channels to choose from — the weekly serial called « Dad’s Army,» a comedy series which recaptures the life of the Home Guard, the army of half-trained civilians, middle-aged or elderly, who volunteered in 1940 to defend all the coasts and strategic crossroads of these islands against possible invasion by Hitler’s paratroops while our fully trained armies were deeply engaged elsewhere. Personally I am often sorry that «Dad’s Army" and the literary quiz are put on at the same time.

The other fascinating programme of the same evening was the weekly «Tomorrow’s World," a science feature which deals with new inventions. There was the oxygen mask which in big aircraft, in future, will automatically drop into the lap of a passenger so that he can survive if a hijacker has punctured the fuselage; a new speedboat with a device to keep the nose down; and something about very low- level parachute dropping.

Later there was a serialisation of Zola’s novel «Nam" (in English) and on the Other BBC wavelength something quite exceptional — a transmission from Paris of a French feature about Louis XIV, made with real historical detail and no «Hollywood» glamour. This programme ended the evening, for once, with the news in French, from Paris, while the other closed at midnight with the customary late bulletin.

strained back — растяжение в области спины • розтяг в області спини

to be concerned — заниматься, касаться, иметь отношение • займатися, стосуватися, мати стосунок

to pollute — загрязнять, осквернять, развращать • забруднювати, оскверняти, розбещувати

gossipy — болтливый; любящий посплетничать; пустой; праздный (о болтовне) • говіркий; що любить пліткувати; пустий; легковажний (про базікання)

dramatized versions of novels — драматизированные инсценировки романов • драматизовані інсценування романів

serial — многосерийный телевизионный фильм, сериал • багатосерійний телевізійний фільм, серіал

to recapture — брать обратно • забирати назад

to volunteer — предлагать свою помощь (услуги); вызываться добровольцем; поступить добровольцем на военную службу • пропонувати свою допомогу (послуги); йти добровільно; прийти добровольцем на військову службу

invasion — вторжение, нашествие, набег; посягательство • вторгнення, напад, набіг

paratroops — парашютные части • парашутно-десантні частини

literary quiz — литературная викторина • літературна вікторина

fascinating — обворожительный, очаровательный, пленительный • заворожу вальний у чарівливий

invention — открытие, изобретение • відкриття, винахід

oxygen mask — кислородная маска • киснева маска

to survive — пережить, выдержать, перенести; остаться в живых; продолжать существовать; уцелеть • пережити, витримати, перенести; залишитися живим; продовжувати існувати; вціліти

hijacker — налетчик, бандит • розбійник, бандит, нападник

to puncture — прокалывать, пробить отверстие; получить прокол • проколювати, пробити отвір; одержати прокол

fuselage — фюзеляж • фюзеляж customary — привычный • звичний

Text 21-8

a) American Press

World’s largest cooperative new’s agency (organized as Harbor News Association, New York City, 1848) reorganized as Associated Press, 1900.

In order to obtain European news as soon as possible, competing New York newspapers in the early 1800s sent out reporters in rowboats to meet incoming ships ofT shore. The reporters relayed news items to their home office in Manhattan. In 1848 six major New York newspapers decided to form one reportial chain, the Harbor News Association.

The group was reorganized in 1857 under the name of the New York Associated Press (AP) and as such instituted a system of sending pooled news to papers in other cities who reciprocated by dispatching news back from their own localities. From this was developed news federation consisting of the New York Associated Press, The Western Associated Press, the New England Associated Press and the Southern Associated Press.

In 1885, charging restrictions on the flow of news in favour of New York papers, the Western Associated Press withdrew from the federation and, in 1892, reorganized under the name of the Associated Press of Illinois. This new association successfully challenged the supremacy of the New York AP.

The Associated Press of Illinois consolidated its position by signing exchange contract with world news networks that had sprung up in Europe — «Reuters» of London, «Havas» of Paris and «Wolff» of Berlin. In 1900 the AP of Illinois incorporated in New York and thereafter became known simply as the Associated Press.

Under the management of «Melville Stone» from 1893 to 1921, the AP grew into a solidly established national news gathering cooperative, owned by its member publishers and making no profits. In competition with other news agencies — notably UP (United Press) and INS (International News Service), which later merged with UP to form UPI (United Press International) — the Associated Press has become the world’s largest news service, supplying some 4,600 newspapers and radio and television stations in the US. In addition, 4,500 newspapers, periodicals and broadcasting stations in over 100 foreign countries use AP news and AP news pictures.

Mark Twain once said: «There are only two forces that can carry light to all corners of the globe — the sun in the heavens and the Associated Press.»

(from «Family Encyclopedia of American History»)

b) For Your Information

The first American newspaper was called «Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic. "This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. In 1704, the «Boston News-Letter» was started. This was the first regularly published newspaper in the American Colonies.

The English word «newspaper» does not really describe everything that you can read in this kind of publication. In addition to stories about recent events (news), newspapers also include opinions, advertising, and other non-news items.

Newspapers in the US are protected by the «Freedom of the Press» clause of the First Amendment to the US Constitution, the basic laws of the United States. This amendment guarantees that the government will not interfere with the right of newspapers to print truthful statements.

There are about 2,600 newspapers published in the US About 1,800 of these are daily papers. The «New York Times», the «Washington Posf’, and the «Los Angeles Times» are three of the most important daily papers for foreign and domestic news.

