Розмовні теми частина 2 - Т. М. Гужва 2003

Choosing a career

Read the texts, give a summary and discuss them.

Text 18-1

Future Prospects

From Ernest’s point of view, the interview was going very well indeed. Six days before, he had applied for a job with a small business company and now one of the directors was interviewing him. The advertisement had invited applications from ambitions young men who would like to travel abroad if necessary and who wouldn’t mind working irregular hours. Ernest had tried very hard not to say anything silly and the director seemed most impressed. «You say you’re not married, Mr. Reeves,» the director said. «No, sir,» Ernest answered. «I’m getting married next June, but I’m sure my future wife won’t have any objections to my keeping irregular hours.»

«I see from your application form you have worked as a salesman for two years. Why do you wish to change your job now?»

«I found the work too dull, sir,» Ernest answered. «That’s a pleasant change,» the director said. «Most young men these days seem to want dull jobs. The first question young men ask me is whether the job I’m offering carries a pension. They want to retire before they start!» «Does the job carry a pension, sir?» Ernest asked anxiously.

(from L. G. Alexander)

ambitions young man — честолюбивый молодой человек • честолюбний молодик

to have some objections to smth. — иметь возражения против ч.-л. • мати заперечення проти чогось

to find the work dull — находить работу скучной • мати роботу марудною

Text 18-2

A Job in Mexico

It happened some years ago. Two of my friends lived in a small town near Liverpool. They were out of work and were happy to agree to any job. Their names were Stevenson and Black. Stevenson was a very talented engineer, and as he had a large family and no money to live on, his life was very difficult.

One day when I was coming back from my office I saw Stevenson. He was going along the street with a suitcase in his hand. Stevenson had read an advertisement in a newspaper that a manufacturing plant of chemical equipment wanted an engineer. «You see, I must get that job. I’ve got a large family.»

«Why must you go to Liverpool yourself?» I asked, «It’s better to send the documents by airmail.» «I think,» Stevenson answered, «many people want to get the job and I’m sure all of them will send letters. If I get there before the manager of the plant receives the letters I think I’ll be able to get the job.»

Stevenson was right. He received the job.

My other friend Black had lost three or four jobs though he was a very good clerk. I told him Stevenson’s story. The story impressed him. A few days later I met Black with a suitcase in his hand. «Where are you going?» I asked him. «To Mexico,» was the answer. «A bank there requires a clerk. I have sent my documents by post, but to settle the matter sooner I decided to go there myself. I remember the story you told me the other day about Stevenson.»

So Black went to Mexico City. But his letter had come there three days earlier. When he came to the bank and spoke to the assistant-manager, the assistant-manager said, «I’m sorry to say we have already got a man. But I’ll clarify the matter with the manager.» And he left the office.

«Yes,» the manager said. «I have received a letter from the man who lives near Liverpool. His name is Black. A good young man, he suits us all right. I’ve sent him a telegram to come here immediately and we’ll keep the job for him for 10 days.»

«There is a man outside,» said the assistant-manager, «who wants to get this job.» «But we’ve got this man Black and we’ll wait for him.»

Black had not heard the conversation between the manager and his assistant. He had to go back home. But as he had spent all his money and nobody in Mexico could help him it took him two months to get back to England. There he found the telegram which was waiting for him.

(from «Lifelines»)

to be out of work — не иметь работы • не мати роботи

to agree to any job — соглашаться на любую работу • погоджуватися на будь-яку роботу

chemical equipment — химическое оборудование • хімічне обладнання

by airmail — авиапочтой • авіапоштою

to settle the matter — решить вопрос • вирішити питання

assistant-manager — помощник управляющего, ассистент менеджера • помічник керівника; асистент менеджера

to clarify the matter — вносить ясность в дело • вияснювати справу

Text 18-3

I’ll Have a Job

I was fed up. As I lay awake in the grey small hours of an autumn morning, I reviewed my life. Three a.m. is not the most propitious time for meditation, as everyone knows, and a deep depression was settling over me.

I had just returned from New York, where the crazy cyclone of gaiety in which people seem to survive over there had caught me up, whirled me blissfully round, and dropped me into London which seemed flat and dull. I felt restless, dissatisfied, and abominably bad-tempered.

«Surely,» I thought, «there’s something more to life than just going out to parties that one doesn’t enjoy, with people one doesn’t even like. What a pointless existence it- is — drifting about in the hope that something may happen to relieve the monotony. Something has to be done to get me out of this rut.»

In a flash it came to me:

«I’ll have a job!»

I said it out loud and it sounded pretty good to me. The more I thought about it, the better I liked the idea, especially from the point of view of making some money.

My mind sped away for a moment, after the fashion of all minds in bed, and showed me visions of big money — furs — a new car — but I brought it back to earth with an effort to wonder for what sort of a job I could possibly qualify. I reviewed the possibilities. I turned to cooking. That was the thing which interested me most and about which I thought I knew quite a lot. I had had a few lessons from my «Madame» in Paris, but my real interest was aroused by lessons I had at a wonderful school of French cookery in London.

When I told my family that I was thinking of taking a cooking job, the roars of laughter were rather discouraging. No one believed that I could cook at all, as I had never had a chance to practise at home.

I had no idea of exactly what job I should apply for, so I decided to go to an agency. Finding the place quite easily, I tore up three flights of stairs, and swung breathlessly through a door which said, «Enter without knocking, if you please.»

