Розмовні теми частина 2 - Т. М. Гужва 2003

Ukraine. History and Modern Realities

Geographical Position of Ukraine

A new state, Ukraine, appeared on the world political map in 1991. Ukraine occupies an area of 603,700 square kilometres. The territory of Ukraine extends 900 kilometres from north to south and 1,316 kilometres from east to west. In the north Ukraine borders on Belarus; in the east and north-east, on Russia; in the south-west, on Hungary, Romania and Moldova; in the west, on Poland and Slovakia. In the south Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The total length of the frontiers is 6,500 kilometres, including 1,050 kilometres of the sea frontiers.

In the north of Ukraine there are forests, in the west — the Carpathian mountains, in the eastern and central Ukraine — black-soil steppelands.

We can admire picturesque slopes of the green Carpathians and the Crimean hills, the green forests of Poltava, Chemihiv and Kyiv, the endless steppes of Kherson, Myckolaiv and Odesa. It is really the land of woods, lakes and rivers.

The main territory of Ukraine is flat, but 5% of it make up mountains. The major rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the Buh, the Donets and others.

Typical representatives of the Ukrainian fauna are hare, fox, squirrel, bear, wolf, goat. Among the trees growing in the Ukrainian territory are birch, pine, oak, fir-tree.

The Carpathians are situated in Europe and stretch through Hungary, Poland, Romania, including Ukraine. They are divided into the West Carpathians, East and South ones. The highest point of the Ukrainian Carpathians is Hoverla — 2,061 metres above the sea level. They are covered with beautiful forests and woods, there are meadows here which are called as «polonyna.»

The Crimean Mountains stretch for about 150 kilometres along the coast of the Black Sea. The highest point of them is the mountain Roman-Kosh — 1545 metres above the sea level.

The Crimea is a peninsula located in the south of Ukraine and is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

The population of Ukraine is about 50 million (46% male and 54% female; 35,1 million urban and 16,6 million rural; density: 87 persons per 1 square kilometre). Ukraine is inhabited by representatives of 128 nations, nationalities and ethnic groups.

The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It stretches on the high hills along the Dnieper, rivalling the oldest and most charming cities of Europe.

Ukraine’s other big cities are Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Odesa, Lviv, etc. The largest Crimean towns are Simpheropol, Sevastopol, Kertch, Yevpatoriya, Yalta and Feodosiya.

The geographical position of Ukraine is very favourable for the development of its industry and agriculture.

to extend — простираться • протягнутися, тягтися

to border on — граничить • межувати

to be washed by — омываться • омиватися

frontier — граница • кордон, межа

the Carpathian mountains — Карпаты (Карпатские горы) • Карпати

black-soil steppelands — черноземные степи • чорноземні степи

to admire — восхищаться, любоваться • захоплюватися, милуватися

picturesque — живописный • мальовничий

slope — склон, наклон • схил, ухил

endless steppes — бесконечные степи • безкраї степи

representative — представитель • представник

fauna — фауна • фауна

to stretch — простираться • тягтися

to be divided into — делиться на • ділитися на

meadow — луг • луг

peninsula — полуостров • півострів

Climate of Ukraine

The climate of Ukraine is determined by its geographical location. Ukraine’s territory lies in the temperate belt. In general the country’s climate is temperately continental, being subtropical only on the southern coast of the Crimea.

The differences in climate are caused by many factors: the latitude, relief, altitude and proximity to seas and oceans. The climate varies not only from north to south, but also from the north-west to the south-east as the warm damp air masses moving from the northwestern Atlantic weaken and become drier. A characteristic feature of the climate is an increase in its continental nature from west to east.

A feature of Ukraine’s climate is the considerable fluctuation in weather conditions from year to year. Alongside very wet years there can be droughts, whose effect increases to the south and east. There are frequent oscillations in weather in the regions of the Crimean and Carpathian Mountains.

The average yearly temperature in Ukraine varies between +5.5°...+7" C (42°...44.5° F) in the north and +11°...+13°C (52°... 55.5° F) in the south. The coldest month is January, with a record low of -42°C (-44°F). The warmest month is July with a record high of 40°C (104°F).

Precipitation (rain, snow and other forms of moisture) ranges from about 30 inches (76 cm) a year in the north to about 9 inches (23 cm) in the south. The highest rainfall is in the Carpathian and Crimean Mountains (31,5 to 63 inches).

On the southern coast of the Crimea the climate is subtropical Mediterranean, inasmuch as the Crimean Mountains obstruct the movement of cold Arctic air to the coast. These climatic features have contributed to the creation of one of the best resort areas in Ukraine.

(from «The Geography of Ukraine»)

to determine — определять • визначати

temperate belt [belt] — умеренный пояс • помірний пояс

temperately continental — умеренно-континентальный • помірно континентальний

to cause — вызывать • спричиняти

latitude — широта • широта

relief — рельєф • рельєф

altitude — высота • висота

proximity — близость • близькість

to vary — изменяться • змінюватися

damp — влажный • вологий

to weaken — ослабевать • слабнути

dry — сухой • сухий

increase — возрастание • зростання

considerable — значительный • значний

fluctuation — неустойчивость • нестійкість

alongside — наряду • поряд

drought [draut] — засуха • посуха

oscillation — колебание • коливання

С = Centigrade — по Цельсию • за Цельсієм

F = Fahrenheit — по Фаренгейту • за Фаренгейтом

precipitation — осадки • опади

moisture — влага • волога

to range — колебаться • коливатися                

inasmuch as — так как • так як

to obstruct — препятствовать • перешкоджати

resort area — курортная зона • курортна місцевість

Plants and Animals

The area of natural vegetation occupies about 30% of Ukraine’s territory, of which 14% is forested, 3% is haylands, 8% is swamplands. Most forests and timber reserves are in the Carpathians and Polissia.

Ukraine has mostly coniferous and deciduous trees (pine, oak, fir, beech and birch). Plantations of valuable species (oak and beech) are increasing, while plantations of little-used trees such as hornbeam and aspen are diminishing. The wealth of the forest includes not only timber, but also berries, mushrooms and medicinal herbs.

The animal world of Ukraine is diverse, with hundreds of species of mammals and birds. Predators include wolf, fox, badger, marten; hoofed animals include roe, deer, wild pig, elk; there is beaver, jerboa, marmot, hamster and fieldmouse. Characteristic of the birds are the sparrow, titmouse, grouse, owl and partridge. Certain fur animals (nutria, mink, silver-black fox, musk-rat) introduced into Ukraine have aclimatized well. In the rivers, lakes and reservoirs there are perch, bream, pike perch, pike and carp.

Characteristic of Polissia are the pine, oak, birch, aspen, maple and linden with alder and willow predominating. Animals here include the wolf, wildpig, elk, lynx, marten, beaver, polecat, raccoon and bear with birds as black, hazel and wood goose.

The Forest-Steppe zone contains the oak, elm, hornbeam, black poplar, willow, ash and pine. The animals include squirrels, forest martens, foxes, hares and roes. In the past the steppes were covered in natural grasses. Now they are under cultivation. Virgin steppe remains only in nature reserves.

In the Carpathians the vegetation is located in zones according to altitude. Up to 1200 m we find mixed forests with beech, hornbeam, fir and oak. Higher fir trees are widespread, above 1500 m spread the alpine plateaux, on which grow grasses and low scrub, especially the creeping pine. In spring the plateaux are abloom with saffron, primrose, mercury, snowdrop and edelweiss.

The animal life of the Carpathians is unique. Here one finds deer, brown bears, wild cats and pigs, ermines and black squirrels. Bird-life includes stone thrushes, golden eagles and black woodpeckers.

The Crimean Mountains vegetation is very diverse. In the coastal strip low-growing forests of oak and juniper grow. Thickets of arid-loving scrub and grassy, vegetation are very widespread. The upper strip of the Southern Crimean Coast is covered in forest, mostly beech with hornbeam, pear and maple. The principle tree species in the Crimean Mountains is the oak. The upper flat parts are treeless rocky plateaux covered in grassy vegetation. In late April snowdrops, crocuses, steppe sedge and other flowers come into bloom here. In May these meadows are a multicoloured carpet of flowers, with splashes of bright-red peonies and blue cornflowers.

The parks of the Southern Coast contain cypresses, palms, magnolias, platans, laurels. Near Yalta are the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens containing trees, bushes and grasses from all over the world.

The animal world of this region is distinct from the other zones. Birds and animals have survived here which are rare or extinct in other places. Such birds include the carrion eagle, black griffons, owls; reptiles include the gecko and others. We can also find noble deer, roe, wild pigeon, small weasel, white-tailed eagle, mountain linnets, blue stone thrushes, etc. The animal life includes many animals from southern countries: the stone marton, badges, fox; there are many lizards and some snakes.

(from «The Geography of Ukraine»)

vegetation — растительность • рослинність

hayland — луг • луг

swampland — болото • болото

coniferous — хвойный • хвойний

deciduous — лиственный • листяний

pine — сосна • сосна

oak — дуб • дуб

fir — ель • ялина

beech — бук • бук

birch — береза • береза

species — вид • вид

hornbeam — граб • граб

aspen — осина • осика

to diminish — сокращаться • скорочуватися

herbs — травы • трави

diverse — разнообразный • різноманітний

predator — хищник • хижак

badger — барсук • борсук

marten — куница • куниця

hoofed — копытное животное • копитна тварина

rое — косуля • козуля

deer — олень • олень

elk — лось • лось

beaver — бобер • бобер

jerboa — тушканчик • тушканчик

marmot — байбак • бабак

hamster — хомяк • хом’як

titmouse — синица • синиця

grouse — тетерев • тетерів

partridge — куропатка • куріпка

mink — норка • норка

musk-rat — ондатра • ондатра

perch — окунь • окунь

bream — лещ • лящ

pike — щука • щука

maple — клен • клен

linden (=lime) — липа • липа

alder — ольха • вільха

willow — ива • верба

lynx — рысь • рись

polecat — хорек • тхір

raccoon — енот • єнот

hazel — светло-коричневый • світло-брунатний

elm — вяз, берест • в’яз, берест

poplar — тополь • тополя

ash — ясень • ясень

squirrel — белка • білка, вивірка

snake — змея • змія

The Political System of Ukraine

On the 24th of August, 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. On the 1st of December, 1991 the everlasting dream of the Ukrainian people came true. 90% of the people voted for the independence of Ukraine and since that time the Ukrainian people have become the masters of their own destiny.

Nowadays Ukraine is a democratic state, ruled by the law and created as an implementation of the people’s sovereign right to selfdetermination.

The Ukrainian political system has a popularly elected President, a 450-person single-chamber national Parliament — the Verkhovna Rada.

The President is the highest official of the Ukrainian state, vested with supreme executive authority. He exercises it through the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, which is accountable to him, and through a system of central and local organs of state executive authority.

The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine is the sole legislative authority. Judicial power in Ukraine is vested in the courts of law. The courts are independent and all their activities abide only by the rules of law.

A Prime Minister is nominated by the President and is a subject to approval by the Verkhovna Rada.

The first President of Ukraine became Leonid Kravchuk, winning 61.6 per cent of the votes. The nation supported Leonid Kravchuk’s programme aimed at the construction of a New Ukraine, where generations would combine efforts in asserting a strong state system, genuine democracy, material well-being, elevated spiritual awareness.

In 1994 Ukrainian people elected a new President, Leonid Kuchma. Ukraine has entered a new phase in its development. Though Ukraine has a wealth of political parties, ranging from unreconstructed communities to far-right nationalists, personal and regional loyalties tend to play larger role in the Ukrainian political life than programmatic parties. A key challenge facing Ukraine is the establishment of effective, democratic governing institutions that strike a balance between executive and legislative authority.

Ukraine is divided into 24 regions and the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea, each of which has elected council, whose Chairman, elected at large, also serves as head of the executive branch. So we can say that state power in Ukraine is based on the division of authority into legislative, executive and judicial, and Ukraine could be referred to now as a country with a parliamentary-presidential form of government. Having become an independent state and being now firmly resolved to put an end to the totalitarian dictatorship, Ukrainian people have an idea of building a state which confirms its peace-loving policy.

Ukraine not only strives to live in peace with the rest of the world community, but also to co-operate with other countries and participate in the European and world structures. It is already a member of numerous international, political and economic associations and a founding member of the United Nations.

the everlasting dream — долгожданная мечта • довгождана мрія

the masters of their own destiny — хозяева своей собственной судьбы • хазяїн власної долі

a single-chamber national Parliament — однопалатный национальный парламент • однопалатний національний парламент

executive authority— исполнительная власть • виконавча влада

legislative authority — законодательная власть • законодавча влада

to nominate — выставлять, предлагать кандидата, назначать (на должность) • виставляти, пропонувати кандидата, призначати (на посаду)

approval — одобрение; благоприятные мнения; рассмотрение • схвалення; розгляд; сприйнятливі думки

to combine efforts — соединить усилия • поєднати зусилля

a wealth of — изобилие, большое количество • надмір, велика кількість

to tend — направлять(ся), иметь склонность, вести • скеровуватися, мати схильність, провадити

key challenge — ключевой вызов • ключовий виклик

establishment — установление • встановлення

Coat of Arms

The national emblems — the coat of arms, the flag, and the seal — alternated during the millennium of Ukrainian history owing to various political, social, cultural, and other factors — a phenomenon common to many European nations.

The contemporary national coat of arms of Ukraine — Azure, a trident and or — is the most ancient as well as the most dignified of all the Ukrainian insignia of nation-wide significance and its emblazonment represents a synthesis of a preheraldic device of the ruling dynasty in the tenth century and of the oldest Ukrainian national heraldic tinctures from the thirteenth century. The classic form of the Ukrainian trident is found on the gold and silver coins of Volodymyr (Vladimir) the Great (979—1015), the Grand Prince of Kyiv.