(from «Family Album, » USA, «Teleplays » by Alvin Cooperman and George Lefferts)

row-boat — гребная лодка; гребная шлюпка • веслувальний човен

Manhattan — Манхэттен. • Мангеттен

to reciprocate — оплачивать; иметь возвратно-поступательное движение • оплачувати; мати зворотно-поступальний рух

dispatch — отправление, отправка (курьера, почты) • відправлення (кур’єра пошти)

restriction — ограничение • обмеження

Illinois — Иллинойс • Іллінойс

to challenge — бросать вызов • кидати виклик

to consolidate one’s position — укреплять ч.-л. положение • зміцнювати чиєсь становище

to sign a contract — подписывать контракт • підписувати контракт

to spring up — внезапно вырастать, появляться • раптово з’являтися

to own — владеть, обладать • володіти

to make no profits — не приносить доходов • не приносити доходів

to merge with... — сливаться с..., соединяться с... • зливатися з..., з’єднуватися з...

to carry light to all corners of the globe — освещать все уголки мира • висвітлювати всі закутки світу

Text 21-9

The Printed Word

Although Americans spend a great deal of tune watching TV and seeing movies, books are still very popular in the USA. Hardcover books commonly sell for $12 to $25, so people buy these most frequently as gifts and chose paperback editions (usually under $10) for their personal use. Most people also have a public library in the neighbourhood and can get books on loan for two weeks absolutely free. What books do they read? Good works of literature written by Americans are readily available. Since the 19th century, American writers have moved away from the influence of English writers and have developed a voice of their own. Americans are justly proud of their literary giants, but the most popular readings are how-to books (how to fix your car, file for your own divorce, and so forth), escape fiction (including murder mysteries and novels about love and adventure), and biographies, often exposes about famous people. Despite the thousands of books published each year, experts worry that the American people get too much of their knowledge from TV and radio and not enough information from the printed word. Parents, teachers, and librarians are constantly trying to develop in children the habit of reading.

Most areas have at least one local daily newspaper which gives news of the surrounding communities and also provides national and international news. However, since 1950, the number of newspapers published in the United States has declined by almost 25%, while the population has increased by almost 70%. Although television has replaced newspapers as the average person’s source of news, newspapers and magazines provide more complete news coverage for those who want details and analysis of national and international affairs.

Although newspaper sales have been declining, magazines have prospered. They are published weekly, monthly, or quarterly (four times a year) and cover almost every subject imaginable. Some of the most popular are weekly news-magazines such as «Time,» «Newsweek,» and US «News and World Report. » There are hundreds of different magazines for special groups — working women, single men, Blacks, photographers, computer users, gamblers, and pigeon racers, to name just a few. in addition, there are special publications (called «trade magazines») of interest to people in particular industries.

to increase — возрастать, увеличиваться, расти • збільшуватися, зростати

average — средний, обычный • пересічний

to provide — обеспечивать; доставлять, давать; принимать меры • забезпечувати; доставляти, давати; вживати заходів

gambler — игрок, картежник; аферист • гравець, картяр; аферист

«trade magazines» — журналы, в которых освещаются коммерческие вопросы • журнали, в яких висвітлюють комерційні питания

Text 21-10

The British Press

Fleet Street has been the home of the British press for 300 years. Here are published almost all of Britain’s national newspapers. Here also are the headquarters of many magazines, foreign and provincial press bureaus, international news agencies.

The national papers are the ones sold all over the country, with a large readership or «circulation», giving general news; they are produced in London.

There are two main types of national paper — the «popular» papers and the «quality» papers. The «popular» papers are smaller in size, with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read and often contain little real information. They usually have stories about ordinary people and events which are included because they are amusing or odd. Examples of this type of newspapers are «The Daily Mail,» «The Sun» and «The Daily Mirror.»

The more serious reader, who wants to read about politics and foreign affairs reads «quality» papers. These papers, such as «The Daily Telegraph,» «The Times» and «The Guardian» are bigger in size — (they’re called «broadsheets»), with longer articles and a wider coverage of events. They have different pages for home news, foreign affairs, feature articles, fashion, business, sport and so on.

People in Britain buy more papers on Sunday than on weekdays. The Sunday papers have higher circulation than the dailies. As with the dailies, there are both «popular» and «quality» Sunday newspapers. The «quality» ones have different sections and a colour magazine (usually full of advertisements).

In addition to these there are the evening papers such as the «London’s Evening Standard» and «Evening News." Provincial or local papers serve towns and areas outside London; some of them are quite famous, like «The Birmingham Post,» for example.

Most of the papers have a political viewpoint. They give opinions and news which favour a political party or group.

wider coverage of events — более широкое освещение различных событий • ширше висвітлення різноманітних подій

feature articles — статьи, очерки (в газете) • статті, нариси (в газеті)

political viewpoint — политическая направленность (точка зрения) • політична направленість (точка зору)

Text 21-11

Newspapers in Great Britain

The population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is now over 50,000,000. About 30,000,000 newspapers are sold every day. The British people, therefore, are great readers of newspapers. There are few homes to which one newspaper is not delivered every morning. Many households have two, or even three, newspapers every day. One newspaper may be delivered at the house, a member of the family may buy one at the station bookstall to read in the train as he goes to town, and someone else in the family may buy an evening newspaper later in the day.

Daily papers are those that are published daily from Monday to Saturday. There are the morning papers and the evening papers. The morning papers are on sale early in the morning. The evening papers begin to appear during the morning, and new editions appear every two or three hours until the final edition comes out in the evening.

As in other countries, newspapers in Great Britain vary greatly in their ways of presenting the news. There are serious papers for those who want to know about important happenings everywhere, both domestic news and foreign news. There are popular newspaper’s for those who prefer entertainment to information. There are newspapers whose pages are largely filled with news of sports — football, boxing and racing — and with stories of film stars, or accounts of crime and of law-court trials. Most newspapers today provide interesting and useful articles for their women readers. They tell them about the latest fashions in clothes, how to furnish their homes, and how to cook new and exciting dishes.