The woman at the desk wondered why I was looking for this sort of job, so I felt impelled to give her a glimpse of a widowed mother and a desperate struggle against poverty. I almost made myself believe in the pathos of it, and we had to cough and change the subject. I felt even more pathetic when she told me that it would be difficult to get a job without experience or references. I wondered whether I ought to leave, when the telephone on her desk rang. While she was conducting a cryptic conversation she kept looking at me. Then I heard her say, «As a matter of fact, I’ve got someone in the office at this very moment who might suit.» She wrote down the number, and my spirits soared as I took the slip of paper she held out to me, saying, «Ring up this lady. She wants a cook immediately. In fact, you would have to start tomorrow by cooking a dinner for ten people. Could you manage that, I wonder?»

«Oh, yes,» said I — never having cooked for more than four in my life. I thanked her, paid a shilling, and dashed out to the nearest telephone box. I collected my wits, powdered my nose, took a deep breath, and dialled the number. A piping voice at the other end informed me that I was speaking to Miss Cattermole. I assured her with all the bluff at my command, that I was just what she was looking for. I asked her what tomorrow’s menu was to be.

«Just a small, simple dinner: lobster cocktails, soup, turbot, pheasants with vegetables, fruit salad, and a savoury.» In a rather shaken voice, I promised to turn up in good time, and rang off.

I spent the intervening hours feverishly reading cookery books, and wishing that I hadn’t let myself in for something about which I knew so little. My family were still highly amused at the idea of my attempting it, which didn’t increase my confidence.

Miss Cattermole lived in Dulwich in one of the most depressing houses ever seen. I rang at the back door and the depression of the house closed round me as I was admitted by a weary-looking maid. The maid condescended to show me the kitchen, though I could see that she hated me, at sight.

As I started to prepare the dinner I began to share her gloomy view of myself, as it dawned on me more and more that high-class cooking lessons are all very well, but a little practical experience is necessary, too, in order to cope with vicissitudes that crop up in the kitchen...

«Ah, Miss Dickens!» I could see she was trying to carry something off, as her voice was higher than ever, and falsely bright. «I really don’t think I can settle anything permanent just now, so please don’t bother to come tomorrow. Thank you so much. Good night!» She pressed some coins into my hand and vanished into the drawingroom. When the door had shut behind her on the swell of voices, I opened my hand on two half-crowns and a shilling.

«Well,» I said to myself, as I banged out into the Dulwich night, «what a cheek, eh?»

(from ‘‘One Pair of Hands » by Monica Dickens)

to be fed up — быть сытым по горло • бути ситим по саму зав’язку

I am fed up — я сыт по горло; с меня хватит • з мене досить

the most propitious time for meditation — наиболее благоприятное время для размышлений • найсприятливіший час для роздумів

to survive — пережить, выдержать, перенести; остаться в живых; уцелеть • пережити, витримати, перенести; вціліти; вижити

to whirl smb. blissfully round — закружить к.-л. в вихре счастья (блаженства) • закрутити когось у вирі щастя

abominably — отвратительно • огидно, бридко

from the point of view — с точки зрения • з точки зору

to make money — зарабатывать («делать») деньги • заробляти («робити») гроші

to impel — побуждать, принуждать • примушувати, спонукати

to give a glimpse — мельком посмотреть, окинуть быстрым взглядом • кинути оком, побіжно (мигцем) глянути

cryptic conversation — загадочная (таинственная) беседа • загадкова (таємна) бесіда

to keep looking at smb. — продолжать смотреть на к.-л. • продовжувати дивитися на когось

to dash out — стремительно выбежать • прожогом вибігти

bluff — запугивание, блеф, обман • залякування, блеф, обман

turbot — тюрбо (рыба) • тюрбо (риба)

pheasant — фазан • фазан

savoury — острая закуска • гостра закуска

to condescend — снисходить, удостаивать • удостоювати, зволити

to hate smb. at sight — возненавидеть к.-л. с первого взгляда • зненавидіти когось із першого погляду

vicissitude — превратность, перемена, чередование • переміна, чергування, лихі пригоди

Check yourself:

Task 18-1

Explain and expand on the following:

1. A deep depression was setting over me.

2. There’s something more to life than just going out to parties that one doesn’t enjoy, with people one doesn’t even like.

3. I felt impelled to give her a glimpse of a widowed mother and a desperate struggle against poverty.

4. A piping voice at the other end informed me that I was speaking to Miss Cattermole.

5. Miss Cattermole lived in Dulwich in one of the most depressing houses ever seen.

6. I was admitted by a weary-looking maid.

7. A little practical experience is necessary in order to cope with vicissitudes that crop up in the kitchen.

8. So please don’t bother to come tomorrow.

Task 18-2

Say what meaning is implied in the expressions listed below. Use them in sentences of your own:

1) to be fed up;

2) a pointless existence;

3) to qualify for a job;

4) to tear up three flights of stairs;

5) to collect one’s wits;

6) to get a job without experience or references;

7) to turn up in good time;

8) to let oneself in for smth. about which one knows (so) little;

9) a little practical experience;

10) in order to cope with vicissitudes;

11) to vanish into the drawing-room.

Task 18-3

Answer the following questions:

1. What is your opinion of Miss Dickens’ decision to become a cook?

2. Is it possible to say that her kitchen career is merely amusing?

3. Reviewers consider that there is fun, wit and malice in Monica Dickens’ stories. If you are of the same opinion, prove it, if not, refute it.