The problems of the origin and of the original meaning of the Ukrainian trident have still not been solved by scholars. The archaeological finds of tridents in Ukraine go back to the first century A.D. Undoubtedly this emblem was a mark of authority and a mystic symbol of one or of several of the ethnic groups which inhabited ancient Ukrainian territory and which came to compose the Ukrainian nation.

The trident became a hereditary preheraldic badge of all of medieval Ukraine and in almost every generation it underwent certain augmentations (e.g., more crosslets, crescents, pearls), and there are cases where the trident passed into a bident and vice versa.

Tridents and bidents are found on many objects of that period: coins, stones, and bricks of significant buildings (palaces, castles, cathedrals, etc.), armor, signets, seals, official jewelry, ceramics, manuscripts. As a result of archaeological excavations and studies, the number of specimens of the trident, in various forms, has increased and stands now at about 200.

During the twelfth century, the image of Saint Michael the Archangel superseded the trident as the highest national device, but tridents continued to be used by ruling houses as additional dynastic badges until the fifteenth century.

After the renascence of independent Ukraine on January 22, 1918, the trident was adopted, by a law of March 22, 1918, as the national device of the Ukrainian National Republic. It was adopted in the form of a Great and a Small Coat of Arms representing the classic trident of Volodymyr the Great in an ornamental wreath.

Distinctive banners and standards were borne by ancient Ukrainian rulers and their armies through the entire period of the medieval monarchy. Red was the most frequent colour (gules was also the tincture of the Ukrainian knightly shields of the twelfth century); blue and white were used also, but yellow rarely appeared. The most frequent bearings were stars, crescents, crosses, and dynastic devices. Crosses, tridents, bidents, heads of spears, and other emblems or- nated the tops of flag staffs.

In the middle of the nineteenth century, when the national revolutions marked the course of European history, the necessity arose for a visible symbol of the self-determination of the Ukrainian nation. Seeking inspiration in the glorious historical past, the Supreme Ruthenian Rada in Lviv, reviving in 1848 the coat of arms of the former kingdom (Azure, the lion rampant or), simultaneously accepted the armorial tinctures as the combination of national colours of Ukraine. Both, the light blue flag charged with the golden crowned lion and the horizontally striped flag (yellow above light blue substituting the charge and the escutcheon of the national coat of arms) were used at that time and the latter soon became the national flag in Galicia as well as all over Ukraine.

The composition of national colours was decreed by a law of the independent Ukrainian National Republic on March 22, 1918.

The light blue above yellow flag was established for the Western Ukrainian National Republic on November 13, 1918, and for the Carpatho-Ukrainian Republic on March 15, 1939, as a symbol of the all-Ukrainian unity.

Both the yellow above light blue flag and the light blue above yellow flag were hoisted until 1949, and borne as military standards and colours during the War of Liberation of 1917—1920. The light blue above yellow flag was provisionally, confirmed by, the Ukrainian National Rada in exile on June 27, 1949.

(from «Ukraine. A Concise Encyclopedia»)

coat of arms — герб • герб

seal [si:l] — печать • печатка

to alternate — заменять(ся) • замінювати(ся)

millennium — тысячелетие • тисячоліття

contemporary — современный • сучасний

azure — голубизна • блакить

trident — трезубец • тризуб

or — золотой или желтый цвет (геральд.) • золотий або жовтий колір (геральд.)

ancient — древний • давній

dignified — величественный • величний

insignia (pl.) — эмблемы • емблеми

emblazonment — роспись (герба) • розпис (герба)

device — эмблема • емблема

dynasty — династия • династія

heraldic — геральдический • геральдичний

archaeological — археологический • археологічний

hereditary — наследственный • спадковий

medieval — средневековый • середньовічний

crescent полукруг, полумесяц • півколо, півмісяць

vice versa — наоборот • навпаки

armor — оружие • зброя

signet — печать • печатка

specimen — образец • зразок

Archangel — Архангел • Архангел

to supersede — вытеснять • витісняти

renascence — возрождение • відродження

wreath — венок • вінок

banner — флаг • прапор

standard — флаг • прапор, штандарт

National Flag of Ukraine.

National Emblem of Ukraine

The combination of the blue and yellow colours — «Ukrainian colours» — reaches far back into pre-Christian times. These colours predominated on the flags of the medieval Kyivan State and were prominent during the Cossack age.

First accepted as the National flag by the Supreme Ukrainian Council in Lviv in 1848, the blue-and-yellow flag met with popular approval in all parts of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20th century.

On 22 March, 1918, the blue-and-yellow flag was ratified as the national flag of the independent Ukrainian National Republic, and with the unification of all Ukrainian lands in 1919 it became the only Ukrainian flag. With the trident, the blue-and-yellow flag for many years symbolized the aspirations of the Ukrainian people for independence.

Following the Declaration of Independence, the blue-and-yellow flag was adapted as the national flag of Ukraine by the Act of Parliament on 28 January, 1992.

The trident is an ancient symbol of the Ukrainian "people, dating back more than 3000 years. In the 10th century it became the dynastic coat of arms of the Kyivan princes, including Volodymyr the Great and Yaroslav the Wise.

With the restoration of Ukrainian independence, the trident was adopted as the official emblem of the Ukrainian National Republic in 1918.

The trident together with the blue-and-yellow flag have served for many generations as the symbol of the Ukrainian struggle for independence.

By the Act of Parliament on February 19, 1992, the trident once again became the national emblem of Ukraine, symbolizing the united historical development of the Ukrainian people.

to predominate — господствовать, преобладать • панувати, переважати

to accept — принимать, допускать, признавать • приймати, допускати, визнавати

the Supreme Ukrainian Council — Верховная Рада Украины • Верховна Рада України

approval — одобрение, благоприятное мнение • схвалення

unification — воссоединение • возз’єднання

trident — трезубец • тризуб

to symbolize — символизировать, изображать символически • символізувати, символьно зображувати

aspiration — стремление, сильное желание • прагнення

the Declaration of Independence — Декларация о независимости • Декларація про незалежність

ancient symbol — древний символ • давній символ

restoration — реставрация, восстановление, реконструкция • реставрація, відновлення, реконструкція

to adopt — принимать • приймати

generation — поколение • генерація

Tryzub (The Trident)

Tryzub, the Trident, and golden yellow and blue are the national symbols of Ukrainian people. Their appearance in the sovereign Ukrainian state was not accidental. Their roots trace back thousands of years. Even in the pre-Christian times the trident was revered as a magic sign, a protective charm. As a heraldic symbol it first appeared on the coins minted under prince Volodymyr Svyatoslavych. The golden-blue combination is also a very old tradition.

trident — трезубец • тризуб

appearance — появление • поява

accidental — случайный • випадковий

roots — корни • коріння

to revere — почитать, уважать • шанувати, поважати

magic sign — волшебный знак • магічний знак

protective — защитный; оградительный; покровительственный • захисний; обереговий; покровительний, патронажний

heraldic — геральдический • геральдичний

Ukrainian Anthem

The Ukrainian anthem, «Shche ne vmerla Ukraina » («Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished»), is of quite recent origin. In Western Ukraine after 1848 there were two songs which enjoyed popularity at national celebrations and patriotic demonstrations. One was by the Basilian Father Julian Dobrylovsky (1760—1825) — «Grant, 0. Lord, in Good Time and the other, the verse of Ivan Hushalevych (1825—1903) — «We Bring You Peace, Brothers»In 1848 the latter was recognized by the Supreme Ruthenian Council in Lviv as the national anthem of the Halychian Ukrainians. The Carpatho-Ukrainians, on occasions of popular celebration, sang the song by Alexander Dukhnovych (1803-1865) - «I Was, Am and Will be a Rusyn» (Ruthenian). In the central and eastern Ukrainian lands the «Testament» of Taras Shevchenko was used for many years as a national anthem at manifestations and demonstrations. It was called, not inappropriately, the Ukrainian «Marseillaize.»

In 1863 the Lviv journal «Meta» («The Goal») published the poem of Paul Chubynsky (1839—1884), «Shche ne vmerla Ukraina,» which was mistakenly ascribed to Taras Shevchenko. In the same year it was set to music by Halychian composer Michael Verbytsky (1815—1870), first for solo and later choral performance.

This song, as a result of its catchy melody and patriotic text, rapidly became popular and gained broad acceptance among the Halychian population as well as among the Ukrainians within the Russian empire. In 1917 it was officially adopted as the anthem of the Ukrainian state.

anthem — гимн • гімн

to be of quite recent origin — иметь недавнее происхождение • мати недавнє походження

to enjoy popularity — быть популярным • бути популярним

verse — стихотворение • вірш

testament — завещание • заповіт

inappropriately — здесь: необоснованно, без оснований • тут: необгрунтовано, безпідставно

mistakenly — ошибочно • помилково

to ascribe — приписывать • приписувати

choral — хоровой • хоровий

rapidly — быстро • швидко

to become popular — становиться популярным • ставати популярним

to gain broad acceptance — получать широкое признание • одержувати широке визнання

empire — империя • імперія

The Independence of Ukraine

On June 16, 1990, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. On August 24, 1991, the Ukrainian Parliament solemnly proclaimed Ukraine’s independence and the formation of the independent state of Ukraine, proceeding from the right to self-determination, provided for by the UN Charter and other international documents, acting in pursuance of the Sovereignty Declaration.

On December 1, 1991, a referendum took place in Ukraine, involving 84.18 per cent of the citizens, of which number 90.32 per cent seconded the Independence Act of August, 24.

Winning 61.6 per cent of votes, Leonid Kravchuk was elected President of Ukraine. The nation supported Leonid Kravchuk’s programme aimed at the construction of a New Ukraine, where generations would combine efforts in asserting a strong state system, genuine democracy, material well-being, elevated spiritual awareness, and trust in each other.

At a summit meeting in Belovezhskaya Pushcha (December 7—8, 1991) the heads of the states of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine signed a Treaty on the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), thus putting an end to the USSR.

Independent Ukraine proceeded to lay the foundation on which to achieve the set goals. Over a short period a new system of state administration was created, along with the National Armed Forces, the Security Service and law enforcement authorities. New, broader horizons opened for political freedom; practically all restrictions on the spiritual progress of the Ukrainian and other nations were lifted. The economic emancipation of man began. The Ukrainian state entered the international community as an equal partner.

However, as in all other post-Communist states, the process of social reforms in Ukraine took a winding and thorny path, in conditions of a pitched battle between the old and the new. Among the aggravating factors were the differences between the legislative and executive branches. Fortunately, a democratic way out of the resultant political crisis was found as Parliamentary and Presidential elections were held in 1994.

Leonid Kuchma became the new President, winning 52.14 per cent of the votes in the second round. In 1999 he was elected President of Ukraine again and was left for the second period.

the Declaration of State Sovereignty — Декларация о государственном суверенитете • Декларація про державний суверенітет

solemnly — торжественно • урочисто

to proclaim — провозглашать, объявлять • проголошувати

to proceed [pra'si:d] from — исходить из • виходячи з

the right to self-determination — право на самоопределение • право на самовизначення

to provide for — предусматривать • передбачати

UN Charter — Устав ООН • Статут ООН

acting in pursuance of the Sovereignty Declaration — обеспечивая проведение Декларации о суверенитете • забезпечуючи виконання Декларації про державний суверенітет

to take place — происходить, иметь место • відбуватися, траплятися

to involve — вовлекать, включать в себя, повлечь за собой • включати в себе, втягувати, спричинювати

to second the Independence Act of August, 24 — подтверждать Акт провозглашения независимости от 24 августа • підтверджувати Акт проголошення незалежності від 24-го серпня 1990 року

to elect — избирать, выбирать (голосованием) • вибирати (голосуванням)

to support — поддерживать • підтримувати

generation — поколение • генерація

to combine efforts in asserting a strong state system — соединить усилия для утверждения прочной государственности • поєднати зусилля для утвердження міцної державності

genuine democracy — настоящая демократия • справжня демократія

material well-being — материальное благополучие • матеріальні статки

elevated spiritual awareness — высокая духовность • висока духовність

trust in each other — доверие друг к другу • довір’я один до одного

to sign a treaty — подписать договор • підписати угоду

the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) — Содружество независимых государств (СНГ) • Співдружність Незалежних Держав (СНД)

to put an end — положить конец, покончить с ч.-л. • покласти кінець, покінчити з чимось

to proceed to lay the foundation — начать закладывать фундамент • почати закладати фундамент

to achieve the set goals — для достижения намеченных целей • для досягнення встановленої мети

a new system of state administration — новая система государственного управления • нова Система державного керівництва

to create — создавать, творить • створювати, творити

the National Armed Forces — Национальные вооруженные силы • Національні збройні сили

the Security Service and law enforcement authorities — Служба безопасности и правоохранения • Служба безпеки і правоохорони

broader horizon — более широкий горизонт • ширший горизонт

restriction — ограничение • обмеження

to take a winding and thorny path — происходить трудно, сложно • відбуватися важко, складно

aggravating factors — усугубляющие факторы • обтяжувальні фактори

legislative and executive branches — законодательная и исполнительная ветви • законодавча та виконавча гілки

fortunately — к счастью • на щастя                

a democratic way out of the resultant political crisis — демократический выход из политического кризиса • демократичний вихід із політичної кризи

Ukraine’s Economy in the Context of International Economic Relations

A new independent state with a thousand-year-old history appeared on the map of the world. To have an idea of Ukraine’s economic potential, its resources, and define the scale of reforms which must be carried out let us get acquainted with some objective data. Ukraine is situated in the geographical centre of Europe. The country occupies a territory of 603,700 square kilometres. It’s population is about 50 million, more than 74 per cent of whom are Ukrainians. For comparison, the population of Germany is 79.7 million people, Great Britain — 57, Poland — 39, Finland — 5. Ten million ethnic Ukrainians live outside the country on the territories of the former Soviet Union, and close to 5 million live in other foreign countries. The Diaspora is the strongest in Canada and the USA. There are six cities in Ukraine with a population of over one million. Occupying 0.45 per cent of all earth’s surface and being populated by 0.9 per cent of all earth’s dwellers, Ukraine produces almost 5 per cent of the world output.