The popular newspapers naturally have much larger circulations than the serious newspapers. The number of daily newspapers published in London is only nine or ten, but their total circulation is about 16,000,000. Many of these are national papers, selling throughout the country. Some of them have printing offices in large towns in the north.

In addition to the London dailies, there are other papers, published in the provinces. Many of these are independent, and the best of them sell throughout the whole country, in competition with the London papers. The «Manchester Guardian,» the «Yorkshire Post» (published in Leeds), and the «Scotsman» (Edinburgh), for example, have national circulations. The quality of their writing and reporting gives them a national influence.

The «Manchester Guardian’s» motto, «Facts are sacred, comment is free», is famous. This paper, because of its very honest comment on the news, is very influential.

The provincial newspapers give very full attention to local as well as to national affairs. In recent years some of them have been bought by national papers. To many people this seems to be unfortunate and even dangerous.

The London newspaper that is best known outside Great Britain is probably «The Times». It began in 1785, and has a high reputation for reliable news and serious comment on the news. It is an independent paper, not giving its support to a particular political party. Its leading articles (or «leaders», as they are usually called) give the opinions of its editorial staff, not those of the owners of the paper.

The correspondence columns of «The Times» are always interesting and often amusing. Most of the letters are on serious subjects, but from time to time there will be a long correspondence on a subject that is not at all serious, perhaps on a new fashion of dress, or the bad manners of the younger generation compared with the manners of thirty years ago.

«The Times,» of course, does not publish the strip cartoons that are so common in the cheaper and popular papers. It does, however, publish a cross-word puzzle every day, with clues that are both clever and amusing. Many «Times» readers try to solve the puzzle every morning as they travel to town by train from their homes in the suburbs.

Two popular papers, with large circulations, are the «Daily Mirror» and the «Daily Sketch.» These have many pages of photographs and numerous strip cartoons. Their make-up (the way in which the news and pictures are arranged on the pages, the size of the headlines, and so on) is more exciting than that of the serious papers. The news that appears in their pages is not always the most important news; it is the news that will, in the editors’ opinion, be most interesting to the man in the street. And if the man in the street is more interested in actors and actresses, film stars, boxers and bathing beauties, then these papers provide photographs and short news items to satisfy this interest.

The London evening papers, the «Star,» the «Evening News» and the «Evening Standard,» are sold not only at the ordinary newsagents’ shops and station bookstalls, but also at busy street comers. The men and women who sell them do not always stay by their piles of papers, however. They sometimes go away and leave their papers on a small stand. Passers-by help themselves to the paper they want, and leave twopence, the price of the paper, in a box or tray. There are dishonest people in London, but no one thinks it worth while to rob a newspaperseller of a few shillings.

The evening papers sell well because they print, throughout the day, the latest sports results. The sports pages also give advice to those who bet on results. Those people who have made bets on horse-races are anxious to know whether the horse on which they have bet has come in first.

In winter people are interested in the scores of the big football matches, and in summer in the latest scores of the county cricket matches. During the football season the papers provide information to help those who try to win large sums of money in the football pools.

The Sunday papers are not Sunday editions of the daily papers even if, as is sometimes the case, the owners are the same. Two of them the «Observer» and the «Sunday Times,» have a high standing like that of «The Times» and the «Manchester Guardian.» The «Sunday Times» has no connection with the daily paper called «The Times.» The «Observer,» started in 1791, is the oldest Sunday paper published in Britain.

The «Observer» and the «Sunday Times»provide, in addition to the news, interesting articles on music, drama, cinema, newly published books, and gardening. Many of the best critics write for these two papers.

Other Sunday newspapers are more popular. Most of them give lull accounts of the many sporting events that take place on Saturday afternoons, and provide numerous articles for their women readers.

A modem newspaper could not be sold at a profit without advertisements. A single copy costs more to produce than the price paid by the reader. A newspaper with a large circulation may cost about &100,000 a week to produce. About a quarter of this sum is received from the business turns who advertise in its pages.

(from A. S. Hornby)

to deliver — разносить, доставлять (почту) • розносити, доставляти (пошту)

bookstall — книжный ларек • книжковий кіоск

accounts of crime — криминальные очерки • кримінальні нариси

motto — девиз, лозунг; эпиграф • гасло, лозунг; епіграф; мото

reliable news — достоверные (правдивые) новости • достовірні (правдиві) новини

generation — поколение • покоління, генерація

the man in the street (the ordinary man) — обычный человек • звичайна людина

Text 21-12

Mass Media in Ukraine

Among the invariable prerequisites of a modern democratic community are freedom of the press, guarantees of the undeterred activities of journalists and publishers and free public access to printed matter, radio and television programmes. Ukraine’s mass media include periodicals, radio, television, information agencies, press centres, press services, government departments and agencies for contacts with the press. Ukrainian media operate under the Constitution, the Laws of Ukraine «On Information,» «On Means of Printed Information in Ukraine,» «On Radio and Television,» «On Copyright and Related Rights.»

The press is generally known as «the fourth estate». In various periods of its existence and depending on the political system, the mass media has always maintained certain relations with those public and political structures which were actually in control of most spheres in the life of society.

Nowadays editors and journalists are faced with the problem of keeping their publications alive, the problem of elementary survival. A number of editorial boards have found rich sponsors; others are trying to go into small on-the-side business to earn an extra buck or two to keep the edition going.

There are 50 non-government TV and radio companies, channels, studious, video-centres and 11 information agencies of different orientations in Ukraine. These agencies have correspondents and reporters who help in publishing news bulletins in Ukrainian and several other languages.

Ukrainian journalists use their professional skills and experience to raise the national media’s analytical, informative, aesthetic standard to the international level. Professional journalists are associated in the National Press Club, a public politically non-affiliated organization.