4. Monica Dickens — the great-granddaughter of Charles Dickens — after leaving school joined a dramatic school, but after discovering that she couldn’t act, and probably, never would be able to, went in search of a job. First she became a cook-general, then a nurse in a hospital, later she took a job in a munition factory. Did she profit by her ample practical experience as a writer, judging by the extract above? Prove your point.

Text 18-4

Career Success

Rosie Walford, account manager, J. Walter Thompson Age: 26. Salary: Undisclosed. «I couldn’t trade this for a desk job. I work for clients like Persil and BAA, seeing a project through from the initial brief to completed commercial or advertisement. I don’t do anything! My role is to delegate. I discuss an idea with a client and then persuade the creative people to come up with the goods. The nature of the work creates the pressure rather than the hours. I find I am constantly on the run, putting my head round doors, saying, «How’s such and such coming along?»

There’s really a lot of angst among account managers. You are viewed with suspicion by both sides. The client suspects that your loyalty is to your colleagues, and they believe that you are selling out to the client. I am very much the diplomat in the middle and I’ve had to work very hard to win other people’s respect.

On the one hand a furious client will say, «This is not what I meant at all»; on the other, I get language from an artist whose work is rejected which is unprintable! The worst part is when I have worked for months on a brief, the final campaign is just what we initially agreed, and then I find out that the person I dealt with originally in the client company doesn’t have the final say. Someone more senior comes along and rubbishes it. Mistakes can be costly. We are working to budgets of millions and cannot afford to get anything wrong. I did once overlook a cost of £5,000,000 in an estimate for a TV commercial. If I did that too often I wouldn’t last long.

I love it, though. The adrenaline flows, and the buzz I get when a successful film is shot, or I’ve sold my idea to a client, is fantastic. There are days when I could scream or burst into tears but I’ve trained myself to cope in several ways. I need some quiet thinking time and as I’m not a morning person I don’t come in very early. I prefer to stay in the office until seven, then go out and socialize. At weekends I like to get away somewhere green.»

(from magazine «Cosmopolitan »)

to persuade — убеждать, склонять, уговаривать • переконувати, схиляти

creative people — творческие люди • творчі люди

suspicion — подозрение • підозра

to suspect — подозревать • підозрювати

to win people’s respect — завоевать уважение людей • завоювати прихильність людей

estimate — оценка, наметка, смета • оцінка, кошторис

to burst into tears — разрыдаться, расплакаться • розплакатися, розридатися

Text 18-5

I Don’t Want a Routine and Dull Job

1. I left school three years ago to take a year off to work out what to do. But so far I have no interest whatsoever in anything that I’ve tried. I don’t want a routine, dull job just for the money and experience. And I don’t want to, compromize my creativity. Having gone to art and German classes during my year off, I now realize that. But I get very depressed doing nothing and feel such a failure. Is it wrong to want more out of life than money and a traditional nine-to-five job?

— It would be wrong if you didn’t want more out of life than this, especially when you’re just starting out! But at your stage, you have to do something to get going — it doesn’t just happen if you wish hard. The right job, when you find it, can be creative rather than constructive, even at the lowliest stages. Getting money and experience along the way is not to be sneezed at when, as you have found, there is nothing more demoralizing than having neither. In the world of work, as in romance, you have to kiss some frogs before you finally find your prince. If art and German make you feel creative, pursue them. But don’t feed off dreams to the point of starving yourself of life.

2. I recently accepted a promotion into management because I was eager to improve my financial and personal status. I was then told that it would be a problem to increase my money because this would mean a quantum leap to put me in line with my male colleagues in a construction machinery company. So I left and joined another company. They that I am excellent in my position but, again, I am told that as a woman I cannot expect to receive the same remuneration as a man. I am now frustrated and angry — my work is as good as my male colleagues’ and my responsibilities are every bit as great. Am I doing something wrong? Should I leave and think about possibly trying something else? Where can I go?

— It’s not easy to fight for your rights. But what you’re facing occurs not only in old-fashioned manufacturing strongholds but also in the highest reaches of the professions — I’ve had the same complaint from women lawyers, accountants and medics. Why should you be driven out of a job you are clearly good at, by the actions of a few bosses who are behind the times and ignorant of what is due to working women today? Never make the mistake of thinking this is your fault. You are bearing the injustice, which is bad enough — don’t accept the blame for it too.

3. I joined my firm four years ago on a special recruitment programme for «fast trackers.» Since then my career has progressed dramatically and now I’m up for a very important promotion but what ought to be a cause for celebration has become a nightmare. To get the job in the first place, I lied on my CV. Until now, every promotion has come through career progression. Now I have to go before a board for an in-depth interview and I’m terrified. I feel I should resign and get out now before I am found out and have to face the music.

— To leave a good job hastily and without explanation is the best way to be found out! You made a serious mistake once — now it’s vital to calm down and think positively. If you have had four good years with your employers and if they are considering you for an important promotion, the chances are that they will be more interested in your performance and potential with the company than with your CV. Anything that did not come out at your first interview is unlikely to resurface at this stage. So don’t jeopardize your future career with an impulsive gesture by threatening to throw in the towel.

But discovery is still possible. If your deception comes to light, don’t make the mistake of telling more lies. Tell them truthfully that you wanted the job so much that your zealousness outweighed your judgement, and stress that your recent value to the company has more than outweighed your early peccadillo. Whatever happens, update your CV, drop the false information for ever and resolve never to do this again.