Ukraine is the first in Europe in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain; the second in coal mining, and the third in producing concrete, electric energy and various equipment.

In the south the country has access to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov which are connected with the ocean. Twenty-seven thousand kilometres of railroads intertwine throughout the territory of Ukraine (in Sweden — 12, France — 35, Spain — 20).

to appear — появляться, показываться • з’являтися

economic potential — экономический потенциал • економічний потенціал

resource — ресурсы, средства, запасы, возможности • ресурси, засоби, запаси, можливості

to define — определять, давать определение; устанавливать значение • визначати, давати визначення; встановлювати значення

to carry out — проводить, выполнять, доводить до конца • виконувати, доводити до кінця

to get acquainted with smth. — познакомиться, ознакомиться с ч.-л. • познайомитися, ознайомитися з чимось

data — данные, новости, факты • дані, новини, факти to situate — располагаться • розташовуватися

to occupy — занимать • займати

for comparison — для сравнения • для порівняння

surface — поверхность • поверхня

to produce — производить, вырабатывать, создавать • виробляти, продукувати, створювати

output — выпуск, продукция, выработка, продукт • випуск, продукція, виробіток, продукт

iron ore extraction — добыча железной руды • видобуток залізної руди

coal mining — угледобыча • видобуток вугілля

concrete — бетон • бетон

equipment — оборудование, оснащение, техника • обладнання, оснащення, техніка

access — доступ, подход, проход • доступ, підхід, прохід

to be connected with smth. — быть связанным с ч.-л. • бути зв’язаним з чимось

railroad — железная дорога • залізниця

Dynamic of Progress of Ukraine’s Economy

In 1991—1995, two interrelated processes were characteristic of Ukraine’s economy, namely its assertion as that of independent state, and its transformation from planned-centralized to market-controlled.

These processes follow a complicated, often winding course, but there are all the prerequisites for their effective accomplishment.

Historically the following two factors determined the development of Ukrainian lands: firstly, the presence of fertile chernozem soils, and, secondly, remarkably convenient geographical location on the crossroads of international trade routes.

The export-import structure was also characteristic of the state formation existing in the current Ukrainian territories. At the same time, the development of plow farming, ferrous metallurgy and crafts led to an upsurge of such contacts between Rus’-Ukraine and other countries. Ukraine turned into Europe’s «granary.» The Ukrainian agrarian «gubernias» began to transform as agrarian-industrial regions only in the second half of the 19th century. The Donetsk Coal Basin (Donbas) and the Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Basin became Russia’s leading industrial venues.

Present-day independent Ukraine has a considerable potential to quickly develop its economy — and this is explained not only by favourable natural conditions, but also by the convenient geographical position in terms of international trade exchanges.

In Donbas the coal deposits are estimated at 2,000,000,000 tons. Some 4.2 billion tons of hydrogenous (brown) coal are to be found in the Dnieper Basin.

Ukraine’s iron and manganese ore deposits are considered the richest in the world — primary in the Kryvyi Rih Basin (up to 62% of pure iron) and the Nikopol Basin. There are also considerable reserves of titanium, nickel, chrome, mercury and other rare metals.

The non-ore deposits are quite variegated (for instance, sulphur, phosphorites, potash salts, refractories, flux, granite, marble, porcelain, clay, chalk, etc.).

Still, the oil and gas deposits of Sub-Carpathia (Prykarpattya) and Left-Bank Ukraine cannot satisfy their own needs in these energy resources.

Ukraine’s labour pool amounts to 29.6 million persons, of whom 22.4 million are employed in the national economy, including 6.4 million in the industries, 4.6 million in agriculture and forestry, 1.7 million in construction, 1.6 million in transport and communications, and 6.6 million in the communal sphere, medicine and public education.

interrelated processes — взаимосвязанные процессы • взаємопов’язані процеси

assertion — становление • становлення

transformation from planned-centralized to market-controlled — трансформация (переход) от планово-централизированной к рыночно-регулируемой • трансформація (перехід) від планово-централізованої до ринковорегульованої

prerequisites — предпосылки • передумови

fertile chernozem soils — плодородная черноземная почва • родючі чорноземні ґрунти

ferrous metallurgy — черная металлургия • чорна металургія

Europe’s «granary» — «житница» Европы • «житниця» Європи

variegated — разнообразный • різноманітний

sulphur — сера • сірка

phosphorites — Фосфориты • фосфорити

potash salts — калиевые соли • калійні солі

refractories — огнеупоры • вогнетривники

flux — флюсы • флюси marble — мрамор • мармур

clay — глинозем • глинозем

The Biggest Ukrainian Cities

Kyiv, now the capital of Ukraine, stretches on the high hills along the Dnieper, rivaling the oldest and most charming cities of Europe. Every epoch left its mark here. Even the great Tatar invasion that shook the civilized world in the 13th century was unable to wipe it off the face of the earth. Beginning in the 17th century, Kyiv once again turned into a leading spiritual and cultural centre. Glorious pages of the past and staggering current realities seem to have merged into a single, inimitable whole of this ancient, yet ever so youthful city.

Lviv, a scenic city in the west of Ukraine, was founded by Prince Daniel of Halych (Danylo Halytsky). Historically, it was first mentioned in 1256. For centuries it was repeatedly sacked by foreign aggressors, but time and again it was rebuilt and its treasures were restored by craftsmen, plowmen, architects, and men of arts and letters. The population of Lviv is 806 thousand people.

Kharkiv, Ukraine’s leading power engineering, agricultural machinery, transport and instrument-making centre. Founded in the early 1650s, it was the capital of Ukraine since 1919 till 1934. Today it is the country’s second largest city. Its population is 1575 thousand people.

Dnipropetrovsk (prior to 1926, Yekaterinoslav), a large industrial center in Ukraine. Founded in 1776, today this city is known for developed ferrous metallurgy, complex machine-building, metal-working and chemical industries. It is the venue of «Pivdenmash/KB Pivdenne» (Southern Machine-building plant), Europe’s biggest aerospace manufacturing and developing complex.

Odesa, a very special city, is a true gem on the Black Sea coast. Founded in 1794, it received its current name in 1795. It is now an administrative regional centre operating advanced machine-building, metal-working, chemical, petrochemical and other industries. Odesa is also known as a large seaport. Since 1978 a ferry line linking the port of Illichivsk (not far from Odesa) with Varna in Bulgaria has been operational.

Well-known balneological resorts (Arkadia, Kuyalnyk, etc.) are located in the city and outskirts. Its population is 1060 thousand people.

to stretch — растягивать(ся), тянуть(ся), иметь протяжение, простираться • розкинутися, розтягтися

to rival — соперничать, конкурировать • суперничати, конкурувати

epoch — эпоха, период • епоха, період

to leave mark — оставлять след • залишати слід

invasion — вторжение, нашествие • вторгнення, нашестя

to wipe smth. of the face of the earth — стереть ч.-л. с лица земли • змести щось з лиця землі

a leading spiritual and cultural centre — ведущий духовный и культурный центр • провідний духовний і культурний центр

glorious pages of the past — славные страницы прошлого • славні сторінки минулого

staggering current realities — динамизм современности • динамізм сучасності

yet so youthful city — вечно молодой город • вічнономолоде місто

scenic city — живописный город • мальовниче місто

to mention — упоминать, ссылаться на • згадувати, посилатися на

it was repeatedly sacked by foreign aggressors — его постоянно разрушали иностранные захватчики • його постійно руйнували іноземні нападники

treasure — сокровище • скарб

to restore — восстанавливать, реставрировать • відновлювати, реставрувати

craftsmen — ремесленники • ремісники

architects — архитекторы, зодчие • архітектори, зодчі

men of arts and letters — деятели искусства и литературы • діячі мистецтва і літератури.

ferrous metallurgy — черная металлургия • чорна металургія

meta-working — машиностроение • машинобудування

venue — месторасположение • місцерозташування

aerospace manufacturing and developing complex — промышленный аэрокосмический комплекс • промисловий аерокосмічний комплекс

a true gem — настоящая жемчужина • справжня перлина

petrochemical industry — нефтеперерабатывающая промышленность • нафтопереробна промисловість

ferry line — паромная переправа • паромна переправа

to link — соединять • поєднувати

resort — курорт • курорт

Industries in Ukraine

Ukrainian industries constitute a ramified network with modem attendant branches. Ukraine’s population stands for 0.9% of that of the planet, but it is responsible for 5% of the world’s industrial output, in almost 300 industrial branches. Ukraine provides one-tenth of the planet’s cast iron, one-eleventh of the steels, and one-twelfth of pit coal.

Heavy industries, especially ferrous metallurgy, coal and machinebuilding, are predominant in the national industrial complex.

Defense industry also occupies an important place. At present, it is being restructured and converted, with the emphasis on the output of consumer goods, particularly ones involving high technologies.

Attainments of the «Pivdenny (Southern) Machine-building Plant» production complex, and the «M. K. Yanhel Pivdenne Design Bureau» are known far outside Ukraine. Both enterprises maintain close business contacts, which help them develop unique space systems varying in class and designation, also universal purpose tractors, modem trolley-buses and other products whose major characteristics answer top international standards.

Aircrafts of Ukrainian manufacture are known all over the world. Models developed by the «О. K. Antonov Aviation Research-and- Technology Complex» are built in Kyiv and Kharkiv. Aircraft engines, developed by the «Prohres Machine-building Design Bureau of Zaporizhzhya,» and built by the world’s largest «Motor-Sich Enginebuilding Plant,» are installed in the Antonov and many other aircraft and helicopter models.

«Chornomorsky Shipyard» ranks with the largest ship-building enterprises of Europe and the rest of the world. In 1997 it marked its birth centennial, and it used to manufacture destroyers, minelayers, cruisers, battleships, base ships, supply icebreakers, helicopter carriers and ships, big full-freezer factory trawlers and tankers. Its powerful production base, manufacturing and metallurgical factories guarantee the fulfilment of most sophisticated commissions from ship owners and from various industrial branches.

«Azovmash» is one of the Ukraine’s most powerful machinebuilding complexes sypplying products to numerous industrial branches. It rests on a solid research and technological base, concentrated mainly in Mariupol.

«Nyzniodniprovsky Tube Rolling Works» ranks with the main suppliers of multiple purpose steel pipes, railway wheels, tread bands, large ring products, flanges and various tube-based consumer goods in Europe’s south-east.

«Pure Metals» metallurgical enterprise is situated on the banks of the man-made Lake Kremenchuh. It manufactures cast iron, solar cells, has a powerful production, technological and research potential.

«Dniprospetsstal» is a leading metallurgical enterprise in Ukraine; «Dniprospetsstal» is Ukraine’s only, and one of the world’s few, enterprise which specializes in section rolled stock, billets, slugs, sized steels, heat-resistant stills and alloys.

«O. Parkhomenko Engineering Works of Luhansk» ranks with Ukraine’s largest manufactures of ore-mining and processing equipment. Its production facilities answer the latest world standards and its products are always of top quality.

«Kryukov Railway Car Works» ranks with the biggest manufactures of transport vehicles, including railway rolling stock. It possesses a tangible production potential enabling it to effectively implement non-traditional sophisticated technologies.

Being exported to different countries, its products won the customers’ recognition with their high reliability in operation.

«Lviv Bus Works» is the leading bus-manufacturing enterprise of Ukraine, and it ranks with major such companies in Europe. Its production capacities ensure an output of almost 10,000 different models and diesel-driven modifications.

defense industry — оборонная промышленность • оборонна промисловість

consumer goods — товары массового потребления • товари повсякденного попиту

attainments — достижения • досягнення

«Pivdenny (Southern) Machine-building Plant» — «Южный машиностроительный завод» • «Південний машинобудівний завод» («Південмаш»)

designation — назначение • призначення

«О. К. Antonov Aviation Research-and-Technology Complex» — Технический комплекс им. О. К. Антонова • Технічний комплекс ім. О. К. Антонова

«Prohres Machine-building Design Bureau of Zaporizhzhya» — Запорожское машиностроительное КБ «Прогресс» • Запорізьке машинобудівне КБ «Прогрес»

«Motor-Sich Engine-building Plant» — моторостроительный завод «Мотор-Сич» • моторобудівний завод «Мотор-Січ»

«Chomomorsky Shipyard» — Черноморский судостроительный завод • Чорноморський суднобудівний завод

«Azovmash» — «Азовмаш» • «Азовмаш»

«Nyzhniodniprovsky Tube Rolling Works» — Нижнеднепровский трубопрокатный завод •Нижньодніпровський трубопрокатний завод

«Pure Metals» — завод «Чистые металлы» • завод «Чисті метали»

«Dniprospetsstal» — металлургическое предприятие «Днепроспецсталь» • металургійне підприємство «Дніпроспецсталь»

О. Parkhomenko Engineering Works of Luliansk» — Луганский машиностроительный завод им. А. П. Пархоменко • Луганський машинобудівний завод ім. Пархоменко

«Kryukov Railway Car Works» — Крюковский вагоностроительный завод • Крюківський вагонобудівний завод

«Lviv Bus Works» — Львовский автобусный завод • Львівський автобусний завод

Land Resources of Ukraine

Steppes and plains compose the most part of the territory of Ukraine (95 per cent). The top-soils are mainly black. They are the biggest treasure of the Ukrainian land. Twenty five per cent of the world’s black rich soils are in Ukraine. Together with the fact, that the climate of Ukraine is mainly moderately continental, and the sediments are 300—600 millimetres, it allows for considerable progress in agricultural production after the village is reoriented towards the market economy.