In 1994 Ukraine numbered 27 government-run TV and radio companies, including 23 in the oblast administrative regions, 2 City, the Krym TV-and-Radio Company, and the State Television and Radio Company in Kyiv.

The Press Centre of the Ministry of the Foreign Affairs of Ukraine is involved in a variety of activities aimed of facilitating the implementation of international documents in the sphere of information and data exchanges.

The Press services and centres of the President, the Verkhovna Rada, the Cabinet of Ministers and almost all political parties, public associations, societies and foundations are also constantly active.

invariable prerequisites — неизменные предпосылки • незмінні передумови

undeterred activities of journalists and publishers — свободная деятельность журналистов и издателей • вільна діяльність журналістів та видавців

free public access to printed matter — свободный доступ читателей к печатной продукции • вільний доступ читачів до друкованої продукції

copyright — авторское право • авторське право

«the fourth estate» — «четвертая власть» • «четверта влада»

survival — выживание • виживання

editorial board — редакция • редакція

rich sponsors — богатые спонсоры • багаті спонсори

to go into on-the-side business — заниматься предпринимательской деятельностью • займатися бізнесом

to earn an extra buck or two to keep the edition going — заработать дополнительные деньги на издание • заробити додаткові кошти на видання

National Press club — Национальный пресс-клуб • Національний прес-клуб

politically поп-affiliated organization — общественная непартийная организация • громадська непартійна організація

facilitating the implementation of international documents in the sphere of information and data exchanges — деятельность no обеспечению исполнения международных документов в области информации и обмена информацией • діяльність щодо забезпечення виконання міжнародних документів у сфері інформації та обміну даних

Text 21-13

The Six O’clock Report

Good evening, this is Rose Anne Silvernail with the Six O’clock Report.

— Our top story tonight: Alan Wolfe, the great plane robber, has been caught in Costa Rica. He was arrested in a San Jose night-club. He is being questioned at police headquarters, and he will probably be sent back here to Baltimore. Two Baltimore Police Department detectives left for Costa Rica earlier today, and they will help the Costa Rican police in their investigation. In 1990 Wolfe was sentenced to forty years in prison for his part in the Great Plane Robbery at Baltimore’s Friendship Airport. He escaped from the Maryland State Penitentiary in April. Since then he has been seen in ten different countries.

— The wildcat strike at Chesapeake Steel Company in Essex has ended after talks between union leaders and management. The strike began last weekend after a worker had been fired. He had had an argument with a manager. Five hundred men walked out. The worker has been retired.

— Another tragedy in the music world: Jerry Henderson, the lead guitarist of the rock group «The Rats,» is dead. He was found unconscious in his Fells Point apartment early this morning. Henderson was rushed to the Johns Hopkins University Hospital but doctors were unable to save his life. A number of bottles, which had been found in his apartment, were taken away by the police. A full investigation is planned.

— The painting Irish Morning by Renoir was stolen last night from the Baltimore Museum of Art. The painting, which is worth over a million dollars, was given to the museum in 1979. It hasn’t been found yet, and all airports are being watched. All vans and trucks are being searched. A reward of $15,000 has been offered for information.

— Jumbo, the elephant that escaped from, the Baltimore zoo this afternoon, has been caught. Jumbo was chased across Druid Hills Park and was finally captured at a hot dog stand near the park’s main gate. A tranquillizer gun was used, and Jumbo was loaded onto a truck and was taken back to the zoo. At the zoo, he was examined by the zoo veterinarian. Fortunately, no damage had been done, and Jumbo will be returned to the elephant house tomorrow.

— Bart Cobb, the Baltimore Colts quarterback, has been traded to the Chicago Bears. The contract was signed at noon today. The Bears gave the Colts $1,000,000 for Cobb’s contract. Cobb, age 23, was signed by the Colts only 2 months ago when he graduated from Alabama College.

from «American Streamline»)

plane robber — угонщик самолета • викрадач літака

investigation — расследование • розслідування

to be sentenced to forty years in prison — быть приговоренным к 40 годам тюремного заключения • бути засудженим до 40 років тюремного ув’язнення

strike — забастовка • страйк

to be unconscious — быть в бессознательном состоянии • перебувати в непритомному стані

to escape — бежать (из тюрьмы, плена); избежать (опасности), спастись; ускользнуть • втекти (з в’язниці, полону); уникнути (небезпеки), врятуватися; вислизнути

Text 21-14

Four Disasters

Good evening. Our program tonight is about disasters. This year there have been fires, plane crashes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. All our guests tonight have survived disasters.

— Hello. I’m Susan Fisher-Diaz, I live in Chicago. I was working in my office on the 28th floor of a skyscraper; I was dictating some letters to my secretary when the fire alarm rang. I rushed out to the elevator, but it wasn’t working. The stairs were full of thick smoke. We couldn’t go down, so we had to go up to the roof. When we got there some people were waiting calmly. Others were shouting and screaming wildly. A helicopter managed to land on the roof and rescued six of us before the roof collapsed.

— My name’s Linda Reed. I was on vacation at the Med Club on Patapita, a small island in the South Pacific. I was taking a nap when the volcano erupted. The noise woke me up. I looked through the window. Everybody was running toward the port. I threw on my robe and ran to the port too. I managed to get on a cruise ship. It was leaving when the lava hit the town.

— Hello. I’m Ron Byrd. I’m a farmer. I was working in the field when I saw the plane. It was flying too low to get to the airport. It was coming down fast. I was driving my tractor toward my house when the plane crashed into the trees behind me. I heard a terrible explosion. When I woke up, I was lying in bed — in a hospital.

— Hi. My name’s Richard Ching. My wife and I were staying with friends in Santa Librada near Los Angeles. We were having dinner when the earthquake began. Everything shook. All the plates and food fell on the floor. We were picking everything up when the ceiling fell in. We were under the table and survived. We had to wait for hours before help arrived.

