Read, translate and render in brief.
The Movies Till Now
Griffith was the first to take stock of all of the movies' already existing devices — the close-up, the use of the moving camera — and to create new ones. In the years from 1908 to 1913, he literally and single-handedly formed the language of cinema. He influenced and taught film-makers all over the world, and the filmic grammar he created is present, in some form or another, in every film you see today. In 1915 and 1916, with the movies still in their infancy, he created the screen’s first two masterpieces — «The Birth of a Nation» and «Intolerance» — and turned a novelty and minor business into an international art and a major industry. A little more than half a century has gone by since then, and that art industry has made fantastic strides.
These first sixty years of the movies have been so rich in artistry, beauty, dramatic expression, experiment and — above all — in solid entertainment that one wonders how on earth movies a hundred years hence can retain their magic, or still find something fresh to say.
Those six decades of the movies have had their ups and downs to be sure. There have been times when the cinema seems to have had nothing to say.
But there have been periods of beauty and poetry too, and most of the filmmaking nations of the world have had their own particular Golden Ages. For example, for Scandinavia it was the late teens and early 20s; the German cinema was at its peak in the mid of late 20s; the French cinema in the early 30s; the British film probably saw its finest hour during and after World War II.
(from «Film Review, » London).
stock — основа • основа
to take a stock — инвентаризировать, делать переучет • інвентаризувати, робити переоблік
existing devices — существующие средства, приспособления • існуючі засоби, пристрої
to create — творить, создавать • творити, створювати
to influence — влиять, оказывать влияние • вшивати, справляти вплив
infancy — ранняя стадия развития; детство • рання стадія розвитку; дитинство
masterpiece — шедевр • шедевр
minor — незначительный, второстепенный, меньший • незначний, другорядний, менший
major — более важный; главный, старший • важливіший; головний, старший
stride — большой шаг, большой успех • великий крок, великий успіх
to make a fantastic stride — сделать фантастический шаг • зробити фантастичний крок
experiment — эксперимент, опыт • експеримент, дослід
above all — более того, сверх того • більш того, понад те
to retain — сохранять, поддерживать • зберігати, підтримувати
ups and downs — взлеты и падения • злети і падіння
particular Golden Ages — определенные золотые времена • певні золоті часи
teens = from 13 to 19 (here: from 1913 to 1919) — здесь: c 1913 no 1919 • тут: з 1913 no 1919
to be at one’s peak — быть на вершине • бути на вершині
A Story of a Movie Star
Now I am a movie star. I can afford to give no thought to such things as rent, electric light, food or clothes.
But I know what it means to live in houses without a bathroom or running water. I know what it means to sleep in bedrooms where the temperature is 15 degrees below zero, to order the cheapest dish on a restaurant menu.
When I first tried to get into the movies, I was worried and scared. I had just come from India and I didn’t know anyone in Wilmington, where I was trying to get a job. I saw a few producers but none of them hired me, and the little money I had began to give out. For two weeks I lived on nothing but crackers and water. I was not only worried. I was hungry. I said to myself, «Maybe you’re a fool. Maybe you will never break into the movies. After all, what can you do? You’ve never acted at all — what have you to offer but rather a pretty face?»
One More Story
Shirley Pearl’s career is at its peak. She’s married, with two children, needs only six hours sleep per night and is working harder than ever.
She will star in my new film.
She also has plans for records, tours and TV work. What makes Shirley a star? Her voice? Her looks? Her elegance? Her ability to make you feel emotion? Shirley Pearl herself doesn’t know the answer. She usually says, «The only thing I know I'm still here and Pm still working».
to scare — бояться • боятися
to hire — нанимать • наймати
ability — способность • спроможність, здатність, здібність
Charles Chaplin is one of the beloved comedians of the world.
If Charles Chaplin had limited his career only to short films, he still would have left a strong influence on the development of world cinema.
Many of the two-reelers created from 1916 to 1917 are short masterpieces where a great deal of action in the form of slapstick comedy evolved. Comic chases and fights were developed by Chaplin to squeeze many gags from one situation. He was able to produce more laughs per two-reeler than anyone else.