In Ukraine they grow sugar beets, wheat, rye, barley, oats, com, sunflower, hemp, flax, buckwheat, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbages, also a large variety of grain cultures, fruit and vegetables. Ukraine has about 30 thousand hectares of land under cultivation. Grain production is almost 1 ton per person. Sugar beet production per person is 1000 kg (in France — 415, in Germany — 332, in Hungary — 450). Ukraine produces 100 kg sugar per person (France — 65, Germany — 60, the USA — 25).

Sugar can be called white gold (in the world market it costs 250 US dollars per ton). This product can bring great profits to Ukraine’s state treasury. Annual meat production is about 70 kg per person (in the USA — 120, in Hungary — 160, in Germany — 95, in Poland — 75). By carrying out a land reform to create a great number of farms whose activities the state would promote, could lay a foundation for Ukraine’s transition to a market economy. All towns and villages of Ukraine are connected by a wide net of highways. Oil and gas pipelines of international significance go through the territory of Ukraine.

Fees from transit oil pipelines pay for most of the imported oil. Natural and human resources are sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market. There is a very reason to believe that Ukraine will quickly enter the family of Europe’s leading countries.

plain — равнина • рівнина

to compose — составлять • складати

top-soil — плодородный слой почвы • родючий шар ґрунту

treasure — сокровище • скарб

sediment — осадок, осадочная порода, отложение • осадок, осадочна порода, відклад

to allow — позволять, разрешать • дозволяти

considerable progress — значительный прогресс • значний прогрес

market economy — рыночная экономика • ринкова економіка

sugar beet — сахарная свекла • цукровий буряк

wheat — пшеница • пшениця rye — рожь • жито

barley — ячмень • ячмінь

oat [out] — овес • овес

corn — кукуруза, зерно • кукурудза, зерно

sunflower — подсолнечник • соняшник

hemp — конопля • коноплі

flax — лен • льон

buckwheat — гречиха • гречка

onion — лук • цибуля

world market — мировой рынок • світовий ринок

to cost — стоить, иметь стоимость • коштувати, вартувати

profit — польза, выгода, прибыль • користь, вигода, прибуток

annual — ежегодный, годовой • річний, щорічний

to carry out — приводить, выполнять, доводить до конца • здійснювати, виконувати, доводити до кінця

land reform — земельная реформа • земельна реформа

to create — творить, создавать • творити, створювати

activity — деятельность • діяльність

to promote — способствовать, помогать, поддерживать; содействовать распространению, развитию • сприяти, допомагати, підтримувати; сприяти розповсюдженню, розвиткові

transition — переход, перемещение; переходный период • перехід, переміщення; перехідний період

to be connected by a wide net of highways — быть связанным широкой сетью торговых путей • бути пов’язаним широкою мережею торговельних шляхів

pipeline — трубопровод • трубогін

gas pipeline — газопровод • газогін

international significance — международное значение • міжнародне значення

fee — плата • плата

sufficient — имеющий ч.-л. в достаточном количестве • той, що щось має в достатній кількості

internal market — внутренний рынок • внутрішній ринок

friendly and equal partner — дружественный и равноправный партнер • дружній і рівноправний партнер

reason — причина • причина to believe — верить • вірити

to enter the family of Europe’s leading countries — вступить в семью ведущих европейских стран • увійти в сім’ю провідних європейських країн

Mineral and Fuel-Energy Resources of Ukraine

Ukraine completely satisfies its needs in iron, manganese and titanium ores, as well as rock salt, cement, gypsum, mineral paints, heat resistant clays, bromine, graphite, mercury and uranium. Deposits of ammonium, nickel, poly-metallic and magnesium ores were discovered and developed industrially. These resources can be exported. To satisfy her needs the country has to import potassium salts, dolomite, phosphorites, apatites, as well as clay soil, fluorite and fieldspar.

In the Donetsk coal basin a 50 million tons supply of anthracite coal was discovered. This is a big reserve, taking into account that during the whole history of coal mining (almost 150 years) in Donbas almost 10 million tons of coal were already extracted. Ukraine’s annual coal extracting is 150 million tons. Industrial development of rich deposits of brown coal, combustible slates and peat is being carried out. Exploration of new deposits of oil is being carried out which will improve the situation considerably.

Ukraine produces about 300 billion kw/hours of electrical energy. The biggest part (25 per cent) is produced at nuclear power plants (in the USA — 18 per cent, in Japan — 23 per cent).

Ukraine’s main importers of oil and gas are Russia and Turkmenistan. The importance of rock-coal in the energy balance is decreasing, and this tendency will continue in the future because the layers are located very deep and their extraction becomes more and more costly. At the same time, Russia and Turkmenistan showed themselves to be unreliable partners. That is why Ukraine should parallely orient itself on other oil and gas importers, and pay more attention to regenerational sources of energy: solar, wind, hydrothermal, and even more attention to resources and energy saving technologies.

resources — ресурсы, средства, запасы • ресурси, засоби, запаси

completely — совершенно, полностью, вполне, всецело • повністю, цілком, цілковито

to satisfy — удовлетворять, соответствовать, отвечать (требованиям) • вдовольняти, відповідати (вимогам)

iron — железо; черный металл (железо, сталь, чугун) • залізо, чорний метал (сталь, чавун, залізо)

manganese — марганец • марганець

titanium — титан • титан

rock salt — каменная соль • кaм’яна сіль

cement — цемент • цемент

gypsum — гипс • гіпс

clay — глина, глинозем • глина, глинозем

bromine — бром • бром

graphite — графит • графіт

mercury — ртуть • ртуть uranium — уран • уран

deposit — залежь, месторождение • поклад, родовище

to export — экспортировать, вывозить (товары) • експортувати, вивозити (товари)            

to import — ввозить, импортировать • завозити, імпортувати

fieldspar — полевой шпат • польовий шпат

coal — (каменный) уголь • (кaм’яне) вугілля

supply — снабжение, поставка, припасы, запас • постачання, поставка, припаси, запас

to discover — делать открытие, открывать • робити відкриття, винаходити

reserve — запас, резерв, заповедник • запас, резерв, заповідник

to take into account — принимать во внимание, в расчет • брати до уваги, в розрахунок

coal mining — угледобыча • вуглевидобуток

to extract — извлекать, удалять, вырывать • вилучати, видаляти, виконувати

annual — ежегодный, годовой • річний, щорічний

peat — торф • торф

to carry out — выполнять; доводить до конца; проводить • виконувати; доводити до кінця; провадити

to improve — улучшать(ся), совершенствовать(ся), повышать ценность • покращувати, вдосконалюватися, підвищувати цінність

considerably — значительно • значно

to produce — производить, вырабатывать, создавать • виробляти, продукувати, створювати

nuclear — ядерный • ядерний, атомний

nuclear power plants — атомные станции • атомні станції

oil — нефть • нафта

rock-coal — каменный уголь • кaм’яне вугілля

extraction — извлечение, добыча, экстракция; происхождение • видобуток, екстракція

to pay attention to smth. — уделять внимание ч.-л. • приділяти увагу чомусь

solar — солнечный • сонячний

Agriculture in Ukraine

Farming areas occupy 41.9 million hectares of Ukraine’s more than 60 million hectares of dry land, of which the arable soils cover 33.3 million hectares. Statistically, every family has a farming plot of 4.5 hectares. Upward of 4 million persons are employed in the agrarian sector.

Crops breeding is the most important farming branch, for instance, rye, wheat, com, sugar beet, sunflower, leguminous plants, tobacco, flax, fruit, vegetables.

Animal husbandry is the second — after crops breeding — major farming branch, for example, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, etc.

Good progress was registered in poultry breeding, pond-fish culture, bee-keeping, for farming, and rabbit breeding.

arable soils — пахотные земли • орні землі

crops breeding — выращивание растений • вирощування рослин

rye — рожь • жито

wheat — пшеница • пшениця

com — кукуруза • кукурудза

sugar beet — сахарная свекла • цукровий буряк

sunflower — подсолнух • соняшник

leguminous plants — зернобобовые • зернобобові

flax — лен • льон

animal husbandry — животноводство • скотарство

poultry breeding — птицеводство • пташарство, птахівництво

pond-fish culture — рыболовный промысел • риболовство

bee-keeping — пчеловодство • бджільництво

Foreign Economic Activities of Ukraine

Ukraine’s enterprises conduct business transactions with partners in 137 countries. Ukraine’s major export items: metal, ores, coal, electricity, nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizer, soda, cement, glass, construction materials, machines, equipment, sugar, vegetable oil. Its major import items: oil, gas, timber, non-ferrous metals, cars, machines and equipment, knitted wear and garments, top quality foodstuffs, medications.

Ukraine’s leading trade partners are: Russia, Germany, the USA, Italy, China, Turkey, the Czech, Belarus, Turkmenistan, Latvia, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Poland, and Bulgaria.

Barter deals and export under federal contracts make up some 43% of the foreign trade turnover.

to conduct business transactions — производить деловые операции • здійснювати ділові операції

partner — партнер • партнер

nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizer — азотные и фосфорные удобрения • азотні і фосфатні добрива

timber — лесоматериалы • пиломатеріали

non-ferrous metal — цветные металлы • кольорові метали

knitted wear — трикотажные изделия • трикотажні вироби

garments — швейные изделия • швейні вироби

foodstuffs — продукты питания • продукти харчування

medications — медикаменты • медикаменти

barter deals — бартер, товарообмен • бартер, товарообмін

foreign trade turnover — внешний товарооборот • зовнішній товарооборот

Banking System and Stock Market in Ukraine

After it was proclaimed independent, Ukraine set about creating a national banking structure and a stock market. In four years a twin-level banking structure took shape: the National Bank of Ukraine, and commercial banks of all types and forms of property. The latter constitute a ramified network embracing all of Ukraine’s administrative Regions, and the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea. As of June 1, 1995, Ukraine registers 227 commercial banks, including 9 with foreign capital shares. The stock market shows impetuous progress. Today, it contains of 2 stock, 2 hard currency interbank, and 91 commodity exchanges; 65 investments funds and companies, 500 trust partnerships, 660 insurance companies, and 250 audit firms.

stock market — финансовый рынок • фінансовий ринок

twin-level banking structure — двухуровневая структура банков • двохрівнева структура банків

ramified network — разветвленная сеть • розгалужена мережа

to embrace — охватывать • охоплювати

impetuous progress — бурное развитие • бурхливий розвиток

insurance companies — страховые компании • страхові компанії

The Cossack Republic (From the History of Ukraine)

The word «Cossack » means a free and independent man. Cossacks were first mentioned in writing in 1492. In the sixteenth century the Cossacks united in a single military organization. The first fortifications were built on Mala Khortytsia Island, in the lower reaches of the Dnieper, behind the rapids, where the rocky river bed made navigation hard and risky. Hence, the name «Zaporizhzhya » («Beyond- the-Rapids»). The word «sich »comes from the Ukrainian verb «sikty, » meaning to chop up, cut — and the Zaporizhzhian Cossacks made their fortifications of wood, falling trees and cutting branches in the nearby forest.

The appearance of the «Zaporizhzhian Sich» is inseparably bound up with the formation of the Cossacks as a separate social stratum with its own traditions and way of life. This process was the direct result of a continues struggle between settled farmers and the nomadic tribes ruled by the Crimean Khan and the Turkish Sultan.

With time the Sich host turned into a kind of knightly order in which everyone was required to observe strict discipline and be absolutely dedicated. Insignia and other symbols of rank and authority (the standard, the mace, etc.) were held in the highest esteem by officers and men alike. Fighting the enemies of the Eastern Orthodox faith and for the independence of the native land was the predominant idea. Cossack prestige was such that a certain «nation» seemed to have taken shape, with elements of Cossack democracy penetrating the whole society.

The end of the sixteenth century witnessed joint peasant-Cossack revolts against the Polish social, economic, religious and cultural oppression. In 1648, a national liberation war broke out in Ukraine, led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky whom Oliver Cromvell, trying to establish good relations, called a "renowned generalissimus.» That same year the Polish army lost several battles to the Cossack forces (even though the Polish Kingdom was then considered one of Europe’s strongest powers).