(from «American Streamline»)

disaster — бедствие, несчастье • лихо, нещастя

to scream — пронзительно кричать, вопить; реветь (о сирене) • волати, верещати; ревти (про сирену)

to land on the roof — приземлиться на крышу • приземлитися на дах

to crash — падать, рушиться с треском (грохотом); разбить, разрушить; вызвать аварию • падати, з тріском завалитися (з гуркотом); розбити, зруйнувати; викликати аварію

terrible explosion — ужасный взрыв • жахливий вибух

the earthquake — землетрясение; потрясение, катастрофа • землетрус; катастрофа

to survive — остаться в живых, уцелеть • залишитися в живих, вціліти

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The Sunday Magazine

REVIEWS

Movies

UFO II

Directed by Stephen Spielman Written by Stephen Spielman Produced by Stephen Spielman Composed by John Williamson

UFO II, which is now being shown at theaters in major cities, is one of the most exciting films I’ve ever seen. It was filmed in Hollywood last year, but the special effects were made in England. Steve Newman is brilliant as the Army general, but the real stars are the UFO’s themselves. It can be seen at neighbourhood theatres beginning next week. Don’t miss it!

Television

The Condor Passes Directed by Paula Simon (PBC)

This documentary, which was first shown at the Cartagena Film Festival, will be aired on Wednesday at 8 on PBC. The condor is now found in only a few remote places in the Andes and the Rockies. In recent years nests have been robbed and eggs have been stolen. Condors are protected by law, but they are threatened with extinction. Paula Simon spent a year making this programme. The everyday habits of the condor have been recorded for future generations.

Records

Songs of the City

by Lisa Francis (ALA Records)

Produced by Carmine Dragone

All the songs on this new album were written by Lisa herself, and the album was recorded live during her recent concert tour. She is accompanied by several well-known musicians:. Elton Johnson, Pete Vinley, Bernie Hart, and her sister, Melissa. There is a great variety of music on the album — gentle romantic ballads, soul music, and exciting rock songs. The words to all the songs are printed on the back of the cover.

Books

Atlantic Crossing

Written by Tyrone Fitzpatrick

Published by Ransom House,

$24,95

This book tells the story of Tyrone Fitzpatrick who crossed the Atlantic Ocean alone in a small wooden boat. The boat was built in Ireland and was designed like the boats that were used by Irish fishermen one thousand years ago. Fitzpatrick thinks America was discovered many years before Columbus was bom. The design for the boat was taken from old books which had been found in an Irish monastery. The book is beautifully illustrated with many colour photographs and maps. The pictures were taken by Fitzpatrick himself during the voyage.

(from «American Streamline»)

wooden boat — деревянная лодка • дерев’яний човен

fisherman — рыбак • рибак

to be accompanied by smb. — быть в сопровождении к.-л. • перебувати у супроводі когось

cover — обложка, переплет • обкладинка, палітурка

condor — кондор • кондор

remote places — отдаленные (дальние) места • віддалені місця

to rob — грабить, обкрадывать • грабувати, обкрадати

to steal (stole, stolen) — воровать, красть • красти

to be protected by law — быть защищенным законом • бути захищеним

extinction — тушение; угасание, потухание; вымирание • загашування; згасання, затухання; вимирання

future generations — будущие поколения • майбутні покоління

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Reports

Scotty Williston is a new reporter for the London office of the Los Angeles Daily Echo. Last week several famous people arrived at London Airport, and Scotty was sent to interview them. Nobody told her very much.

Rafael Calderon del Castillo, Secretary-General of the United Nations: «I’m very busy. I have a lot of appointments. I can’t say very much. I’m happy to be in London. I enjoyed my visit in January. I’ll be here for only twelve hours. I’m going to meet the Prime Minister. I have no other comments».

Scotty’s Report «Rafael Calderon del Castillo visited England yesterday. He arrived at 10 a.m., and we asked him to comment on the international situation. He just made a brief statement. He said that he was very busy and that he had a lot of appointments. He said he couldn’t say very much, but he said that he was happy to be there and that he had enjoyed his visit in January. He said he would be there for only twelve hours and that he was going to meet the Prime Minister. He said he had no other comments».

Brutus Cray, retired boxer: «I like newspaper reporters, but I don’t have time to say much. Just that I’m the greatest. I’ve always been the greatest, and I always will be the greatest. I can beat anybody in the world! But I don’t fight anymore. I have businesses now in Germany, Brazil, and the United States. I can be a champ in business too. I am a champ — a champ forever! Excuse me».

Scotty’s Report. «Brutus Cray stopped at London Airport on his way from Frankfurt to Sao Paulo. Brutus was in a hurry. He said he liked newspaper reporters but that didn’t have time to say much. He said that he was the greatest, he had always been the greatest, and he always would be the greatest. He said he could beat anybody in the world — but that he didn’t fight anymore. He said that he had businesses in Germany, Brazil, and the United States and he could be a champ in business too. He also said he would be a champ forever!»

(from American Streamline»)

appointment — место, должность; свидание, условленная встреча • місце, посада; побачення, обумовлена зустріч

to make a statement — заявлять, делать заявление • заявляти

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Good and Bad News

What do you say when someone tells you some good or bad news? «Oh, really?» is all right if the piece of news doesn’t affect you one way or the other. But if you just say «Oh, really?» when a friend says she has just got married it doesn’t sound very enthusiastic. Or if you say it when someone tells you he has got a terrible headache, it doesn’t sound very sympathetic. If someone tells you good news or bad news, it can be embarrassing if you can’t make a quick or suitable reply.