(from magazine «Cosmopolitan »)

to feel a failure — потерпеть неудачу, провал • зазнати невдачі, провалу

to accept a promotion — получить поощрение, продвижение (по службе) • одержати підвищення (по службі)

remuneration — вознаграждение, оплата, компенсация, заработная плата • винагорода, оплата, компенсація, зарплатня

to frustrate — расстраивать (планы), делать тщетным • робити марним, розбити (плани)

responsibility — ответственность • відповідальність

stronghold — крепость • міцність

complaint — жалоба • скарга

CV (Curriculum Vitae) — биография • біографія

peccadillo — пустячный проступок, грешок • грішок, незначна похибка

Text 18-6

Bernard Berg

Bernard Berg started as an English Language teacher. He was always good at languages at school, so he decided to take his degree in French and German first. When he finished his university studies in Oxford he began teaching in a secondary school in England. Two years later, however, he met someone by chance who offered him a job teaching English to foreign students during the long summer holidays. His students were adults and he enjoyed the work greatly. He soon found he was interested in languages of different countries. Since then he has specialized in this work.

First he went to Africa for two years and then he spent a year in Spain. After that he went to Italy where he worked for three years. He hasn’t been to South America yet but he plans to go there next. He has taught men and women of all ages and of all nationalities. He has also learnt to get on with people of all walks of life. Now he is a writer but his interest in foreign languages never lessens.

(from «Function of English, » G. Cones)

to take a degree — получить степень • одержати ступінь

by chance — случайно • випадково

adults — взрослые • дорослі

to get on with people — ладить c людьми • ладити з людьми

people of all walks of life — люди из всех слоев общества • люди зі всіх станів суспільства

Text 18-7

The Film Producer’s Commentary

Shirley Pearl’s career is at its peak. She’s married, with two children, needs only six hours sleep per night and is working harder than ever. She will star in the new film.

She also has plans for records, tours and TV work. What makes Shirley a star? Her voice? Her looks? Her elegance? Her ability to make you feel emotion? Shirley Pearl herself doesn’t know the answer. She usually says: «The only thing I know I’m still here and I’m still working.»

(from «Functions of English, » G. Gones)

ability to make smb. feel emotion — способность вызывать у к.-л. эмоции • здатність викликати у когось емоції

Text 18-8

Success at the Interview Stage

In today’s job marketplace, the interview is increasingly a structured event, with each candidate being asked the same predetermined questions, rather than a process guided by whatever questions happen to float into the minds of the panel. A growing number of interviews are also situational, with candidates being asked questions such as «What would you do if...?», or «How would you deal with a situation where ...?». This approach lets them provide practical examples of how they would tackle particular situations, whether or not they have had any direct experience of them. Despite their increasing rigour, interviews are also generally becoming a lot less formal, reflecting the decreasing importance attached to hierarchy within organisations. It has been found that despite all these efforts to bring the interview process up-to-date, employers frequently make the wrong choice — but although the interview may be a highly unreliable predictor of a candidate’s suitability, it remains the centerpiece of most organisations’ selection procedures.

From the point of view of the candidate, there are important pointers towards maximizing the possibilities of success at the interview stage. One of the most important is good preparation, both in personal appearance and in knowledge of what the job entails. Confidence gained in this way will enable the candidate to feel at ease, and to avoid the traps of either false modesty or overconfidence when answering questions in the interview.

(from Jacky Newbrook and Judith Wilson)

tackle — энергично браться (за ч.-л.), биться, работать (над ч.-л.) • енергійно братися (до чогось), битися, працювати (над чимось)

rigour — суровость, строгость • суворість, ретельність

hierarchy — иерархия • ієрархія

what the job entails — в чем заключается работа • у чому полягає робота

to feel at ease — чувствовать себя непринуждённо • почувати себе невимушено

Text 18-9

Charlie Ewell

Name? I said to myself. It’s Charlie Ewell, and I’m a young guy who works in a bank. I don’t like the job; I don’t make much money, and I never will. I’ve lived in New York for over three years and haven’t many friends. Well, there’s really nothing to say — I see more movies than I want to, read too many books, and I’m sick of meals alone in restaurants. I have ordinary abilities, looks and thoughts.

«What are you looking for, what do you want?» the man asked.

«Escape,» I said.

«From what?»

«Well, from New York. And cities in general. From worry. And fear. And the things I read in my newspapers. From loneliness. From never doing what I really want to do or having much fun. From selling my days just to stay alive. From life itself — the way it is today, at least. From the world.»

(from Jack Finney)

to have ordinary abilities — иметь обыкновенные способности • мати пересічні здібності

to escape — исчезать, бежать (от ч.-л.) • зникати, тікати (від чогось)

fear — страх • страх

loneliness — одиночество • самотність

Text 18-10

Mental and Physical Job

Five or six o’clock in the morning. You must gather yourself together for the day. Every day is something special. It is like a house. The foundation for the day must be laid.

Men are fortunate who have definite tasks. I have always envied bricklayers. There the bricks are. A definite task like that takes your mind off yourself and others. You get up in the morning and begin to lay bricks. As you work your mind clears. You speak to your fellow workmen. The day starts well.

For such people as lawyers, doctors, school-teachers, editors, writers, people whose work is at least partly mental, the mood in which such people start a day is all important.

The task the school-teacher has would frighten me. There is a whole room full of children. Children are usually quick and responsive. The day starts. What is the teacher’s mood? It will affect every one of the pupils.

