At the theatre
Read, translate and render in brief.
Shakespeare as Actor and Playwright
No evidence has been found as yet to show what were Shakespeare’s movements and activities during the years immediately following his departure from Stratford. It has been suggested that he may possibly have taught as a schoolmaster in the country or served for a time in a nobleman’s household but the general opinion is that he went to London in 1587 to seek his fortune in a company of players.
Shakespeare can be traced in London from 1592 onwards, first as an actor and then as a reviser and writer of plays. There is evidence to show that as early as this date, when he was still only twenty-eight, his contemporaries were impressed and some of them indignant, about the quality and popularity of the work of this «upstart crow» (as Robert Greene described him). Shakespeare’s first narrative poem «Venus and Adonis," dedicated to his patron Henry Wriothesley, was published in 1593 and met with a warm reception. By this time he had already written the three parts of «Henry VI" and from then onwards, the performances of his plays can be traced and dated.
Writing in 1598 Francis Meres praised the work of «mellifluous and honey-tongued» Shakespeare.
Research has established Shakespeare’s associations with companies of players and his partnership in various theatrical ventures.
From 1594 he himself was one of the Chamberlain’s Men (called the King’s Men from James I’s accession), whose duties included the provision of entertainment at the Court, and it was for this company that many of his plays were written. In 1599 Shakespeare was a sharer in the Blackfriars Theatre and subsequently one of the proprietors of the Globe Theatre which was built on Bankside in 1599.
The poet’s business ability clearly contributed to the success of his artistic achievements.
(Levi Fox, from «The Shakespeare Anniversary Book,» Great Britain)
evidence — данные, факты, свидетельства • дані, факти, свідчення
movement — движение • рух
activity — деятельность • діяльність
departure — отправление, отъезд • відправлення, від'їзд
fortune — удача, счастье, судьба • удача, щастя, доля
to trace — прослеживать, обнаруживать • простежувати, виявляти
onwards — вперед, далее, направленный вперед • вперед, далі, спрямований уперед
reviser — [ревизионный] корректор • [ревізійний] коректор
contemporary — современный • сучасний
contemporaries — современники • сучасники
indignant — негодующий • обурений
narrative — повествовательный • оповідальний
to dedicate — посвящать • присвячувати
mellifluous — сладкоречивый, медоточивый • солодкомовний, медоточивий
partnership — товарищество • товариство
venture — рискованное предприятие • ризикований захід
entertainment — развлечение, увеселение • розваги, забави
subsequently — впоследствии, после • згодом, після
business ability — деловые способности • ділові здібності
achievement — достижение, свершение • досягнення, здійснення
Shakespeare and Stratford-upon-Avon
Although Stratford-upon-Avon remains a small market town closely linked with the Warwickshire countryside, it has now become a gathering-place of all nations. This has been brought about by the remarkable growth of the international appreciation of Shakespeare, due in part to improved communications and publicity, but largely to the development of education, in which the teaching of English and the study of Shakespeare’s plays have played an important part.
Whereas a century ago visitors to Shakespeare’s Birthplace numbered some six thousand a year, the number is now nearly a quarter of million, of whom more than half come from abroad representing nearly a hundred different nationalities. The other Shakespearean properties attract similar attention, while the international audience at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre during the Shakespeare Season emphasizes that Shakespeare no longer belongs to Stratford but to the world.
Since 1949 Stratford companies have visited Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Holland, France, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Yugoslavia, Poland and Russia.
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre now has a permanent London home in the Aldwych Theatre. At the same time the academic side of Shakespearean study has received considerable impetus. Students and teachers from abroad come regularly to take part in courses of study and the library, records and theatrical collections of the Birthplace and Theatre are increasingly used.
It follows that provision for visitors in the way of hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops and amenities has been made and Shakespeare had added not merely to the prestige, but also to the prosperity of his native town.
(from «The Shakespeare Anniversary Book » by Levi Fox)
remarkable — замечательный • чудовий
appreciation — оценка, уважение • оцінка, повага
to represent — представлять, изображать, указывать, символизировать • подавати, зображувати, указувати, символізувати
to attract attention — привлекать внимание • привертати увагу
to emphasize — подчеркивать, делать ударение (на слове, на факте) • підкреслювати, наголошувати (на слові, на факті)
permanent — постоянный, неизменный • постійний, незмінний
amenity — любезность, приятность • люб'язність, приємність
prestige — престиж • престиж
prosperity — процветание, благосостояние, благодействие • процвітання, добробут, благоденство
A Great Saga
We went to the theatre at 2:00 p.m. and left at 11 :45 p.m. — fifteen minutes before midnight. A long time to sit in a theatre, and hard work for the actors, too. A lot of them played two or even three roles. But the actors did not show their fatigue and the only signs of tiredness from the audience were the creaking of seats as they changed position to get comfortable after long hours of sitting still. And for eight and a half hours the theatre was filled with laughter, tears, cheering and booing.
The play was adapted from Charles Dickens’ novel «Nicholas Nickleby» and it was directed by Trevor Nun and John Caird. It was performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Aldwych Theatre in London.
The theatre was packed and going to that play was like going to a huge party. The audience talked and laughed with each other and with the actors during intervals. Then the actors rejoined the rest of the cast and continued to entertain us with this magnificent saga.
Well, my friends and I talked about the play until 3:00 a.m. The whole experience was triumph for a fine British writer and for British theatre at its best.