First good news. If it is something important, like a marriage, a birth, a success like passing an exam, «Congratulations!» is the phrase to use. But if the news isn’t so important, it sounds too formal. What do you say, for example, if someone has been clever enough to make a broken radio work, or work out a difficult mathematical problem? Probably «Good for you,» or «Well done.» What if someone tells you something that makes you feel envious, for instance, that he has found money in the street? Your reply would be «Lucky you» or «Some people have all the luck.» Talking of luck, when will you say «what luck?» Answer: «if you have found it.»

Now bad news. If someone announces anything that is too serious to laugh about, «I’m sorry,» or «I’m so sorry to hear that» is the usual response. If you are really shocked, you will say «How terrible/sad/awful» or «What terrible/awful/sad news.» If it is serious, for instance, if someone has slipped on a banana skin and fallen on the pavement, the reaction is «Poor you» or «Bad/hard luck.» But if you are not sympathetic when someone tells you his bad news, you can say «It serves you right.»

to sound enthusiastic — звучать восторженно • захоплено звучати

embarrasing — стеснительный; смущающий • сором’язливий; сороміцький

to feel envious — завидовать • заздрити

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The Influence of TV on Children

The influence of TV on children is a problem common to all developed countries, and Ukraine is no exception. According to sociologists, almost 90 per cent of schoolchildren spend their free time watching TV. A teenager spends between 11/2 and 4 hours watching TV. To produce programmes that are interesting and informative is not a simple task and a great deal is being done in this field. Producers and writers of children’s programmes try to make sure that their viewers are not turned into passive recipients, their aim is to encourage the youngster to do something useful, to do something good.

Educational TV is developing rapidly. Its programmes cover 17 school and college subjects, as well as 13 other topics ranging from space to chess problems. Foreign languages — English, German, French and Spanish — are taught on TV, The evidence of the success of these programmes is the large number of letters received from viewers.

Children send not only letters but also telegrams. One sent by a group of young viewers to their favourite narrator read: «We wish you the best of health and please don’t go away on holidays».

exception — исключение • виняток

passive recipients — пассивно воспринимающие информацию • що пасивно сприймають інформацію

to encourage — воодушевлять • надихати

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«Daily Sun» Thursday, May 5 Lone Robber Shoots Guard in Escape

New York, May 4. There was a bank robbery in the downtown financial district. Just before closing time a man entered the Wall Street branch of the Chase Manhattan Bank. He was carrying a shotgun and wearing a nylon stocking over his head. There were only a few customers in the bank at the time. He made them lie on the floor and forced a teller to put money into a sack.

As he was leaving, a security guard tried to ring the alarm. The robber shot him, and the guard is now in St. Vincent’s Hospital. Surgeons are trying to save his life. Last night the police arrested a man on Staten Island. The police are interrogating him.

(from «American Streamline»)

security guard — охрана • охорона

alarm — сигнал тревоги • сигнал сполоху

robber — грабитель • грабіжник

to save one’s life — спасти ч.-л. жизнь • врятувати чиєсь життя

to interrogate smb. — допрашивать к.-л. • допитувати когось

Text 21-20

Polite Requests

Benny Goldman used to be a popular comedian on American radio. He’s nearly 70 now, but he still performs at hotels in the Catskill Mountains and other resorts in the Northeastern United States. He’s on stage now at Borshsinger’s Hotel in Monticello, a town in the Catskills.

— Well, good evening, ladies and gentlemen — and others! It’s nice to be back in Monticello at Borshsinger’s again. I have to say that; I say it every night. I said it last night. The only trouble was that I was at Marco’s Palace in Atlantic City. I thought the audience looked confused! Actually, I remember Monticello very well. Really! You know the first time I came here was in the 1930s. I was very young and very shy (thank you, Mother). You can’t believe that, can you? You can’t imagine me either young or shy, but I was — very young and very shy. Anyway, the first Saturday night I was in Monticello I decided to go to a dance, but not at a fancy hotel like Borshsinger’s. I told you I was very young and very shy. I forgot to add «very poor». Were any of you ever poor? Or young? Then maybe you remember the old Majestic Ballroom on Empire State Street. There’s a parking lot there now. It was a wonderful place, always full of beautiful girls — the ballroom, not the'parking lot. Of course, most of them are grandmothers now. Oh, were you there too, dear? I was too shy to ask anyone to dance. So I sat down at a table, and I thought I’d watch for a while — you know, see how the other guys did it. At the next table there was a pretty girl in a blue dress. She’d come in with a friend, but her friend was dancing with someone. Some dude came over to her, really spiffy-looking, wearing a blue suit and a fancy silk tie. Well, he walked over to her and said, «Excuse me. May I have the pleasure of the next dance?» She looked up at him (she had beautiful big blue eyes) and said, «Hmm? What did you say?» So he said, «I wonder if you would be kind enough to dance with me — uh — if you don’t mind.» «Oh. No, but thank you anyway,» she replied.

A few minutes later this other turkey showed up. He had on a tweed sport coat and a bowtie and a little moustache. He gave her this big smile and said, «Would you please have the next dance with me?» «Pardon?» she said. I thought to myself, «She’s a little deaf — or maybe she hasn’t washed her ears recently?»

«Would you mind having the next dance with me?» he said, a little nervously this time. «Oh. No, thanks. I’m finishing my lemonade,» she replied. «Wow!» I thought, «This looks really tough.»

Then another fellow came over. He was very good-looking, you know, wavy blonde teeth and bright white hair. Oops, I mean bright white teeth and wavy blonde hair. «May I ask you something?» he said very politely. «Certainly you may,» she answered. «Can I — I mean, could I — uh — may I have the next dance with you?» «I'm sorry,» she said. «My feet are killing me. I’ve been standing up all day at the store.» By now, I was terrified. I mean she’d said no to all of them! Then this other character thought he’d give it a try.