In these short films his skill and innovation as an actor were revealed. Chaplin was a master of both broad, acrobatic pantomime and simple routines that demanded slight hand movements and facial expressions. He was able to make smoking a cigarette and counting money extremely funny. He had an acting intensity not possessed by other comedians.
The short film technique Chaplin carried over to his full-length movie of the 20s. Three great feature films — «The Kid,» «The Gold Rush » and «The Circus» were created by Chaplin in the golden age of silent screen comedy. What distinguished his works in the 20s was the ability to use sentiment in real dramas. The audience did not only laugh at the Little Tramp but also felt sorry for him. Chaplin was able to evoke both a tear and a laugh. At times the two were fused.
So great was Chaplin’s popularity that in the 30s he was able to produce two feature-length comedies which were actually silent films. In the 1931 «City Lights", using a recorded music score and a few sound effects, Chaplin created another masterpiece when all the industry had turned to sound. No one objected to the lack of the human voice, and the picture was a great success with the public. It was the most sentimental story Chaplin had ever handled. It focused on the Little Tramp affection for a blind girl. The subject of the film may be regarded as tear-jerking and sentimental, but it goes without saying that it is made with restraint and taste.
In 1936 Chaplin produced «Modem Times» with only a few соmcessions to the medium that was then seven years old and fully accepted by everyone except Chaplin. He only used a radio, a record player and a jabber-wacky song which he sang himself at the end of the film. The song had lyrics created by Chaplin from a mixture of pseudo French, Italian and Spanish. The song was accompanied by a pantomime and was obviously intended as a satire of the talkies.
The film showed injustice and brutality of dehumanized society.
Chaplin is at his best when he burlesques the factory worker turned into a trained ape, or cruelty and heartlessness with which the Little Tramp is treated by the authorities. We sympathize with the human tenderness of the tramp who looks for a kind gesture in a cold, selfcentred world.
Among the films of his sound period «The Great Dictator» (1940) is worth special mentioning.
This film is a lampoon against fascism and autocracy. Chaplin burlesques the dictator’s self-inflating and even maniac ravings on a speaker’s platform.
One great scene shows the tyrant using a world map, in globe form of course, as a ball to kick around. It is one of the greatest anti-fascist and antiwar movies that has ever been created.
Chaplin left a great comic tradition that was to some extent carried on into the sound age. He was the most talented comedian to incorporate into the talkies the an that had been developed in the 20s, His masterpieces are popular now and they will live on. They will never fade and will influence the film comedies yet to be born.
(from «The American Cinema"by Donald E. Staples)
two-reeler — фильм в двух частях • фільм у двох частинах
to evolve — развиваться • розвиватися
gag — комический трюк • комічний трюк
Little Tramp — маленький бродяга • маленький бурлака
music score — партитура • партитура
to jerk a tear — выдавить слезу • видавити cльозу
to make concessions — поступаться • поступатися
jabber-wacky song — путаница, неразбериха • плутанина
to burlesque — пародирование • пародіювання
maniac ravings — видения маньяка • марення маніяка
Born in 1955 in Los Angeles, Kevin Costner spent his childhood often on the move, changing schools frequently, owing to his father’s job at the regional electricity company. As a teenager, he developed a keen liking for football, baseball and basketball and was also interested m singing and writing poetry.
He married his college sweetheart Cindy Whilst still at California State University and came out with a business degree in marketing. In his spare time he appeared in local theatre productions. Theatre became increasingly important to him and after having worked six weeks in a marketing company he gave the job up to become an actor.
He played in many small pan roles before his first principle role in «Stacy’s Nights", which was not a success. However Costner himself was given good reviews. The same thing happened for «Testament,» «Fandango,» «Silverado,» «American Fleyer’s» and Steven Spielberg’s «Amazing Stories». However, in 1987, his starring role in «The Untouchables» directed by Brian De Palma and Roger Donaldson’s really introduced him to international fame. Indeed, he won the Star of Tomorrow prize from the US National Association of Theatre Owners. Then in 1988 came "Bull Durham » which was a huge hit movie in the States about baseball. His subsequent film, "Field of Dreams’’ was also a success and touched baseball again. Then came the violent drama movie «Revenge» followed by his first directorial debut film «Dances With Wolves»іn which he also starred and which won 7 Oscars. His last movie was the swashbuckling «Robin Hood, Prince of the Thieves ».