I know personally a lot of actors. There is an actor reading the same part every evening. No two performances are exactly alike. He is the same man he has been on other nights, is well and strong. What is the matter with him?

And they, poor men, have daily to go through the same little annoyances the rest of us do.

(from Sherwood Anderson)

Text 18-11

Applying for a Job

— Sit down, please, Mr. Sloan. We have your letter in answer to our advertisement. I’d like to talk with you about your qualifications for the position.

— (Mr. Sloan, taking a seat) I suppose you have received a great many replies to your advertisement.

— I haven’t counted the exact number of replies, but I would say that at least fifty persons answered. Naturally, many who wrote don’t have the qualifications we require — but we have picked out the ten or twelve best replies and plan to interview these applicants. Your letter was among the ten or twelve we picked out.

— I am very glad to know that my letter was acceptable. It is sometimes very difficult to answer a newspaper advertisement well.

— As to your letter, Mr. Sloan, I would say that it was one of the best we received. I am always amazed at the poor letters most people write when applying for a position. They use any old kind of writing paper that seems to be handy. They write illegibly and include many personal factors which are not important. At the same time they fail to state simply and clearly their qualifications for a job. Incidentally, you mentioned in your letter that you had already done considerable work in selling.

— I was Field Representative for five years of one of the large commercial schools. I enrolled new students for the school.

— What did your work consist of exactly?

— The school supplied me with leads, which were generally simply the names of prospective students who had telephoned or written to the school requesting information. I had to visit such students in their homes, talk with their parents, etc. The job also involved some public relations work, since I had to visit high schools and talk with student groups about the advantages of commercial training.

— This job for which we are interviewing applicants is somewhat similar — except, of course, you would be selling computers rather than commercial courses. We pay a straight commission of ten per cent on all sales, with a drawing account of fifty dollars a week to start. Your school experience would be very useful, since in this job you would also call upon schools and colleges. You would visit computer classes, demonstrate new machines, and talk with school officials and commercial teachers in an effort to interest them in buying our computers. The job occasionally involves some travelling.

— I’m prepared to travel if necessary. As I started in my letter, I have my own car.

— That is important. We give you an allowance for all automobile and travelling expenses.

— I am sure that I could do the work well. I also feel that I have the necessary qualifications.

— Frankly, Mr. Sloan, I was very favourably impressed by your letter. Since talking with you I feel even more strongly that you are perhaps the right man for the job. However, we naturally want to interview the remainder of the applicants before we make any final decision.

— I included the names of several references in my letter. I can also send you copies of personal recommendations from my last two employers.

— Incidentally, in that connection, the young man whom I interviewed just before you sent along two letters of reference with his application. One was from the minister of his church and the other from his Sunday School teacher. I told him that the two references proved that he was a good person on Sundays but I was more interested in his conduct on weekdays. He laughed and thought it was a good joke. If we decided to hire you, Mr. Sloan, when could you start working?

— I could start almost immediately. I would like to give my present employer a week or ten days’ notice, but otherwise I would be free to begin any time.

— That’s fine. (Rising to indicate end of interview). You’ll no doubt hear from us, Mr. Sloan, writing the next five days. As soon as we have interviewed the remainder of the applicants we will make our final decision. We can telephone you or send you a telegram. Thank you very much for coming in to see us. It has been a real pleasure to talk with you.

— Thank you. Sir! Then I’ll wait to hear from you.

(from magazine «Life Lines»)

in answer to one’s advertisement — в ответ на чье-то объявление • у відповідь на чиюсь об’яву

to fail to state simply and clearly — не удаваться изложить просто и ясно • не удаватися викласти все просто і зрозуміло

to enrol new students — вербовать новых студентов • вербувати нових студентів

somewhat similar — чем-то похожа • чимсь схожа

to call upon schools — (обращаться) заходить в школы • (звертатися) заходити у школи

in an effort to interest smb. in buying — стараясь заинтересовать покупкой • намагаючись зацікавити покупкою

expenses — расходы • видатки

the right man for the job — подходящий человек для работы • підходящий для роботи чоловік

You’ll no doubt hear from us. — Без сомнения, Вы получите наш ответ. • Ви, без сумніву, одержите від нас відповідь.

Text 18-12

What’s Your Line?

School! Lessons, games, clubs, homework. A bell rings. You go to a classroom. A bell rings. You have lunch. A bell rings. You go home.

But one day you go to school for the last time. What to do after that? You realize that the time to choose one job out of the hundreds has come. It’s going to be a hard choice and nobody can make it for you.

Before you can choose, you ask yourself quite a lot of questions. What do you know you are good at? What do you enjoy doing? Perhaps you enjoy working with your hands. Or you may prefer using your head — your brains. Are you interested in machines? Or do you like meeting people? It’s difficult to know all the answers to these questions until you have left school and actually begun work.

Many young people consider teaching as a career. It’s not surprising: after your parents your teacher may be the most important person in your life. With all the teachers you meet, you think there isn’t anything you don’t know about the work. That’s where you are wrong, since only those who are in it can appreciate it. Have you ever asked yourself why most teachers are so devoted to their work and privately think, though they may not like to admit it openly, that they serve humanity doing the most vital job of all? Those of us who spend our days in schools know how rewarding the job is. At the same time it is not easy and a real challenge to your character, abilities and talent, as teaching is a constant stream of decisions.

Children in your classroom aren’t just boys and girls. Every one is a unique individual who has never been before and will never again exist. If you like people, you will love teaching. To be a good teacher you must be genuinely interested in what you are doing.