«Would you like to dance?» he said. «What?» she replied. She was a very pretty girl, but I didn’t think much of her voice! «Do you want to dance?» he said. She looked straight at him. «No,» she said. That’s all — «No.» Well, I decided to go home. I was wearing an old jacket and an even older pair of pants, and nobody ever accused me of being good looking! Just as I was walking past her table, she smiled. «Uh — dance?» I said. «Thank you. I’d love to.» she replied. And that was that! It’s our forty- fifth anniversary next week.

(from «American Streamline»)

dude (sl.) — хльпц, фат, пижон • піжон, фраер, понтовик, дженджик, жевжик

to be a little deaf — быть глуховатым • бути глухуватим

to accuse — обвинять, предъявлять обвинение (в ч.-л.) • звинувачувати, пред’являти звинувачення (в чомусь)

Text 21-21

The Six O’clock News

Channel 7 in Portstown presents the Six о’clock Report with anchor, Kack Dennehy.

— Good evening. Thousands of Portstown residents marched on City Hall today to protest plans to build a state prison near the city. Although a light rain was falling, an estimated five thousand people marched over a mile from the Portstown High School to City Hall, where Governor Brown and Mayor Henry Flores were meeting to discuss the project. A new prison is needed because the two other state prisons are overcrowded. Several sites for the new prison were considered, but Portstown was chosen because, in the Governor’s words, «All areas in the state must share the problems of our prison system.» Although the protestors asked to meet with the Governor, he refused and returned to the capital. After the Governor’s departure, however, the Mayor met with the organizers of the march and explained his position. An unidentified side to the Governor said that another site will probably be chosen in the end.

— Four entire city blocks were evacuated this afternoon in the Oceanside section because of a gas explosion. The explosion occurred at 1:20 p.m. in a deserted building on 2nd Street. Fire Department officials believe that the explosion was due to leaking gas. The building had been empty for several months, and they suspect that a gas main had cracked because of vibrations from work being carried out by the city on the street. Windows 300 feet away were broken by the blast. The police have blocked off the area until the Fire Department and Portstown Gas Company complete their investigation.

— Coast Guard helicopters went into action today after a yacht capsized in Coolidge Sound. Despite rain and high seas, the helicopters were able to rescue all but one of those aboard. Two men and two women were pulled to safety, but one of the men was dead on arrival despite the rescue team’s efforts. The other three are in satisfactory condition. The fifth passenger, a woman, was not found. Although the Coast Guard continue their search, she is presumed drowned. All names are withheld pending notification of families. The Coast Guard had issued a small craft warning this morning, but the yacht set out from the Newgate Marina despite the warnings.

— Central Motors announced today that they are shutting down their plant in Plattsburg. Fourteen hundred workers will be laid off because of the closing down of the plant, which is due to a sharp decline in sales of Central Motors’ J car. In spite of union’s acceptance of minimum salary increases last year, the shutdown became inevitable because the cancellation of most orders for the J car. Due to competition from cheaper foreign-made cars, J car dealers have not been able to sell the cars they have in stock. Plattsburg Major Bob Goodall predicted that hundreds of other jobs will be affected as suppliers and merchants feel the effects of the lost payroll.

— Incomplete reports have reached this station about a 100-mph car chase on Portstown streets and roads north of here. Only minutes ago, according to these reports, Portstown police were alerted by anonymous phone call and rushed to catch a gang that was breaking into a local discount clothing store. However, the gang of young white males escaped in a late-model car that allegedly had been stolen two days ago in Harbor City. The gang was armed and fired several times at the police cars behind them. Nevertheless, the police were able to run the gang’s car off the road and arrest all the members with no injuries on either side. We have no more details at this time.

— Turning now to sports. The Portstown High School stadium was filled last night when the Portstown Pirates played their traditional rivals, the Harbor City Raiders. Pirate quarterback Tony Rizzuto scored two touchdowns in the first half. Although the Raiders didn’t score at all in the first half, they went on to win with two touchdowns and a field goal in the second half. Raider half-back Billy Carlysle was limping at the end of the first half because of a fall, but nevertheless ran a total of 87 yards in the second half and scored one of the two Raider touchdowns. At the game entered the last minutes of play, the referees penalized both teams because of unnecessary roughness. In spite of the Pirates’ good showing in the first half, they couldn't seem to do anything right in the second. The final score: Pirates 14, Raiders 17.

(from «American Streamline»)

prison — тюрьма • в’язниця

explosion — взрыв • вибух

to suspect — подозревать • підозрювати

to be in satisfactory condition — быть в удовлетворительном состоянии • бути в задовільному стані

search — поиск • пошук      

despite the warnings — несмотря на предупреждения (предостережения) • незважаючи на попередження

minimum salary — минимальная зарплата • мінімальна зарплатня

inevitable — неизбежный, неминуемый • неминучий, невідворотний

cancellation — аннулирование, отмена; вычеркивание; сокращение • анулювання, скасування; викреслювання; скорочення

to have in stock — иметь в наличии, под рукой • мати в наявності, під рукою

to predict — предсказывать • передрікати

payroll — платежная ведомость • платіжна відомість

gang — шайка, банда • банда, ватага злодіїв

injury — повреждение, вред; рана, ушиб; оскорбление, клевета • пошкодження, шкода; рана, ушиб; образа, наклеп

rival — соперник, конкурент, противник • суперник, конкурент, супротивник

to limp — хромать, прихрамывать; идти с трудом; медленно двигаться • кульгати, накульгувати; важко йти; повільно рухатися

roughness — грубость • грубість

in spite of — несмотря на • незважаючи на

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Our New Year’s News Present to the President

The President speaking at the American Bar Association Convention this year, asked why newspapers only print the bad news. «Why don’t they tell us things like how many planes landed safely in the US in one day?» he asked. Here is our New Year’s present to the President — a column of good news items.