He is currently filming in Oliver Stone’s «JFK» in Dallas, Texas, in which he plays a New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison, investigating the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
frequently — часто • часто owing to — благодаря • завдяки
teenager — подросток; юноша или девушка до 20 лет • підліток; юнак або дівчина до 20 років
keen — острый, сильный • гострий, сильний
to be interested in — интересоваться • цікавитися
sweetheart — возлюбленный, возлюбленная • коханий, кохана
to give up — бросать, покидать • кидати, покидати
international fame — международная слава • міжнародна слава
huge — огромный • величезний
subsequent — последующий • наступний
violent — неистовый, страстный • шалений, жагучий
swashbuckler — головорез • горлоріз
attorney — поверенный, адвокат • повірник, адвокат
district attorney (Am.) — районный прокурор • районний прокурор
Enjoyable experience? Very definitely, for a number of reasons.
Making a movie on location is not, by any means, a simple exercise, wherever you make a film, in whatever country. However, with working in Ireland, working in the Republic of Ireland with the Irish, you get something... you get a kind of, you get a bonus. You get not only the expertise that one would expect in a profession such as filmmaking amongst the crews; you get co-operation, cooperation on the street, co-operation in terms of location facilities. You get a general sense instead of trying to sort of compromise you, you get the opposite; you get a feeling of they’re trying to help, they’re trying to make it part of their lives. So in terms of the population it’s very good news.
The other considerations or the other pluses of doing films in Ireland I suppose, of course, it’s a most — especially in terms of «The Railway Station Man » — beautiful locations, stunning locations. In the case of Dublin, it’s a very special city, and they considered our film («The Commitments») theirs. I mean, it wasn’t just the visitors come to town and the dollar comes to meet the «punt». Because of the themes of the film and because of Roddie Dooyle’s book, it’s very much their film. So all the way round, I think, a very enjoyable experience in both films.
definitely — определенно, ясно, точно • певно, ясно, точно
for a number of reasons — по ряду причин • з низки причин
by any means — каким бы то ни было образом • будь-яким чином
bonus — премия • премія
expertise — экспертиза • експертиза
crew — экипаж, компания, съемочная группа • екіпаж, компанія, знімальна група
co-operation — кооперация, сотрудничество • кооперація, співробітництво
facility — легкость, удобный случай, возможность • легкість, нагода, можливість
general sense — общий смысл • загальний зміст
instead of — вместо • замість
compromise — компромисс • поступка
consideration — размышление, рассмотрение, соображение • міркування, розгляд, розуміння
in terms of — на языке, с точки зрения • мовою, з погляду
punt — удар, ставка • удар, ставка
Motion Picture Industry
Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope invented, 1894;
First projected film-showing in US, 1896;
First movie theatre opened Los Angeles, 1902;
First narrative feature. The Great Train Robbery, 1903;
First Hollywood «epic» Birth of a Nation, 1915;
Sound successfully introduced with The Jazz Singer, 1927;
First Technicolor feature, 1935;
Impact of television led to a decline of major Hollywood studios, 1950s. During the Great Depression, going to the movies once a week was almost as much a part of the American experience as Thanksgiving turkey. Every year the major motion picture studios — Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Brothers, Paramount, Universal and 20th-century Fox — turned out hundreds of films, the vast majority of them light, airy comedies, flossy musicals, adventure yams and detective stories. For the most part such fare had few artistic pretension. The films were calculated to charm, excite and amuse the moviegoing public, which by 1938 was represented by some 80 million movie-theatre tickets sold weekly: a figure indicating that perhaps half of all Americans — allowing for those who saw more than one movie a week — spent several hours weekly at either small neighbourhood theatres or in the ornate surroundings of «downtown» motion picture business, these depression years, and the 1940s that followed, were a golden age; a time when a star like crooner-actor Frank Sinatra could draw thousand of shrieking teenagers, when the faces of such film luminaries as Clark Gable, Humphrey Bogart, child star Shirley Temple, Greta Garbo, Ingrid Bergman, Rita Hayworth and a host of others were as familiar to Americans as that of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The glamour surrounding the American motion picture industry in the 1930s and 1940s was a far cry from its primitive beginnings near the turn of the century. Although inventors and technicians of many nations had a hand in developing early motion picture cameras and projectors, the American experience with film began in 1894 when Thomas Edison unveiled his Kinetoscope «peep shows».