The most important things in the world are awareness and learning — wanting to know every day of your life more and more and more. Because every time you learn something new you become something new. An ignorant teacher teaches ignorance, a fearful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom. But a good teacher catalyzes in his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth and beauty.

(from J. Jones «Functions of English »)

brain — мозг, рассудок, умственные способности • мозок, розумові здібності

to use one’s brain — думать головой, заниматься умственной деятельностью • займатися розумовою діяльністю, скочити до голови по розум

to appreciate — оценивать, ценить • оцінювати

rewarding — стоящий • вартісний

Text 18-13

Applying for a Job

Getting the job you want can sometimes depend on the success of the job interview. During the interview the employer will try to find out what kind of person you are, what experience you have, and how you can fit into the job situation.

After you have got an appointment, review the information that you wrote on your application form and resume. Practise talking about your education and previous job experience both in the USA and in your native country. Be prepared to explain your skills and abilities specifically.

Go to the interview alone; don’t take your friends or children with you. Plan to arrive about ten minutes before the appointment time. Wear appropriate clothing; a neat appearance will make a good impression.

During the interview look directly at the interviewer and answer all of her questions as specifically as you can. Ask any questions that you have about the job, such as hours, salary, or job benefits. Write down these questions before you go to the interview. Before you leave, there should be a clear understanding about all aspects of the job.

At the close of the interview, express your thanks and be sure that the interviewer knows how to contact you if she wants to hire you.

(from magazine «Life Lines»)

to wear appropriate clothing — носить подходящую одежду • носити відповідний одяг

neat appearance — аккуратная внешность • акуратна зовнішність

to make a good impression — производить хорошее впечатление • справляти добре враження

Text 18-14

Elusive Job

Barbara left university armed with a good degree in advertising and a desire to fulfil her dream of working in PR. But three months after sending scores of letters in response to adverts, she was still looking for that elusive job.

Nowadays it’s not just the traditionally popular professions like the media and law that are difficult to enter. To make sure you get noticed, you have to be prepared to pull out all the stops. And here’s how you can do it.

You should identify your skills and what you want out of your job. The core skills employers are looking for communication, teamwork and IT skills; seek help with this from careers advisors and consultants. Send out speculative letters, but make sure your letter stands out — you want the reader to stop and take notice. Once you reach the interview stage, beware of pitfalls that can trip you up. Your performance here is crucial. Blunders can cost you the job; make sure you’re well-versed in as many of the company’s products and services as possible. Dress smartly but comfortably, as you will be judged in some respects by what you wear. When in doubt, dress conservatively. Appear confident, relaxed and in control at all times — this is of primary importance — and remember to listen as well as talk. Communication is a two-way street — talk too much and you may miss clues concerning what the interviewer feels is important.

(from Jacky Newbrook and Judith Wilson)

PR (public relations) — связи с общественностью, информация о деятельности • зв’язок із громадськістю, інформація про діяльність

scores of letters — множество писем • безліч листів

in response to — в ответ на • у відповідь на

elusive — неуловимый, уклончивый • невловимий

IT skills — навыки информационных технологий • навички інформаційних технологій

advisors — объявление • об’ява

pitfalls — ловушка, западня • пастка

crucial — решающий • вирішальний

blunder — грубая ошибка, промах • груба помилка, промах, похибка

Text 18-15

A Resume

What is a resume? What information should it include? Did you ever write a resume? What kind of job were you applying for?

A resume should show an applicant’s qualifications for a specific job. It should include your name, address, and telephone number; an employment objective; educational and training data; and a list of previous work experience. The list should start with your present job or with your last job that shows qualifications for the work you want now.

All of this data should be listed in an easy-to-read form. If possible, all of the information should be on one page. Type your resume on standard size (8 1/2 x 11) business stationery.

The interviewer usually sees the resume before he sees the applicant. The resume gives the first impression of the applicant to the employer. It should be neat and well organized.

It is usually a cood idea to attach the resume to the letter of application. Always send it with a cover letter; never send it alone. An applicant should bring additional copies of her resume to the interview.

The job applicant should always rewrite and revise the resume to fit the specific job that he/she is applying for.

Read each sentence. If it is true, write T. If it is false, write F:

□ 1. The same resume should be submitted for all jobs.

□ 2. Always send a cover letter with your resume.

□ 3. Resumes should only include information about job experience.

□ 4. The way a resume looks can make an impression on the employer.

□ 5. Bring a copy of your resume with you when you go to an interview.


Fred Guzman

65 Baker Street

San Francisco, California

(213) 789-3015


To manage an auto repair shop.



Mechanic. Forest Auto Service, 346 Mission Street, San Francisco, California. Supervise auto repairs; diagnose and make repairs; check work; submit bills; have experience with American and foreign cars.


Maintenance Mechanic. A&R Plastics, Inc., 32 Pueblo Drive, Los Angeles, California. Repaired all production machinery; made all electrical repairs; did general maintenance.


Superintendent. Buena Vista Apartments, Cali, Colombia. Complete charge of fifty apartments; repaired all plumbing; did carpentry work, painting and landscaping; assisted in all electrical work.



Alemany Community College, San Francisco, California. Studying English.


Attended Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. Completed one year of engineering training.


Graduated from high school, Cali, Colombia.

Special Skills:

Book-keeping and billing. References available on request.