The Ukrainian Cossacks played an important role in European political history.

to mean — значить, означать, иметь значение • значити, означати, мати значення

to mention — упоминать, ссылаться на • згадувати, посилатися на

to unite — соединять(ся), объединять(ся) • з’єднувати, об’єднувати

single — один, единственный • один, єдиний

fortification — фортификация, укрепление • фортифікація, укріплення

in the lower reaches of the Dnieper — в низовье Днепра • в пониззі Дніпра

hence — отсюда; с этих пор; следовательно • звідси; з цих пір; отже

verb — глагол • дієслово

appearance — появление; внешний вид, наружность • поява; зовнішній вигляд, зовнішність

to be inseparably bound up with smth. — быть неразрывно связанным с ч.-л. • бути нерозривно пов’язаним з чимось

separate social stratum — отдельная социальная формация • окрема соціальна формація

way of life — образ жизни • образ життя, стиль життя

nomadic tribes — кочевые племена • кочові племена

Sich host — сичевое войско • січове військо

knightly order — рыцарский отряд • рицарський загін

to require to observe strict discipline — требовать соблюдения строжайшей дисциплины • вимагати дотримання строгої дисципліни

to be absolutely dedicated — быть абсолютно преданным • бути абсолютно відданим

insignia — знаки отличия, ордена, значки; эмблема • знаки розрізнення, ордени, значки; емблема

standard — штандарт, знамя • штандарт

mace — булава • булава

esteem — уважение • повага

predominant idea — господствующая идея • панівна ідея

prestige — престиж • престиж

shape — форма, очертание, вид, образ • форма, обрис, вид, образ

to penetrate — проникать внутрь, проходить сквозь, пронизывать, пропитывать • проникати всередину, проходити крізь, пронизувати

joint peasant-Cossack revolts — общие крестьянско-казацкие выступления • спільні селянсько-козацькі виступи

oppression — притеснение, угнетение, гнет • утиск, утиски, гніт

national liberation war — национально-освободительная война • національно-визвольна війна

to break out — вспыхивать, разразиться • спалахувати

to establish good relations — установить хорошие отношения • встановити добрі стосунки

’’renowned generalissimus» — «славный генералиссимус» • «славний генералісимус»

Bohdan Khmelnytsky — Ukrainian National Hero

Khmelnytsky, Bohdan (Fedir) Zinoviy, born ca 1595—1596, died 6 August, 1657, in Chyhyryn. Hetman of the Zaporizhzhian Host from 1648 to 1657, founder of the Hetman state (1648—1782). By birth he belonged to the Ukrainian lesser nobility and bore the Massalski, and later the Abdank, coat of arms. His father, M. Khmelnytsky, served as an officer under the Polish crown hetman S. Zolkiewski, and his mother, according to some sources, was of Cossack descent. Little is known about Khmelnytsky’s education. Apparently, he received his elementary schooling in Ukrainian and his secondary and higher education in Polish at a Jesuit college, possibly in Yaroslav, but more probably in Lviv. He completed his schooling before 1620 and acquired a broad knowledge of world history and fluency in Polish and Latin. Later he acquired a knowledge of Turkish, Tatar, and French. The Battle of Cecora (1620), in which he lost his father and was captured by the Turks, was his first military action. After spending two years in Istanbul, he was ransomed by his mother and returned to Ukraine.

There is no reliable information about Khmelnytsky’s activities from 1622 to 1637. Only one fact is certain — that in the 1620s he joined the registered Cossacks. Sometime between 1625 and 1627 he married Hanna Somko, a Cossack’s daughter from Pereiaslav, and settled on his patrimonial estate in Subotiv near Chyhyryn. By 1637 he attained the high office of military chancellor. By the Ordinance of 1638 the Polish king revoked the autonomy of the Zaporizhzhian Host and placed the registered Cossacks under the direct authority of the Polish military command in Ukraine. The office of military chancellor, which Khmelnytsky had held, was abolished, and Khmelnytsky was demoted to a captain of Chyhyryn regiment. In the autumn of 1638 he visited Warsaw with a Cossack delegation to petition King Vladyslav IV Vasa to restore the former Cossack privileges.

In the next few years Khmelnytsky devoted his attention mostly to his estates in the Chyhyryn region, but in 1645 he served with a detachment of 2,000—2,500 Cossacks in France, and probably took part in the siege of Dunkirk. By this time his reputation for leadership was such that King Vladyslav, in putting together a coalition of Poland, Venice, and other states against Turkey, turned to him to obtain the support of the Zaporizhzhian Cossacks. These events contributed to his reputation in Ukraine, Poland, and abroad, and provided him with wide military and political contacts.

Khmelnytsky, however, had been regarded with suspicion for many years by the Polish magnates in Ukraine who were politically opposed to King Vladyslav. In spite of the fact that Khmelnytsky received a royal title to Subotiv in 1646, the Chyhyryn assistant vicegerent Czaplinski raided the estate, seized movable property, and disrupted the manor’s economy. Khmelnytsky’s small son was severely beaten at the marketplace in Chyhyryn. Under these conditions of violence and terror Khmelnytsky’s wife died in 1647.

At the end of December 1647 Khmelnytsky departed for Zaporizhzhya with a small (300—500 men) detachment. There he was elected heiman. This event marked the beginning of a new Cossack uprising, which quickly turned into a national revolution.

The great uprising of 1648 was one of the most cataclysmic events in Ukrainian history. It is difficult to find an uprising of comparable magnitude, intensity, and impact in the history of early modem Europe. A crucial element in the revolt was the leadership of Hetman B. Khmelnytsky, whose exceptional organizational, military, and political talents to a large extent accounted for its success.

Khmelnytsky was married three times. His first wife, who was the mother of all his children, died prematurely. His second wife, Matrona, whom he married in early 1649, was the former wife of his enemy D. Czaplinski. In 1651 while Khmelnytsky was away on a military campaign, she was executed for conspiracy. In the summer of 1651 Khmelnytsky married Hanna Zolotarenko, a Cossack woman from Korsun and the widow of Col Pylyp (Pylypets). Surviving him by many years, she entered a monastery in 1671 and adopted the religious name of Anastasiya. Khmelnytsky had two sons and four daughters. Khmelnytsky was buried on 25 August, 1657, in St. Eliyah’s Church in Subotiv, which he himself had built.

Khmelnytsky’s greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the Cossack Hetman state of the Zaporizhzhian Host (1648—1782). His statesmanship was demonstrated in all areas of state-building — in the military, administration, finance, economics, and culture.

ca = circa — (лат.) приблизительно • близько, приблизно

host — войско • військо

nobility — дворяне, знать • шляхта

coat of arms — герб • герб

descent — происхождение • походження

Jesuit — иезуит • єзуїт

to acquire — получать • одержувати

to capture — брать в плен • брати в полон

to ransom — освобождать за выкуп • звільняти за викуп

patrimonial — родовой • родовий

to attain — получать • одержувати

chancellor — канцлер, первый секретарь • канцлер, перший секретар

ordinance — указ • указ

to revoke — отменять (закон, приказ) • скасовувати (закон, указ)

to abolish — ликвидировать • ліквідувати

to demote — понижать в звании • понизити у званні

regiment — полк • полк

detachment — отряд • загін

siege — осада • облога

suspicion — подозрение • підозра

vicegerent — наместник • намісник

to disrupt — разрушать • руйнувати

manor — поместье • маєток

violence — насилие • насильство

uprising — восстание • повстання

magnitude — значительность, важность • значність, поважність

impact — влияние • вплив

crucial — решающий • вирішальний

revolt — мятеж • переворот, заколот

to a large extent — в огромной степени • значною мірою

prematurely — преждевременно • передчасно

to execute — казнить • страчувати

conspiracy — заговор • змова

to survive — пережить, выжить • пережити, вижити

Rebirth of the Ukrainian Cossacks

The Ministry of Justice of Ukraine registered a new public organization, the Ukrainian Cossacks. It is aimed at organizing the spiritual, physical, and military education of patriotic Ukrainian youth, raising young Ukrainians as individuals abiding by faith in Our Lord and by sound moral dictates.

Ukrainian Cossacks, both men and officers, boasted high literacy standard. Many of them knew Latin. Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Petro Sahaidachny and Ivan Mazepa spoke several languages. Colonels Morozenko, Nemyrych and others studied at the University of Padua, in England, Belgium and Germany.

Dmytro Baida-Vyshneveisky was the first Cossack Hetman (1550—1563), one of the Ukraine’s highest ranking Rus’ dukes, descendant of Prince St. Volodymyr, a Ukrainian magnate. Historians associate his name with the foundation of the Zaporizhzhian Sich on Khortytsia Island. He was popularly known as the legendary hero Baida.

Bohdan (Zynoviy) Khmelnytsky (1595—1657), Hetman of Ukraine since 1648. He was a true innovator in the military art, organization of the Cossack Host, and a prominent statesman. Founder of the Ukrainian Cossack state, he led the national liberation war against the Polish aristocracy.

Ivan Mazepa (1640—1709), one of the most highly educated figures in Ukrainian history; outstanding politician, Hetman of Ukraine since 1687 who constantly fostered public education and culture. Voltaire, Byron, Hugo, Ryleev, Pushkin, Shevchenko, Brecht, Liszt and Tchaikovsky — all dedicated their works to this romantic figure.

These great men of Ukraine, Hetmans, founders of the Cossack state were educated men, a real example for the young Ukrainian Cossacks of our days to follow.

to register a new public organization — регистрировать новую общественную организацию • реєструвати нову громадську організацію

to abide — оставаться верным; придерживаться • залишатися вірним; дотримуватися

to boast high literacy standard — быть высокообразованным • бути високоосвіченим

colonel — полковник • полковник

University of Padua — Падуанский университет • Падуанський університет

duke — князь • князь descendant — потомок • нащадок

innovator — новатор • новатор

The Historical Places of Kyiv

Kyiv is one of the oldest cities Europe. Its monuments of past are perfectly integrated with modern buildings, attractive hotels, cinemas, TV tower, Metro stations, banks and administrative buildings.

As one takes a bus ride through Khreshchatyk or strolls in the shade of trees, it is difficult to believe that ages ago this was the sight of a deep valley covered with primeval forests and numerous ravines. Actually it was the valley called Kreshchataya, which later became Khreshchatyc, the main street of the capital.

The valley first began to resemble a street at the beginning of the last century when one-storeyed wooden houses were built, later on stone buildings were erected. During the Great Patriotic war Kreshchatic was completely destroyed by the Nazis. As soon as the city was liberated (November 6, 1943), the restoration of the main street was begun.

The entire architectural conception envisaged a combination of decorative fasades with an abundance of trees and shrubs, sunlight and space.

In 1037 St. Sophia Cathedral, an outstanding monument of ancient Rus’ and world culture, was built on the site of the 1036 battle against the Pechenehs in which the Kyiv warriors were victorious. It was founded during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise.

For centuries, this remarkable building, the embodiment of the talent and assiduity of hundreds of thousands of its nameless builders, has astonished the vision with its magnificence and splendour. Its appearance has changed many times as the result of reconstruction. The interior decorations of the Cathedral are exceptionally valuable and add its unique architectural forms. Numerous mosaics and frescoes have been discovered under the coating of later ornamentation and restored to their former beauty. The extensive use of fresco painting in decorative works show the great skill of the painters of the time.

Leaving St. Sophia Cathedral through the gateways, one comes out into Bohdan Khmelnytsky Square. It is bordered to the right by a strip of trees and shrubs while in the centre of the square there is the monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the 17th century outstanding Ukrainian statesman and military leader. Being a far-sighted statesman, Bohdan Khmelnytsky sought reunification with the Russian state, which was the Ukraine’s only ally at that time. At the end of 1653 the Zemsky Sobor adopted a decision to reunite the two countries. This decision was ratified in 1654 at the historical Pereyaslav Rada. That’s why Bohdan Khmelnytsky is considered to be a national hero of the Ukrainian people. The monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky was built in 1888 by sculptor Mykhailo Mikeshin. It shows the eminent statesman and soldier on horseback pointing his mace towards Moscow.

As Kyiv’s history is full of dramatic events and heroic deeds, there are many other places of interest in it such as the Golden Gates, Andryevskaya Church, the monument to Prince Volodymyr, Kyiv-Pechersky Monastery, Vydubetsky Monastery, Askold’s Grave and others.                

perfectly — отлично, вполне, совершенно • чудово, цілком, зовсім

to integrate — составлять целое, объединять • складати єдине ціле, об’єднувати

attractive hotels — привлекательные гостиницы • заманливі готелі

administrative buildings — административные здания • адміністративні будівлі

to take a bus ride through smth. — совершить автобусную экскурсию по... • здійснити автобусну екскурсію...

to stroll in a shade of trees — прогуливаться под тенью деревьев • прогулюватися в тіні дерев

valley — долина • долина

primeval forests — первобытные леса • праліси

ravine — овраг, ущелье • яр, ущелина

to resemble — иметь сходство • мати подібність

to be completely destroyed — быть полностью разрушенным • бути повністю зруйнованим

restoration — восстановление, реконструкция • відновлення, реконструкція

to envisage — рассматривать • розглядати

abundance — изобилие, избыток, множество • велика кількість

shrub — куст, кустарник • кущ, чагарник

warrior — воин, боец • вояк, боєць

during the reign — во время правления • в час правління

remarkable — замечательный, выдающийся • чудовий, видатний

the embodiment of the talent and assiduity — воплощение таланта и усердия • втілення таланту та працьовитості

to astonish — удивлять, изумлять • дивувати

magnificence — великолепие • пишність

splendour — блеск, пышность, красота, великолепие, благородство • блиск, пишність, краса, шляхетність

interior decoration — внутреннее украшение, внутренняя отделка • внутрішні прикраси, інтер'єр

exceptionally valuable — исключительно ценный • виключно цінний

unique architectural forms — уникальные архитектурные формы • унікальні архітектурні форми

mosaic — мозаика • мозаїка

fresco — фреска, фресковая живопись • фреска, фрескове малярство

to restore — восстанавливать, реставрировать • відновлювати, реставрувати

skill — мастерство • майстерність

to border — граничить • межувати

eminent statesman — выдающийся государственный деятель • видатний державний діяч

Holidays in Ukraine

Very often we look forward to holidays to enjoy ourselves. As you know, the word «holiday» comes from the words «holy day.» The point is that all the holidays were first religious festivals, but nowadays many of them have nothing to do with religion. Each country has holidays honouring important events in its history. Many historical events are of great importance for all peoples and countries throughout the world.