The earliest films relied on the novelty of the medium to attract customers. Little effort was made to develop a story line until Edwin S. Porter’s «The Great Train Robbery» (1903) — the prototype of thousands of Western adventure movies — proved to be so great a hit that it cast the mold in which film entertainment was to be formed.
By the early 1920s the movies had already carved a place for themselves in the entertainment habits of millions of Americans who flocked to theatres to see such stars as Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, Joan Crawford and Tom Mix on the still-silent screen.
At about the same time, a young cartoonist, Walt Disney, began to achieve success with his animated films, which in 1928 introduced «Mickey Mouse» to the world. Seven years later the first Technicolor feature, «Becky Sharp,» signalled the arrival of full-colour movies. Scores of films made in the 1930s and 1940s have retained a wide audience through their frequent revivals in motions picture theatres or via showing on television. «Gone with the wind» (1939), the technicolor epic of the Old South, remains a Hollywood standby, its 77 million gross receipt (1973) making it one of the most profitable movies ever produced. Numerous other films of Hollywood’s «golden age» — including Charles Chaplin’s «City Lights» (1931); «Grand Hotel» (1932); starring Greta Garbo; John Huston’s «Treasure of the Sierra Madre» (1948); and Joseph Mahkiewiz’s «All About Eve» (1950), to name just a few — have retained audience’s interest. By the early 1960s television had claimed the lion’s share of the entertainment audience and the major studios first cut back their production schedules, then changed their methods of operation, becoming little more than packages of both movies and situation comedies for the new medium. For all its problems, the motion picture industry still attracts some 20 million Americans each week for whom the movies remain a prime source of entertainment.
(from «Family Encyclopedia of American History »)
decline — падение, упадок, спад • падіння, занепад
experience — опыт • досвід
vast majority — огромное большинство • величезна більшість
flossy — шелковистый • шовковистий
fare — стоимость • вартість
pretension — претензия, предъявление прав, претенциозность • претензія, пред'явлення прав, претензійність
to calculate — вычислять, рассчитывать, полагать • обчисляти, розраховувати, думати
to indicate — указывать, ознакомлять, показывать • ознайомлювати, показувати
ornate — украшенный, витиеватый (стиль) • прикрашений, витіюватий (стиль)
surroundings — окрестности, среда • довкілля, середовище
golden age — золотой век, золотое время • золотий вік (час)
crooner — исполнитель или исполнительница сентиментальных песенок • виконавець або виконавиця сентиментальних пісеньок
teenager — подросток • підліток
luminary — светило, знаменитость • світило, знаменитість
host of — множество, толпа • множина, натовп
to be familiar to smb. — быть хорошо знакомым, известным к.-л. • бути добре знайомим, відомим комусь
glamour — чары, колдовство • чари, чаклунство
inventor — изобретатель • винахідник
peep show — небольшая коллекция картинок для стереоскопа • невеличка колекція картинок для стереоскопа
to rely on — полагаться на • покладатися на
medium of — посредством, через • за допомогою, через
to attract — привлекать, притягивать • залучати, притягати
effort — усилие, напряжение • зусилля, напруження
to carve — пробить дорогу, место • пробити дорогу, місце
to flock — собираться в толпу • збиратися в натовп
to achieve success — достигать успеха • досягати успіху
revival — возрождение, оживление • відродження, пожвавлення
profitable — прибыльный, полезный • прибутковий, корисний
treasure — сокровище, клад • скарб
to claim — требовать, претендовать на • вимагати, претендувати на
prime source — основной источник • основне джерело
At the Columbia Theatre
There was a good picture at the Columbia Theatre last week, so Virginia and Robert decided to see it. They arrived at the theatre at seven o’clock, in time for the newsreel. In cities in the United States, shows usually begin at one o’clock in the afternoon and are continuing until midnight.