Nguyet Minh Le

1400 Belin Drive Houston,


(713) 276-0716


Entry-level secretary in a company with opportunities for growth and advancement.

Special Skills:

Fluent in Vietnamese, French, and English. Can operate a word processing machine.


Secretary/Book-keeper, five years in Vietnam. Worked for sales manager in a manufacturing company. Typed reports and forms, filed records, did general book-keeping. 1979- Present. — Assembly Line Worker, Markay Bags, 2240 Whitis Avenue, Austin, Texas. 1978 to 1979 Plastics Machine Operator, Team Plastics, 420 Airport Drive, Houston, Texas.


Houston Community College, Houston, Texas. Presently enrolled. Have taken courses in shorthand, accounting, and word processing. Graduated from high school, Saigon, Vietnam, June 1974.


Dr. Tuan Anh Nguyen, 249 Second Street, Houston, Texas. Professor Linda Olson, Houston Community College, 22 Waugh Drive, Houston, Texas. Reverend Charles Watson, Pastor, St. Jude’s Church, Houston, Texas.

Resume Worksheet

On a separate piece of paper prepare уour own resume. List everything in easy-to-read form. Decide on a format you would like to use. Include the following information:

1. Personal Data (Your name, address, phone number.)

2. Objective/Position Applied for (Write the kind of position you are looking for.)

3. Experience (Names of jobs, places, dates, and descriptions of exactly what you did.)

4. Education (List the schools you have attended. Include dates and subject areas you studied, starting with your most recent school.)

5. Other (List any other information which you think might be helpful. Examples: special skills, hobbies, organizations, community service, languages you speak.)

6. References (List names and addresses of two or three references, or write «References available on request.»)


Text 18-16

Job in America

Many Americans change jobs during their lifetime. In fact, some Americans even change careers one or more times. For example, someone who has been a teacher for fifteen years might decide to quit that profession in order to begin a restaurant business. Or a banker might decide to go back to school to study law. You sometimes meet older Americans who have tried several careers in their lifetime.

The Small Business Administration is a US government agency established in 1953. It lends money to small business to help them grow. The Small Business Administration also helps small businesses receive government contracts.

Before World War II, most American women did not work outside the home. Between 1941 and 1945, more than 6 million women took jobs outside the home for the first time. Since then, the number of women in the workplace has greatly increased. In Most American families, both the husband and wife must work in order to afford a home or a college education for their children.

As recently as 1970, public opinion polls indicated that most American men did not want their wives to work outside the home. But today, most husbands approve of their wives having a job. In fact, the majority of American wives now work outside the home. About 60% of mothers with children under the age of six are now employed. And about 70% of mothers with school-age children are now working, too.

American teenagers often take job in the summer, when they are not going to school. Many teenagers work as counsellors in summer camps for young children. Some teens may work in supermarkets or in fast-food restaurants. Other have jobs as messengers, delivery people, or salesclerks. Occasionally teenagers work at some of these jobs during the school year as well as during the summer.

In the United States, about 5% of all jobs are in agriculture, fishing, and mining. About 25% are in manufacturing and construction. The rest of the jobs are in service professions, such as teaching, selling and medicine.

Many Americans retire at the age of 65. Some retire at a younger age and other choose never to retire. The federal government provides social security (money each month) for workers who retire.

There are many organization of retired persons in the United States. Some of the members of these groups volunteer their time to help people in a particular kind of business. Other groups of retired persons work for educational social, religious, or political causes.

(from «Family Album, USA» by Alvin Cooperman and George Lefferts)

to quit — покидать, оставлять, бросать, прекращать • кидати, залишати, припиняти

poll — голосование, число голосов, опрос (общественного мнения) • голосування, число голосів, опитування (громадської думки)

Text 18-17

Out of Work

1. In the United States a lot of people are out of work. Tracy Kowalsky is 19. She dropped out of high school two years ago and got a job as a check-out clerk in a supermarket. She was fired four months ago and hasn't been able to find another job yet.

«My old man just doesn’t understand. He started working in the steel mill there in town when he was 16. Things are different now, but he thinks I should start bringing home some money. I’m on unemployment, but it isn’t very much and I’m just fed up with standing in line to sign for it every other week. I hate having to ask my folks for money. My mom gives one a couple of dollars now and then, and she can’t stand having me around the house all day. I’ve almost given up looking for a job. I look at the paper every day, but I’m really tired of going through the want ads. There are at least fifty people for every job. I was interested in becoming a receptionist for a dentist or a doctor because I like meeting people, but now I’d take any job that came along. People ask me why I don’t move to California or maybe Houston, but I really don’t want to leave my family and my friends. Anyway, I’d be scared of living all alone in a strange place.»

Tracy went to the state employment office. She had to fill out a questionnaire. Here is part of it:


Do you want (check one)

a) full-time employment

b) part-time employment

What is most important for you? (number these from 1 to 5 in order of importance — 1 = most, 5 = least)

a) money

b) people

c) job security

d) job satisfaction 0 e) interesting job

Do you like (check «yes» or «no»)

a) meeting people?

b) working alone?

c) working with other people?

d) working with your hands?

e) travelling?

f) working outdoors?

2. George Hartman is 54. Until last year he was a foreman at an automobile plant in Michigan. He had worked for the same company since he graduated from high school. He had a good job and a comfortable life. When the company cut back production last year, George was laid off.