As we live in Ukraine, we have our own customs and traditions, holidays and festivals. The long-term dream of Ukrainian people came true on December 1, 1991. More than 90% of the Ukrainian people voted for the independence of their country, Ukraine. It was proclaimed on the 24th of August, 1991 and Ukraine became a sovereign state. That is why Ukrainian people celebrate this day as the greatest national holiday. There are a lot of concerts and dances in the streets of Kyiv. This holiday commemorates the freedom of Ukrainian people.

New Year Holiday is widely observed in Ukraine. The most common type of celebration is the New Year party, either a family party or one arranged by a group of young people. This usually begins at 9 o’clock and goes on till the early hours of the morning. There are a lot of drinking and eating on the festive table; but the main thing is that the New Year is the holiday of expectations. The children decorate the New Year tree with toys and coloured lights. When the clock strikes 12, everybody drinks champagne and says to each other, «Happy New Year!»

Christmas Day is observed on the 7th of January. You know, this holiday is of religious origin. Most people observe the tradition of going to church and having a tasty dinner. But in Ukraine people do not exchange presents on this holiday as it is in the case of Great Britain and many olher countries.

On the 8th of March we celebrate Women’s Day. It is a nice spring holiday when men give presents and flowers to their wives, sweethearts, girl-friends, sisters and daughters. Children congratulate their mothers on this holiday, or send them a holiday card with the best wishes.

Shevchenko Days are also very popular in Ukraine. They are celebrated in March every year.

Another great national holiday is Easter, the holiday of celebrating Christ’s rising from the dead. It is a time of giving and receiving presents which traditionally took the form of an Easter egg. The Easter egg is the most popular emblem of the religious holiday.

April Fool’s day named from the custom of playing practical jokes or sending on fool’s errands is on April the 1st. People enjoy joking and laughing on this holiday.

The 9th of May is Victory Day, the holiday of victory over fascist invaders. People lay flowers to the war memorials, to the tombs of the people who died in the war. There are commemorative meetings all over the country. War veterans are greeted and there is a salute and fireworks in the evening.

to look forward to smth. — предвкушать ч.-л., с нетерпением ожидать ч.-л. • чекати на щось із нетерпінням

holy day — святой день • святий день

the point is that... — дело в том, что... • справа в тому, що..

religious — религиозный • релігійний

nowadays — в наше время, в наши дни • в наш час, в наші дні

to have nothing to do with smth. — не иметь ничего общего с ч.-л. • не мати нічого спільного з чимось

to be of great importance — быть очень важным • бути дуже важливим

custom — обычай • звичай

long-term dream — давняя мечта • давня мрія

to come true — сбываться • збуватися

to vote — голосовать • голосувати

to proclaim — провозглашать, объявлять • проголошувати, оголошувати

sovereign state — суверенное государство • суверенна держава

to commemorate — праздновать, отмечать событие, служить напоминанием • святкувати, відзначати подію, бути нагадуванням

to arrange — устраивать, уславливаться, договариваться о... • влаштовувати, умовлятися, домовлятися про...

expectation — ожидание, надежда, предвкушение • чекання, надія, очікування

to observe — соблюдать • дотримуватись, відзначати

sweetheart — возлюбленный(-ая), дорогой(-ая) • коханий(-а), любий(-а)

to congratulate on — поздравлять с • вітати з

Easter — Пасха (праздник), пасхальный • Пасха (свято), пасхальний

Christ’s rising from the dead — воскресение Христа • воскресіння Христа

to play a joke — (по)шутить • (по)жартувати

errand — поручение • доручення

to send smb. on fool’s errand — посылать к.-л. с невыполнимым поручением • посилати когось із неможливим до виконання дорученням

fascist invaders — фашистские захватчики • фашистські загарбники

tomb — могила • могила

fireworks — фейерверк • феєрверк

Some Calender Festivals and Rites of Ukrainian People

Late autumn and winter afford moments of leisure to rural people throughout Europe. This period is especially rich in traditions and rites.

November 21 is the day in many regions of Ukraine when «summer turns into winter,» and many omens and forecasts are connected with this day. They reflect a peasant’s desire to predict what the coming winter might be like and how it could affect next year’s harvest: «If November 21 builds bridges across the rivers and the feast of Mykola (December 6) hammers nails into them, then the winter will be severe.» A characteristic omen for this day was the identity of the first guest to visit someone’s home. There were good and bad omens. A female guest was a bad omen. On the other hand, a male guest would bring happiness and prosperity to the family.

Kateryna’s Day (November 24) and Andriy’s Day (November 30) were largely feasts for young people. They were preparations for the great holidays of Christmas and New Year.

It should be noted that these feasts coincided with the 40-day Pyiypivsky fast, which began on November 15, and thus, were contrary to the rules of the Christian church. But attempts by the clergy to do away with this tradition were fruitless.

The 12-day period between December 25 (Nativity), January 1 (New Year), and January 6 (Christmas), marked the high point of festivities. A great number of rituals and traditions connected with these dates in the church and secular calendars formed over the centuries. Each feast had specific features, yet, they all had much in common, namely, to protect people from evil forcers which were thought to be particularly dangerous during this period, to ensure happiness and prosperity for the family in the new year, and to reveal prospects for the future.    

Ritual feasts can be divided into two groups: family and calendar festivals. Each feast has a meal as its integral pail. The primary family rituals are connected with birth (confinement, baptism), marriage and death. In rituals connected with childbirth, meals were particularly important during visits to new mothers. Traditionally, only women could pay such visits. Usually, they brought bread or cakes, eggs, honey, stewed fruit, thus, enriching with high-calorie products the diet of a young mother still weak after confinement. Similar traditions of mutual assistance were characteristic of other festive events. At a wedding, the young couple was presented not only with gifts but also with bread, flour, grain or groats. At funerals, guests were supposed to bring bread, flour, com or groats. These foodstuffs were regarded as possessing magic forces. At weddings, bread was used to greet the newlyweds with; it was blessed and was to guarantee them a happy married life.

Special wedding loafs («Korovays») were a peculiar feature of Ukrainian marriage rites. This tradition was popular throughout Ukraine (except for some regions of Transcarpathians, and Middle Dniester area where marriage rolls were used instead of loafs), as well as in neighboring regions of Russia, Byelarus and Poland. The importance of marriage loafs in Ukrainian wedding rites was so great that the bridegroom whose wedding was conducted without them would later be called «Bezkorovainy» (without loaf).

These loafs were baked, as a rule, by the families of the newlyweds and were divided into two parts during the wedding ceremony. The loaf symbolized the unity of the young couple, the unity of the two families, the continuation of the kin, fertility, and the ascension of the couple to a higher social position. Everything connected with these loafs possessed also a magic significance.

In some regions of Ukraine conelike cakes were baked. Of symbolic significance were the grains that were scattered over a bridegroom as he was leaving his parents’ home for the wedding ceremony, and then over the newlyweds after the marriage. In some regions of Ukraine, people scattered wheat, rye, oats, or nuts.

No less important is the role of bread and grain in calendar rituals. The celebration of Nativity began with a holy evening. Since it was the last day of the Pylypivsky fast, people prepared lavish but lenten dishes which included twelve courses, including fish and mushrooms, borshch, porridge, vareniks which were cabbage, fruit or curd dumplings. The meal was a sweet dish called kutya made from boiled wheat with honey, ground poppyseeds and nuts. A compote from dried pears, cherries, apples and plums was also served. Kutya was also served in some regions on New Year’s Eve.

The New Year (Malanky) and the night and day of the New Year (Basil) were usually marked by lavish feasts which symbolized future harvests and prosperity of the family.

rites — обряды • обряди

omen — примета • прикмета

young couple — молодая пара • молода пара

newlyweds — молодожены • молоді

poppyseeds — маковые зерна • макові зернини

Easter is Reborn in Ukraine

Easter is historically the most important holiday of the year on the Ukrainian calendar, surpassing even Christmas in importance.

«Easter is a season of rebirth, and definitely Easter traditions have been reborn and have taken root over all the regions of Ukraine since the break up of the Soviet Union,» said Lidia Orel, a leading ethnographer and folklorist.

The pysanka, the elaborate Ukrainian Easter egg, is one bridge between Ukraine’s Christian and pagan heritage. Pysanka shells have been found in archaeological sites from more than 3,000 years ago, and many of those designs are still being used on pysanka today. Pysanka are made by drawing on the raw egg with hot beeswax and then dipping the egg into successively darker dyes. The often symbolic designs reflect Ukraine’s agrarian history — rakes, wheat, wolfs teeth, rams and other plants and animals.

Preparation for Easter starts seven weeks ahead of time with the advent of Lent. Believers abstain from eating all meat and animal products.        

Palm Sunday, the week before Easter, is known in Ukraine as Willow Sunday. People bring home willow branches which have been blessed in church. The week is dedicated to preparing for Easter.

The Thursday before Easter is dedicated to cleanliness. According to Ukrainian tradition, one should bathe before sunrise on this day. The house must be spotless. In the evening, there is a church service commemorating Christ’s crucifixion.

Villagers used to make a thick candle for this day. They had to light it in church and bring it home still lit. Then the head of the household would bum the sign of the cross into the ceiling of the entryway to ensure a safe house for the year.

Good Friday is the day that the women of the family bake «pasha,» Ukrainian Easter bread. Paska is a very rich bread made with plenty of butter, egg yolks and raisins.

On Saturday children dye one-coloured Easter eggs to add to the Easter basket which will be blessed in church. The Easter basket also includes pysanky, salt, paska, sausage and ham, and is covered with a linen cloth embroidered especially for this purpose. In the evening, people go to church for the Easter mass, which lasts all night. At midnight when Saturday turns into Sunday, the tone of the mass changes from mournful to joyous. The traditional Easter greeting is «Khrystos voskres» (Christ is risen), and the proper response is «Voyistinu voskres» (Indeed. He is risen.).

In Western Ukraine a bonfire bums outside the church all night, symbolizing purification. At dawn, the church-goers step outside with their Easter baskets to be blessed by the priest. Once the ceremony is over, every family goes home for breakfast, to partake of the blessed food. Lent is over and celebration has begun.

Easter Sunday is a day of singing and eating. Young girls dance and sing songs (vesnyanky or hahilky) about the unfolding of nature and spring. People exchange pysanky.

Ukrainian Easter is a dual holiday — a celebration of Christ’s resurrection intertwined with much older pre-Christian rites commemorating the return of springtime and the sun.

A number of Kyiv churches offer the chance to observe and participate in Easter week services.

heritage — наследие • спадщина, надбання

beeswax — воск • віск

ram — баран • баран

Lent — пост • піст

to abstain — воздерживаться от • утримуватися від

Willow Sunday — Вербное воскресенье • Вербна неділя

to bless — благословлять, освящать • благословляти, освячувати

to bless oneself — креститься • хреститися, осіняти хресним знаменням

crucifixion — распятие (на кресте); муки, страдания • розпинання на хресті; муки, страждання

purification — очищение • очищення

priest — священник; жрец • священик; жрець

resurrection — воскресение (из мертвых); восстановление • воскресіння (з мертвих)

Outstanding People of Ukraine

In the history of humanity there have always been people whose actions and ideas produced a great impact on the lives of other people. They have made a great contribution to their country. For this reason they are called outstanding. There are a lot of outstanding people famous for their contribution to our science and culture. They are scientists, musicians, experienced and skilled workers of medicine and education.

Volodymyr Vernadsky, for instance, was the first President of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. He was born in 1863. Volodymyr Vernadsky was the first in our country to introduce the spectral method for the solution of geochemical problems. He developed special study to the composition of the Earth’s crust, the ocean and the atmosphere. Vernadsky was the founder of the modem doctrine on the biosphere. His findings greatly contributed to the world science.

Yevhen Paton is another great scientist whom we take pride in. He was born in 1870 in the family of a Russian ambassador and received his education abroad. In 1904 Paton moved to Kyiv to work and teach at the Kyiv Polytechnical Institute. He was a professor and the head of the chair for nearly thirty years at the Institute. Yevhen Paton was the first to apply electro-welding in bridge construction. Under his guidance a welded bridge was built across the Dnieper river in Kyiv. It is now known as the Paton Bridge. It is 1.5 km long. In 1930 Paton organized the Research Institute of Electro-welding at the Academy of Sciences.

Nowadays the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine includes many outstanding scientists and research workers famous for their discoveries.

Great success has been achieved by the Paton Research Institute of Electric Welding, the Research Institute of Cybernetics, Superhard Materials, and others.

humanity — человечество • людство

to produce a great impact on — оказывать большое влияние на • спричиняти значний вплив на

for this reason — по этой причине • з цієї причини

outstanding — выдающийся, знаменитый • видатний, знаменитий

experienced — опытный, знающий • досвідчений

for instance — например • наприклад

the solution of geochemical problems — решение геохимических проблем • вирішення геохімічних проблем

the Earth’s crust — земная кора • земна кора

atmosphere — атмосфера • атмосфера

biosphere — биосфера • біосфера

to contribute — делать вклад • робити вклад

to take pride in — гордиться • гордитися

ambassador — посол • посол

abroad — за границей • за кордоном

to move to — переехать • переїхати

to apply — применять, употреблять • застосовувати, вживати

electro-welding — электросварка • електрозварювання

under the guidance — под руководством • під керівництвом

to include — заключать, содержать в себе • містити в собі, мати в своєму складі

discovery — открытие • відкриття

Relations of Ukraine With the English-Speaking Countries

As now Ukraine is a sovereign state, it establishes new relations with the countries throughout the world. It sets direct contacts with many foreign countries signing agreements and treaties. A lot of foreign Embassies have appeared in its capital lately. Ukraine is one of the founding members of the United Nations Organizations and participates in the work of many international organizations.