Robert wanted to sit in the balcony, but because Virginia preferred to sit downstairs, they sat on the main floor.
After the newsreel they saw a short and a preview of the coming attraction. They heard perfectly because the sound equipment was good.
The main feature was about college life, as Hollywood interprets it, and was very entertaining. In the picture the students played football, went to dances and sang songs to pretty girls. In fact they did everything but study. The acting and music were good, but the film did not show how most American students really live.
The fact is that most Americans usually go to the pictures for amusement. They want to escape from the monotonous routine of everyday life. They do not take the cinema seriously, because they know that the films are made especially to entertain the public.
(from A. Wright. "Practice Your English, » New York)
to escape — исчезать, скрываться • зникати, ховатися
routine — однообразие, рутина • одноманітність, рутина
A Glimpse of World Movie History
Phonographic motion pictures projected on to a screen became available for the general public from about 1895, and by the end of the century they were well established in many countries, notably in France, Britain and America.
The earliest pictures, often of astonishingly good quality and steadiness, were intended as popular entertainment in music-hall programmes. They showed comic turns, magic trick pictures, slapstick, little romances and even short five-minute dramas. More important were the films recording actual happenings.
In the earliest years of the cinema its power to show contemporary events vividly was recognized and appreciated. More than anything else this unique quality secured popularity for the film as a new form of instruction and entertainment.
The history of the film from 1900 to 1911 is the development of it as an international industry. During this period, films grew gradually from ten minutes’ length to two hours.
Makers of films began to learn how to tell a story effectively in motion pictures, the pictures taking the place of words. At this period films were making so much money that film-making attracted a different type of people — people who lacked the enthusiasm of the pioneers, whose aim was to coin money rather than to develop this new art.
During the First World War the demand for films continued to grow at a time when European producers were least able to meet it. In consequence America became the foremost film-making country of the world and Hollywood in California, with the advantage of its strong clear light, the chief centre of production.
The USA developed the «star» system and film publicity simultaneously, so that the names of artists such as Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin were well known to the public wherever there were cinemas to show their films. The cinema became the people’s entertainment, lavish, luxurious, often lurid, available almost to everyone at the price of a few pence.
After the war some of the European film industries revived during the short period left to the silent film (1919—1928 approximately).
Germany developed the artificial studio film with remarkable photography, sets, lighting and acting. The German school specialized in fantasy, spectacle and melodrama.
Russia, nationalizing her film industry in 1919, made the most remarkable contribution of the period to film art in the work of such directors as Eisenstein and Pudovkin. They used the film to interpret history and the problems of contemporary Russian life and their films are among the most important in the history of cinema.
France was the home of experience, especially in the film movement called the avant-garde, run by a group of young directors who attempted to devise films, to reflect ideas of psychology and art.
The British screen, however, remained almost entirely dominated by the American film which developed its tradition of star display in thousands of shallow but commercially successful films.
The first complete talkie was «Lights of New York» к leased in 1929. Sound greatly increased the artistic possibilities of the film.
Since 1932 films in colour have become more general, and technicolour has been adapted for use in all types of film and in later years has rapidly improved to its present excellent standard.
The cinema has become part of the modem way of life. And all over the world artists have emerged to make the films which confirm the existence of a new art — films such as «Intolerance,» «The Battleship Potemkin and others.
(from «Encyclopaedia Britannica,» 1978)
comic turns — комические номера • комічні номери
slapstick — грубый юмор, фарс • брутальний гумор, фарс
to secure popularity — обеспечивать популярность • забезпечувати популярність
lurid — страшный, мрачный • страшный, похмурий
set — декорация • декорація
avantgarde — передовой • передовий
technicolour (Am.) — цветной фильм • кольоровий фільм
to emerge — появляться • з’являтися