«It’s funny, you know. I don’t feel old, but it isn’t easy to start looking for a job at my age. I’ve been turned down so many times that now I’m afraid of applying for a job. All the interviewers are twenty years younger than me. You see, I’m interested in learning a new skill, but nobody wants to train me. I can see their point of view, you know. I’ll have to retire in a few year’s. It’s just that... well, I’m tired of sitting around the house. I’ve worked hard for over thirty-five years, and now I’m terrified of having nothing to do. When I was still with US Motors I was bored with doing the same thing day after day, but now I’d enjoy having a job again — any job. It’s not just the money. I’m still on unemployment, and my wife has a good job. She makes more money than I ever uid, but we have to be careful with expenses, and so I’ve given up smoking. But we’re getting along. No, it’s not just the money. I need to get out more and feel... useful, you know. Yeah, I guess I want to feel useful.»

(from «American Streamline»)

Text 18-18

Getting a Job

In the United States every state has an employment service which helps unemployed people who are looking for jobs. The local offices list job openings in the area, and give practical advice on interview techniques, application forms, letters, unemployment insurance, and Social Security. Young people, especially those without a college education, need to have this advice. Here is part of a brochure put out by one state.

The Interview

So you’re going to have an interview for a job. Great! Now for the hard part. To do well on an interview you need to give it some thought first. Employers want to learn if you are the person they want, so you’ll be asked a lot about yourself. Think about it now, and you’ll be able to give clear answers:

What do I do well?

What are my good points?

Why would I like this job?

Spare-time interests?

What is my family like?

School activities?

School subjects?

Previous job?

Part-time work?

What do I like doing and why?

What do I not like doing and why?

You will want to ask questions too:

The job itself?


Prospects for advancement?

Educational opportunities?


Can I see where I would be working?


Write down your answers and go over them just before you go into the interview.

Before the Interview

1. Find out all you can about the company.

2. Find out the interviewer’s name and office phone number.

3. Find out where the interview is.

4. Find out how to get there and how long it will take you to get there.

5. Make sure you know what the job involves.

6. Dress to look clean and neat.

At the Interview

1. Arrive early. Call ahead if you’re delayed.

2. Try to smile and show confidence.

3. Ask questions and show interest in the job.

4. Be polite, listen carefully, and speak clearly.


1. Don’t panic, even if faced by more than one person. (Breathe deeply and remember all your good points.)

2. Don’t slouch or look bored. (Stand and sit straight; make eye contact.)

3. Don’t smoke or chew gum.

4. Don’t give one-word answer or say you don’t care what you do.

Look at these ads for job openings

Computer Operator

Experienced assistant IBM System 34. Duties: billing and inventory. Send resume or letter stating qualifications to: American Diversified, 485 5th Avenue, Beaver Falls. PA 15010. Equal Opportunity Employer M/F.

Dental Receptionist/Secretary

Part-time. Bilingual Spanish/English. Mature, bright. Respond with qualifications and salary requirements, Larkin Agency, 23rd Street. Pittsburgh, PA 15260

Matsuda of Tokyo

Opportunities available for salesperson in Philadelphia boutique. Send resume with salary requirement and references to Nicole. 109 Broad St., Philadelphia, PA 19105

A Letter of Application

1. Remember that the first impression is very important.

2. Type the letter neatly on good stationery.

3. Check for spelling mistakes. Use a dictionary if you are not sure of a word. Retype the letter if necessary.

4. Describe yourself, your qualifications, and your experience clearly.

5. If the ad tells you to write for an application form you do not need to give detailed information in your letter.

6. Follow standard business letter format. Address the letter and envelope clearly.

A Letter

421 Lafayette Drive, Apt. 317

St. Paul, Minnesota 56106

April 4, 1994

Personnel Department

Continental Computer Corp.

935 Watson Ave

St. Paul, MN 55101

Dear Sir or Madam!

In reference to your ad in today’s Standard I am interested in the opening for a trainee computer programme. Please send me an application form and any further details. Thank you for your attention to this matter.

Yours truly. Ashley Wychulte. (from «American Streamline »)

Text 18-19

Changing jobs

Jobs for life are history. But while most people accept they may have to change employers several times during their working life, the majority still hold to the old adage that a cobbler should stick to his last. Most job moves are either in the same industry or in the same line of work.

That attitude is now being reappraised. Sticking to what you know could mean staying in a not very profitable rut. Taking your courage in both hands and making a fresh start can produce a rapid earnings boost. Equally importantly, starting a second career can help put the lid on an unhappy or unsatisfactory working life.

A small but growing number of employers are now starting to realise that all but the most technical skills are interchangeable — managing staff or dealing with customers is much the same whether you are involved in retailing or railways. And switching from controlling employees to controlling a process or vice versa — is just one step further along the flexi-work road. But your success in getting out of a rut and into the fast lane will depend on the field you target. Don’t expect to succeed with ease if you want to be a brain surgeon or a high-flying stock-broker.

adage — пословица, поговорка, мудрое изречение • прислів’я, приказка, мудрий вислів

cobbler — сапожник, занимающийся починкой обуви • швець, що займається лагодженням взуття

Cobbler must (should) stick to his last (a proverb). — Всяк сверчок знай свой шесток (пословица). • Хай швець судить не вище сандалії. Біда, як пироги та швець почне пекти (прислів’я).

boost — рост, повышение, поддержка • підвищення, підтримка

to put the lid on — положить конец, довершить дело • покласти край, довершити справу

vice versa — наоборот, обратно • навпаки, назад

stock-broker — биржевой маклер • біржовий маклер

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