— In 1921 Alice Hoover Meyers, now 88 years old, began writing her first novel about life in a small Kansas town. Last week Milburn University Press published the 1,500 page novel, «The Women in the Club,» more than 60 years after Mrs. Meyers put pen to paper. When asked about her reaction to becoming a published author at age 88, Mrs. Meyers replied, «I hope there’s time to write the next one!»

— O’Hare Airport in Chicago, the busiest airport in the United States, reports that a total of 645,586 planes took off and landed without incident during the year.

— Eleven Korean children with congenital heart defects, flown to the US under the auspices of the American Medical Association, were successfully operated on last week at Houston General Hospital in Texas. After a brief convalescence, they will be flown back to Seoul. The A.M.A., which is sponsoring the «Big Heart» programme, plans to help many other children from all over the world.

— Sally K.Ride became the first American woman astronaut in space as a member of the Challenger Space Shuttle crew on a flight that lasted six days.

— The Governor of California announced last week at a meeting of 200 state legislators that the state treasury has a surplus of over $200 million with nearly $1 billion projected for next year. This is an amazing accomplishment in view of the condition of the state treasury six months ago — a $1.5 million deficit. The Governor has won the support of voters all over the state.

— After a lapse of 117 years, the United States has established full diplomatic relations with the Vatican.

— According to reports, there were 2,439,000 civil and religious marriage ceremonies this year, an increase of 1% over the total for last year.

— A total of 460,348 immigrants from all over the world were admitted to the United States this year.

— Sandra Day O’Connor, the first female United States Supreme Court Justice, has won a poll conducted by the «World Almanac.» She has been voted the most influential woman in the United States.

— In January as usual, the President delivered his State of the Union message to the House of Representatives and the Senate in a joint session of Congress. This year was special, however, because it marked the beginning of the 100th Congress.

— The Chinese premier visited the United States this year, the highest-ranking Peking official ever visit this country. In a welcoming ceremony at the White House the Premier said, «I come as a friendly envoy of the Chinese people for the purpose of seeking mutual understanding.»

— Even farmers are smiling — that is, the soybean farmers who able to bring in a record harvest last year with a minimum effort — over 2 1\4 billion bushles.

— CompTrac, a small East Coast construction company in business for less than a decade, was awarded a $40 million contract to build three schools in Saudi Arabia. Winning large contracts seem to be a new trend for small business.

— It was a great year for animals too. Some residents of Bolton, Massachusetts wanted to limit the number of pigs per farm, claiming that pigs depressed property values. A vote was taken, and the pig supporters won 305 to 195 not restrict the number of porcine farm residents.

— The battle to clean up the West River is being won. Species of fish, which even ten years ago could not have survived in the polluted water, are being caught in increasing numbers.

— The US Postal Service did not raise its rates this year.

— The New York City Department of Environmental Protection reported that a lot of New Yorkers must have been thoroughly enjoying the final episode of the TV programme. Apparently the water- flow rate increased by 300 million gallons at 11:03 p.m., three minutes after the end of the programme. So 1 million New Yorkers waited until the end of the programme before using the bathroom.

— And a final note, the death rate from suicide going down.

(from «American Streamline»)

congenital heart defect — врожденный порок сердца • природжена вада серця

convalescence — выздоровление, выздоравливание • одужання

lapse — ошибка, описка; промежуток времени • помилка, описка; проміжок часу

envoy — посланник; агент • посланець; агент

for the purpose of seeking mutual understanding — с целью найти взаимопонимание • з метою знайти взаєморозуміння

Environmental Protection — защита окружающей среды • захист навколишнього середовища

Text 21-23

News Broadcasts

«A special party convention on the economy has been called for early in the new year. Proposals for alleviating high unemployment and interest rates will be considered. In addition, party unity and the up-coming leadership review will be debated. High-ranking members of the party are expected to attend.»

«The Minister of Communications denied that budget cuts will be made in the new year. But government memos leaked to the press today indicate drastic cuts in personnel and resources. A senior official in the government, who asked to remain anonymous, stated that the budget cuts would be restricted to regional offices. The Minister will make a statement tomorrow.»

«The provincial government in Newfoundland is planning to construct regional hospitals in many rural communities. These additional hospitals will allow everyone in the province equal access to health care. However, the Medical Commission has objected to the plans on the basis that it is difficult to attract doctors to rural communities.» «A recently released task force report on employment has recommended reforms targeted at women, minority groups, and the disabled. This report recognizes the problems inherent in legislated quotas for employment or promotion. Instead of demanding affirmative action programs, however, it recommends that the Human Rights Commission be given new powers to encourage employment for disadvantaged groups.»

alleviate — облегчать, смягчать • полегшувати, пом’якшувати anonymous — анонимный • анонімний

quotas — определённое количество людей, группа людей • особлива кількість людей, група людей

Discussion

1. In your own words, summarize each news broadcast.

2. Perform a news show in your class. Use broadcast items that deal with various current events.

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«Hetman of Ukraine» Receives His Title from Moscow

Alexey Brumel, leader of the movement «Monarchist Rus» and chairman of the Russian Monarchist Party, issued a decree reinstituting the ancient title «Hetman of Ukraine.» The decree reads: «By me Regent’s authority, I bestow the title of Hetman of Ukraine to Mr. Sergei Sukhoruchko, a Ukrainian by nationality, with the view to spiritual unity of Ukrainian and Russian peoples, in the name of friendship and cooperation of sovereign Ukrainian state and the Russian Federation forever.»

(from «News From Ukraine »)





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