The topics of our radio and television talks are often Ukrainian-American relations and our viewpoint on the prospect of their development, and a wide range of other international issues.

A fundamental reshaping of foreign policy could only be effected on the basis of a strictly scientific and objective reassessment of the present-day realities. This evaluation the in-depth analysis of international affairs and the consideration of our national interests resulted in the new political thinking. Nowadays the political life is giving fresh grounds for the relations of mutual understanding between Ukraine and the USA, Great Britain, Canada and other English-speaking countries. The new political thinking, as seen by the Ukrainian leadership and by foreign experts, is not something frozen and immobile. It is exceptionally creative process, receptive to innovation.

The reason for the new type of relations is that all Englishspeaking countries want to see broader economic ties with Ukraine. The exchanging of opinions with the delegations from the English-speaking countries are generally marked by goodwill and intense interest.

It is not a secret that everybody showed an excited interest listening to the American President’s speech during his first visit to Ukraine. Politicians, journalists, businessmen, all ordinary people, students and even pupils were particularly impressed by his knowledge of Ukrainian poetry, when he recited some lines written by the famous Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko.

Taking into consideration the development in Ukraine, a lot of joint ventures have appeared recently in its cities and towns. A lot of delegations, businessmen, specialists and tourists from the Englishspeaking countries keep coming to Ukraine.

sovereign state — суверенное государство • суверенна держава

to establish new relations with the countries throughout the world — устанавливать новые отношения со странами во всем мире • встановлювати (налагоджувати) нові взаємини з державами у всьому світі

to set direct contacts with — устанавливать контакты (отношения) с • встановлювати прямі контакти (стосунки) з

to sign agreements and treaties — подписывать соглашения и договоры • підписувати домовленості та угоди

Embassy — посольство • посольство

the United Nations Organization — Организация Объединенных Наций (ООН) • Організація Об’єднаних Націй (ООН)

to participate in — участвовать в • брати участь у

viewpoint — точка зрения • точка зору

the prospect of the development — перспектива развития • перспектива розвитку

а wide range of other international issues — широкий круг других международных вопросов • широке коло інших міжнародних питань

a fundamental reshaping of foreign policy — основательное (фундаментальное) изменение формы международной политики • ґрунтовна (докорінна) зміна форми міжнародної політики

a strictly scientific and objective reassessment — строго научная и объективная переоценка • строго наукова і об’єктивна переоцінка

evaluation — оценка • оцінка

the in-depth analysis of international affairs — углубленный анализ международных дел • поглиблений аналіз міжнародних справ

the consideration of national interests — учет национальных интересов • врахування національних інтересів

new political thinking — новое политическое мышление • нове політичне мислення

the relations of mutual understanding — отношения взаимопонимания • стосунки взаєморозуміння

immobile — неподвижный, недвижимый • нерухомий

exceptionally creative process — исключительно творческий процесс • виключно творчий процес

receptive to innovation — восприимчивый к новшеству (нововведению) • сприйнятливий щодо новацій

economic ties — экономические связи • економічні зв’язки

the exchanging of opinions — обмен мнениями • обмін думками

goodwill — доброжелательность, расположение, добрая воля • добра воля, доброзичливість

taking into consideration — принимая во внимание • беручи до уваги

joint venture — совместное предприятие • спільне підприємство

keep coming to Ukraine — продолжают приезжать в Украину • продовжують приїжджати в Україну

The Ukrainians Outside Their Native Land

Nowadays the number of Ukrainians living abroad varies between 10 and 13 million. Most of them live outside the country on the territories of the former Soviet Union (7,767,000). The Ukrainian Diaspora is the strongest in Canada and the USA. In the USA, they number over a million, in Canada 530,000. Most of them (up to 90%) were born in their country of residence.

In North America, the Ukrainian ethnic community at large formed as the result of three waves of emigration — at the turn of the 20th century, between World War I and World War II, and after the war.

There are ethnic Ukrainian communities in Latin America, mainly in Argentina (up to 160,000) and Brazil (some 100,000). Most of them came in between the world wars from Poland and Romania.

The youngest ethnic Ukrainian community is in Australia (some 34,000), formed after 1948.

In European countries, Ukrainians are registered as immigrants. The largest Ukrainian communities are found in former Yugoslavia (up to 5,000), France (up to 30,000), Germany (some 20,000) and Great Britain (up to 30,000).

In Poland, there are ethnic territories where their forefathers had lived since time immemorial. After World War II most were deported. At present, official Polish statistics recognize 150,000 ethnic Ukrainians.

In Romania, Ukrainians mostly inhabit the provinces of Sucava, Banat and Dobruja.

three waves of emigration — три эмиграционные волны • три еміграційні хвилі

Argentina — Аргентина • Аргентина

Brazil — Бразилия • Бразилія

Australia — Австралия • Австралія

forefathers — предки • предки

since time immemorial — с незапамятных времен • з незапам’ятних часів

to be deported — быть сосланным, депортированным, выселенным • бути засланим, депортованим

Science in Ukraine

In old Rus’ monasteries were the first venues of sciences. The 15th—17th centuries saw the peak of creative talent of physician Yuri of Drohobych and linguists L. Zyzaniy and P. Berynda. A major such venue of the 18th century was the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. In the 19th century the universities of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa and Lviv became noted research centres where the first national schools of sciences took shape.

Much credit in the development of Ukrainian science is due to M. Ostrohradsky (mathematics), O. Bodyansky (linguistics), V. Antonovych (history), V. Obraztsov, M. Strazhesko, V. Filatov (various branches of medicine).

The creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1918 (since 1994 the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) was an event of historical importance. Among its founding members were Volodymyr Vernadsky, a famous 20th century scientist and naturalist; noted historians Mykhailo Hrushevsky and Dmytro Bahaliy; orientalist Ahatanhel Krumsky; geologist P. Tutkovsky; mechanics expert S. Tymoshenko; lawyer M. Vasylenko and many others.

Ukrainian scientists developed the theory and mastered the highly productive hiden-аrс welding technique, laid the foundation of molecular spectroscopy, electronic chemistry, the theory of electrolytes, the phytohormone theory of tropism, etc.

A profound system was created to train research personnel in Ukraine. In particular, 360 institutions of learning run postgraduate courses enrolling over 15,000. Some 150 such institutions train future specialists.

In 1992—1994, a total of 5,000 «Candidate-of-Science» and 1,000 doctorate dissertations were defended in Ukraine. Despite today’s economic hardships, international scientific exchanges remain on an upward curve.

The Institute of Electric Welding and the aviation and space firm «Pratt and Wittny» (USA) established a joint research center and an enterprise to develop the technologies of new materials, using Kyiv-sired speed electronic beam evaporation and vacuum condensation techniques. The Institute and the US firm also founded a joint venture, «Paton-Weld,» to develop the Ukrainian technologies of permanent metal, metal-non-metal, ceramic and other connections, and to market them in the USA and other countries.

venue — местонахождение • місцезнаходження the peak of creative talent — вершина созидательного (творческого) таланта • вершина творчого таланту

research — исследовательская работа • дослідницька робота

to take shape — приобретать форму • набувати форму

due to — благодаря • завдячуючи, завдяки creation — создание • створення

event of historical importance — событие, имеющее историческое значение • подія, що має історичне значення

founding members — основатели, основоположники • засновники, фундатори

to master the highly productive hiden-arc welding technique — внедрять высокопродуктивную сварку под слоем флюса • впроваджувати високопродуктивне зварювання під шаром флюсу

molecular spectroscopy — молекулярная спектроскопия • молекулярна спектроскопія

electronic chemistry — электронная химия • електронна хімія

theory of electrolytes — теория электролитов • теорія електролітів

phytohormone theory of tropism — фитогормональная теория тропизмов • фітогормональна теорія тропізмів

profound system — мощная система • потужна система

research personnel — научные кадры • дослідний персонал, наукові кадри

in particular — в частности, в особенности • зокрема, особливо

postgraduate courses — аспирантура • аспірантура

doctorate dissertations — докторские диссертации • докторські дисертації

international scientific exchanges — международный научный обмен • міжнародний науковий обмін

to remain on an upward curve — неуклонно возрастать • неухильно зростати

joint research center — совместный исследовательский центр • спільний дослідний центр

using Kyiv-sired speed electronic beam evaporation and vacuum condensation techniques — используя технологии производства новых материалов методом скоростного электролучевого выпаривания и конденсации в вакууме • використовуючи технології виробництва нових матеріалів методом швидкісного електропроменевого випарювання і конденсації у вакуумі

joint venture — совместное предприятие • спільне підприємство

technologies of permanent metal, metal-non-metal, ceramic — технологии неразрывного соединения металлов, металлов с неметаллами, керамики • технології нерозривного поєднання металів, металів з неметалами, кераміки

Education in Ukraine

Education is rooted in very old traditions reaching back to the pagan times...

In the 16th-18th centuries, an increasing number of schools were set up by national religious-educational communities — «Brotherhoods, "for instance, in Lviv (1585), in Kyiv (1615), in Lutsk (1620). The Greek-Slavonic-Latin Collegium, Ukraine’s first institution of higher learning, was founded in Ostroh in 1576.

At the turn of the 18th century the level of public literacy placed Ukraine ahead, of a number of Western and Eastern European countries.

The first universities appeared in Kharkiv (1805), Kyiv (1834) and Odesa (1865). Later, «specialized institutes» were opened for training industrial, railroad engineers, agronomists, physicians and specialists in other fields.

Present-day independent Ukraine has inherited a rather developed system of education from the previous regime, which answers the standards of the developed countries.

General secondary education in Ukraine is used to be free but compulsory.

Despite today’s hardships resulting from the economic crisis, a programme of educational reforms aimed at integrating the national schooling system into the world’s educational medium, at satisfying the people’s national-cultural needs and protecting their rights, irrespective of ethnic origin.

The educational system includes over 23,000 so-called pre-school educational establishments where some 2,000,000 children are taught their mother tongue.

The basic link in the chain of public education in Ukraine is the «general education (grade) school,» of which there are 21,350 now, with a student body of 6.9 million. Each has three stages: primary, basic and senior. Nowadays a new type of schools are there in Ukraine: gymnasiums (121), lyceums (124). Over 50 private schools have appeared recently.

There are 1,176 vocational training schools providing almost: 800 qualifications. In most of them (69%) the working students are also taught the complete curriculum of secondary education.

Post-secondary education is provided by 754 institutions of what is known as the 1st and 2nd Level of Accreditation, for example, technical schools and colleges training young specialists, and by 161 institutions of higher learning, such as universities, academies, conservatories, institutes. There are 14 classical and 45 technological and branch universities, 30 academies and 72 institutes. Ukraine numbers a total of 1.5 million college-and-university students.

Institutions of higher learning enroll some 12,000 foreign students, postgraduates and visiting graduates, of whom 8,000 are on Ukrainian government scholarships. More than 120,000 specialists from 130 countries across the world have graduated since World War II.

Among the well-known Universities in Ukraine are Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Drahomanov Kyiv National Pedagogical University, Kyiv Polytechnic University, International Independent University «Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,» Kyiv State Conservatory, Kharkiv National University, Vinnytsya State Technological University, Simpheropol State University, I. Franko State University of Lviv, Donetsk State University, Odesa State Naval Academy, Odesa State Economic University and many others.

(from magazine «Computer Systems»)

pagan — языческий • язичеський, поганський

literacy — грамотность • письменність

to inherit — унаследовать • успадкувати

compulsory — обязательный • обов’язковий

hardships — трудности • труднощі

irrespective of smth. — независимо от ч.-л., безотносительно • незалежно від чогось, безвідносно

mother tongue — родной язык • рідна мова

chain — цепь • ланцюг

vocational training schools — профессионально-технические училища • професійно-технічні училища

to provide — обеспечивать, давать • забезпечувати, давати

curriculum — учебный план, курс обучения, программа • учбовий план, курс навчання, програма

to enroll — регистрировать, вносить в список • реєструвати, вносити у список

scholarship — стипендия • стипендія

Cultural Life in Ukraine

For long decades the development of national culture and the Ukrainian language remained inadequate in Ukraine, when the notion of «Soviet culture» served to substitute and subjugate any national identity and peculiarity.

The rich culture of the Ukrainian people has its roots deep in the centuries past, when people first learned to dance and compose songs in which man’s craving for freedom and happiness was lauded. This culture has imbibed its singularity from the age old traditions of open-heartedness, hospitality and poetic spirit inherent in a people living in a land stretching from the Carpathian Mountains to the Don River, and from Polissya to the Black Sea steppes. This culture has made a weighty contribution in the treasure trove of world creative talent. It reaches world summits thanks to the selfless efforts of such poets and writers as Taras Shevchenko, Hryhory Skovoroda, Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainka, Ivan Kotlyarevsky; composers Mykola Lysenko, Semen Hulak-Artemovsky, Artem Vedel; artists Dmytro Levitsky, the brothers Krychevsky; theatrical figures Ivan Karpenko-Kary, Mykhailo Starytsky, Les Kurbas; cinema tographers Oleksandr Dovzhenko, Serhiy Paradzhanov. Melodious Ukrainian song is heard on many theatrical stages across the world, brought there by touring drama companies, solo performers and folk groups from Ukraine.

Ukraine today operates a ramified network of institutions of culture and the arts. Professional arts are represented by some 100 operas and drama companies, 25 philharmonic societies and 4 conservatories. Eight theatres are meant specially for children, plus 27 puppet shows and 65 children movie theatres.

However, the national cultural treasure trove is replenished not only by professionals but also by more than 300,000 amateur choirs, music and drama companies uniting some 5 million residents of Ukraine.

Hundreds of thousands of children are engaged in some or other amateur creative and performing activities.

The process of reviving Ukrainian culture is also making itself felt in the theatrical art. Currently, practically every drama company stages plays by Ukrainian authors, while of course paying attention to foreign national classics like Shakespeare, Pushkin, Bernard Shaw, Ibsen, Servantes.

to substitute — заменять, замещать, подставлять • заміняти, заміщати, підставляти

to subjugate — покорять, порабощать, подчинять о підпорювати, пороботити, підпорядковувати

identity — подлинность, личность, индивидуальность • справжність, особистість, індивідуальність

peculiarity — личное качество, характерная черта; особенность • особиста-якість, характерна риса, особливість

craving for freedom and happiness — страстное желание свободы и счастья • пристрасне бажання свободи і щастя

to imbibe — впитывать, вдыхать, поглощать • убирати, вдихати, поглинати

singularity — необычайность, своеобразие • незвичайність, своєрідність

to make a weighty contribution — вносить весомый вклад • внести вагомий вклад

treasure trove — духовные ценности в духовні цінності

melodious — мелодичный, нежный, певучий • мелодійний, ніжний, наспівний

ramified network — разветвленная сеть • розгалужена мережа

process of reviving — процесе возрождения • процес відродження

Cinema in Ukraine

The first newsreels were made and shown in 1896, by A. Fedetsky, artist and photographer from Kharkiv. Their regular production began in 1907. Among the noted Ukrainian film-makers of the preSoviet period were directors P. Chardynin, V. Hardin.

Oleksandr Dovzhenko became a phenomenal figure in national and world cinematography. His motion pictures «Arsenal» (1929), «Earth »(1930) were named among the 12 best films of all times and peoples at the Brussels World Exhibit in 1958.

During World War II Ukrainian film-makers made trips to the front. They concentrated on war films about the country’s heroic defence.

There are four film studios in Ukraine — the Dovzhenko Studiosin Kyiv, the Odesa Film Studio, the Kyiv Documentary Film Studios and the Kyiv Popular Science Film Studio.

Bohdan Stupka, Ada Rohovtseva, Rayisa Nedashkivska, FedirStryhun, Olha and Nataliya Sumska, Bohdan Kozak — these and many other names are extremely popular with movie and theatre-goers. They have successfully appeared in domestic and foreign productions.

Constant creative search and interesting discoveries are associated with the names of stage directors Serhiy Danchenko, Alla Babenko, Boris Borys, Mykola Yaremkiv. Ukrainian cinematography boasts such directors and actors as Serhiy Paradzhanov, K. Stepankov, K. Muratova and B. Brondukov.

An animated cartoon studio was set up in Kharkiv in 1927 and later transferred to Kyiv. Among its directors were V. Levanovsky, I. Lazaruk, and others.

О. P. Dovzhenko (1894—1956) is one of the founders of Ukrainian cinematography. He worked for the Odesa Studio sin 1926— 1928 and for Kyiv Studio in 1929—1941. Since 1946 he stayed at the Mosfilm Studio Apart from a number of feature films, he made publicistic documentaries, such as «Liberation,» «Battle for Ukraine,» etc. Besides, he wrote script-like stories «A Poem About the Sea«, «A Story of Flaming Years the autobiographical «Desna River Bewitched," and plays «Life in Blossom,» «Cossack Descendants. "The Kyiv Studio bears his name nowadays. The Dovzhenko prize was instituted in 1983.

newsreel — киножурнал, хроникальный фильм • хронікальний фільм, кіножурнал

regular production — постоянное производство, выпуск • постійне виробництво, продукування

film-maker — продюсер • продюсер

phenomenal figure — феноменальная (необыкновенная) фигура • феноменальна (незвичайна) фігура

cinematography — кинематография • кінематографія              

motion picture — фильм • фільм

country’s heroic defence — героическая защита страны • героїчний захист країни

to be extremely popular with — быть особенно популярным среди • бути особливо популярним серед

to appear — появиться • з’явитися

constant creative search — постоянный творческий поиск • постійний творчий пошук

discovery — открытие • відкриття, винаходження

to be associated with smth. — ассоциироваться с ч.-л. • асоціюватися з чимось

to boast — гордиться, хвастаться • гордитися, хвалитися

animated cartoon — мультипликационный фильм • мультиплікаційний (анімаційний) фільм

Theatre in Ukraine

The roots of the Ukrainian national theatre are traced to Old Slave myths. Performances by «skomorokhy,» by Old Rus’ itinerant actors, were first mentioned in the 11th century and in the 17th— 18th centuries they took the form of «balahan» and «vertep» itinerant drama and puppet shows, which stimulated the appearance and maturation of the theatrical art in Ukraine. Folk dramas appeared in the 17th century as a stage versions of literary works (usually adventure stories or school melodramas).

Taras Shevchenko’s historical and social drama «Nazar Stodolya» strengthened the theatre’s realistic principles.

Plays marked by talent and high professionalism were written by Ivan Kocherha and Y. Yanovsky, complemented by dramas of everyday life by H. Mizyun, H. Hyzylsky, etc.

In the 1950s—1980s historical themes were broached by gifted Ukrainian playwrights (Ivan Kocherha’s «Yaroslav the Wise,» O. Ilchenko’s «St. Petersburg Autumn»). It was then that O. Dovzhenko wrote the enthusiastically romantic play «Life in Blossom» about plant breeder T. Michurin and the tragic comedy «Cossack Descendants».

Over the past years the Ukrainian theatre has stayed on the wave crest of national revival. Among its stars are B. Stupka, B. Kozak, F. Stryhun, A. Rohovtseva, V. Zaklunna, and others.

At present, Ukraine operates 91 drama companies, including «academic theatres» in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv and Simferopol; musical drama and puppet theatres in all the 24 administrative regions; Youth Theatres in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Zaporizhzhya and Lviv; musical comedies in Kyiv, Kharkiv and Odesa. The Union of Theatrical Workers was founded in 1987 and its current membership approaches 6,000. Kyiv houses the State Museum of Theatrical, Musical and Cinematographic Art of Ukraine.

Ukrainian ballet is known on every continent. Kyiv Ballet troupe has triumphantly toured the USA, Canada, Japan, European, South American countries. Audiences across the globe were bewitched by the virtuoso techniques and dramatic alent of such Ukrainian ballerinas as Valentina Kalinovska, Olena Potapova, Alla Havrylenko and Alla Lahoda. Solo dances Irayida Lukashova and Valeriy Parsegov won the Anna Pavlova and Waclaw Nijinsky international prizes.

Ukrainian ballet has old traditions dating from folk dances in Kyiv Rus’ on to the music-and-dance scenes of the School Theatre.

root — корень, основа • корінь, основа

myth — миф • міф

performance — представление • вистава

itinerant — переезжающий с места на место, странствующий • мандрівний, що переїздить з місця на місце

puppet show — представление кукольного театра • вистава лялькового театру

to stimulate the appearance and maturation of the theatrical art — содействовать появлению и становлению театрального искусства • сприяти появі та становленню театрального мистецтва

stage version — сценическая версия сценічна версія

adventure stories — приключенческие рассказы • пригодницькі оповідання

to strengthen the theatre’s realistic principles — укрепить реалистические принципы театрального искусства • зміцнити реалістичні принципи театрального мистецтва

historical themes — исторические темы • історичні теми

gifted Ukrainian playwrights — одаренные (талантливые) украинские драматурги • обдаровані (талановиті) українські драматурги

the wave crest of national revival — волна национального возрождения • хвиля національного відродження

its current membership approaches 6,000 — насчитывает 6000 членов • нараховує 6000 членів

folk dances — народные танцы • народні танці

Music in Ukraine

Over the centuries the Ukrainian people have created a singular art of music, rooted deep in the misty pre-Christian times. Folk traditions have preserved to this day original ritual songs, dances and games dedicated to tillers’ holidays, such as «Kolyada» (Christmas carols), «Vesna» (Spring) and «Kupalo» (St. John’s Eve). The flourishing of Kyiv Rus’ in the 10th—11th centuries was the fertile ground on which heroic epos grew and matured (ballads performed to the accompaniment of the «husli» psaltery, «skomorokHy» minstrels, and military music). Musicians are among the fresco images perpetuated on the walls of St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kyiv, evidence of the role music played in the life of Rus’ princes. Chronicles dating from the 15th-17th centuries contain records of ballads and historical songs lauding the Cossacks’ heroic struggle against foreign intruders. The Ukrainian folk vocal heritage boasts a multitude of lyrical, humorous, patriotic, satirical, drinking and children’s songs and romances. «Kobza,» «bandura,» «sopilka» (pipe, flute), «basolya» (primitive double bass), «buben» (tambourine), «tsymbaly» (dulcimer), violin, «kolisna lira» (wheel lyre) and «koza» (Ukrainian folk version of the bagpipe) became truly national musical instruments. In Gogol’s words, songs are for Ukraine «poetry, history and one’s father’s grave».

Beginning in the 14th century, Ukrainian songs and dances appeared in print in Western European collections and in books of music for the lyre. Eventually, they found their way into the music of Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Weber, Liszt, Chopin, Dvorak — in the West, and in the East, into that'of Dargomyzhski, Musorgski, Rimski-Korsakov, Spendiarov, Taneev and Stravinski. They were studied by the Russian Serov, the Pole Zalesski, the Czech Kuba, the Hungarian Bartok, the Finn Kron, and others.

Professional musical culture appeared and developed following the introduction of Eastern Orthodox Christianity by Prince Volodymyr. At present, Ukraine has 6 opera houses, 3 operettas, 10 state philarmonic societies, dozens of folk choirs and song-and-dance groups, 5 higher music schools and 25 Regional Philarmonic Societies.

Among the Ukrainian professional performers are winners of prestigious international contests, Ukrainian operatic and ballet companies, symphony orchestras, choirs and solo performers often appear on tours in Europe, Asia and the USA.

Speaking about Ukrainian composers we must mention K. Shymanovski, I. Stravinski, R. Hliyer, S. Prokofiev, O. Spendiarov, and others, who were born in Ukraine, destined to make a tangible contribution to the cultural heritage of many countries and peoples. The key figure of the Ukrainian musical renaissance was Mykola Lysenko (1842—1912), pianist, composer, conductor and folklorist who left behind an enviable creative heritage extending to almost every gentre, including 10 operas (among them the well-known «Taras Bulba and Natalka Poltavka»). In Halychyna it was his contemporary, A. Vakhnyanyn (1841—1908), author of the opera «Kupalo» («St. John’s Eve,» 1891), founder of the «Boyan Choral Society» (1891) and the Higher Institute of Music in Lviv (1903).

Nowadays general popularity marks such performing groups as the National Symphony Orchestra of Ukraine, «Dymka» and «Trembita» Choral Capellas, Hrigoriy Veryovka Folk Choir, Bandurist Capella, Ukrainian Folk Instrumental Orchestra, Cherkasy and Zakarpattya Folk Choirs, Bukovynian and Hutsul Song and Dance Ensembles.

Ukraine’s first jazz orchestra, directed by Y. Meitus, appeared in Kharkiv (1924—1926). The first jazz club opened in Kyiv in 1962.

The recorded pop music genre is worthily represented by O. Berest, L. Bondar, T. Povaliy. Creative search in national rock music started at the turn of the 1970s (Kyiv’s groups «Kobza» and «Enei»). Among the groups combining the «general rock» style with the Ukrainian folk song-and-dance tradition, reflecting by means of rock the acute problems of the national present were the Brothers Hadyukin and the «Krok» (hard rock), Sister Vika (punk rock), the «BB» (folk rock).

The first venue of the national song poetry genre was Lviv’s Variety Theatre «Ne Zhurys» («Don’t worry»).

Pop singers like Sophia Rotaru,' Nina Matviyenko, Vasyl Zinkevych, Ivan Popovych, Iryna Bilyk, Nadiya Shestak, Olexandr Ponomaiyov, Oksana Bilozir, Mykola Mozgovyi, Alla Kudlai, etc. are known throughout Ukraine and far outside.

Music by young composers like Karmela Tsepkolenko and Volodymyr Runchak makes confident appearances on international concert stages.

rooted deep in the misty pre-Christian times — корни которого уходят в далекие дохристианские времена • корінитися в давніх дохристиянських часах

folk traditions — народные традиции • народні традиції

to be dedicated to smth. — посвятить себя ч.-л. • присвячувати себе чомусь

flourishing — расцвет, процветание • розквіт, процвітання

to be the fertile ground on which heroic epos grew — способствовать появлению героического эпоса • сприяти появі героїчного епосу

performed to the accompaniment of «husli» psaltery — которые исполнялись под аккомпанемент гуслей • що виконувалися під акомпанемент гусел

intruder — чужеземец • чужоземець

drinking songs — застольные песни • застільні пісні

eventually — в конечном счете, в конце концов, со временем • врешті решт, згодом

tangible contribution — заметный вклад • помітний вклад

key figure — основная фигура • ключова (основна) фігура

renaissance — здесь: Возрождение • тут: Відродження

composer — композитор • композитор

conductor — дирижер • диригент

creative heritage — творческое наследие • творчий спадок

contemporary — современник, современный, одновременный • сучасник, сучасний, одночасний

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