(from «Modem English ’)
fatigue — усталость • втома
creaking — скрип • скрип
booing — освистывание • обсвистування
to adapt — инсценировать • інсценувати
to be packed — быть заполненным • бути заповненим
huge — огромный • величезний
the rest of the cast — остальная часть труппы • решта трупи
magnificent — великолепный, пышный, первоклассный • чудовий, пишний, першокласний
triumph — триумф, победа, торжество, ликование • тріумф, перемога, торжество, радіння
Four hours later it was all over. The play went well from the beginning; the spectators were pleased alter the holidays to find themselves once more in a playhouse and were ready to be amused. It was an auspicious beginning for the theatrical season. There had been great applause alter each act and at the end a dozen curtain calls. Julia took two by herself and even she was startled by the warmth other reception. She had made the little halting speech, prepared beforehand, which the occasion demanded. There had been a final call of the entire company and then the orchestra had struck up the National Anthem. Julia, pleased, excited and happy, went to her dressing-room. She had never felt more sure of herself. She had never acted with greater brilliance, variety and resource. The play ended with a long tirade in which Julia castigated the flippancy, the uselessness, the immorality of the idle set into which her marriage had brought her. It was two pages long and there was no actress in England who could have held the attention of the audience while she delivered it. With her exquisite timing, with the modulation of her beautiful voice, with her command of the gamut of emotions, she had succeeded by a climax to the play. A violent action could not have been more exciting nor an unexpected denouement more surprising. The whole cast had been excellent with the exception of Alice Crichton. Julia hummed in an undertone as she went into her dressing-room.
(from W. Somerset Maugham «Theatre»)
to amuse — забавлять, развлекать • бавити, розважати
auspicious — сулящий счастье, благоприятный • сприятливий
beforehand — заранее, вперед • заздалегідь, уперед
to demand — требовать, спрашивать • вимагати, запитувати
the National Anthem — Национальный Гимн • Національний Гімн
to be sure of oneself — быть уверенным в к.-л. • бути упевненим у кому-небудь
brilliance — блеск • блиск
variety — разнообразие, многосторонность • розмаїтість, багатобічність
resource — способ, средство, изобретательность • засіб, винахідливість
tirade — тирада • тирада
to castigate — исправлять, бичевать • виправляти, викривати
flippancy — легкость, дерзость • легкість, зухвалість
uselessness — бесполезность • марність
immorality — безнравственность • неморальність
idle — праздный, бесполезный, ленивый, тщетный • бездіяльний, марний, ледачий, даремний
to deliver — произносить • вимовляти
exquisite — изысканный, прелестный • вишуканий, чарівний
denouement — развязка, заключительный эпизод, исход • розв’язка, заключний епізод, вихід
Sibley and «Manon»
Ballet fans will no doubt have read James Kennedy’s article about Antoinette Sibley. In it he mentioned the new ballet "Manon»which Kenneth MacMillan created for her and Anthony Dowell and which made its very successful debut in March.
She herself talked revealingly about this new work in an interview which appeared in «The Times» of 7 March and from which we have taken the following extract.
«To have a three-act ballet created for you,» she said, «is absolutely the most important thing in a dancer’s life. One has to search one’s heart and soul for the truth to bring alive whatever the choreographer intends. But it’s so tremendously fulfilling to have the chance to do it and know that a little bit of you, something of the way you moved, is going to become part of ballet».
By coincidence, she and Dowell had seen Visconti’s production of the Puccini opera while they were dancing at last year’s Spoleto Festival. They were so bowled over by it that on getting back to London they told John Tooley, Covent Garden’s general administrator, he simply had to get that production for the Royal Opera, and were surprised how non-committal he was. The explanation came shortly afterwards when MacMillan gave them both a copy of Prevost’s novel for their holiday reading.
How much help was the book in creating the character in movement?
«Well, the ballet is nearer to the book than the opera, but where Kenneth has been so clever, I think, is in simplifying it and making it all clear. When I first read it I found all those jumps in time confusing, one person telling another about what happened in the past.
I think Manon really was just a girl who wanted to have her cake and eat it too. Because she had been so poor, she wanted sensual things and the kind of happiness wealth can bring, then she fell in love with someone who was poor. And when she finally made up her mind what she really wanted, it was too late. But I suppose she could have said ‘No’ when her brother tempted her to the other kind of life; she wasn’t really that innocent.
She relies a lot on the music and is delighted to be dancing to Massenet. «It’s so wonderful to have really passionate music again, music you can sing when you come home.
I get all my motivation, as they say now, from the drama and from the music. These are what get me moving, enable me to find something inside myself that goes into the role. I have to be able to listen to the music, that is why I cannot dance to electronic music, because I simply do not know how to hear those plunks and plonks and bumps».
(from magazine «Time")
to make a very successful debut — очень успешно дебютировать • дуже успішно дебютувати
revealingly — открыто, откровенно • відкрито, відверто
three-act ballet — балет в трех частях • балет у трьох частинах
to search one's heart and soul for — проникать (пронизывать сердце и душу) • проникати (пронизувати серце і душу)
to intend — намереваться, значить, подразумевать • мати намір, значити, розуміти
tremendously — страшно, ужасно • страшно, жахливо
to have the chance — иметь возможность • мати можливість
coincidence — совпадение; случайное стечение обстоятельств • збіг; випадковий збіг обставин
to bowl over — сбить, привести в замешательство • збити з пантелику, спантеличити
to simplify — упрощать • спрощувати
to make smth. clear — прояснить ч.-л. • прояснити що-небудь
sensual — чувственный, плотский, сладострастный • почуттєвий, плотський, хтивий
wealth — благосостояние, богатство • добробут, багатство
to foil in love with smb. — влюбиться в к.-л. • закохатися в кого- небудь
to make up one’s mind — решить • вирішити
innocent — невинный, простак • безневинний, простак
The Experimental Theatre
Since the beginning of the century the European, and later American, theatre has been endlessly experimenting with new forms and styles of production.
Partly this has come from a desire to save the audience from boredom, or a reaction to new forms of entertainment, such as the cinema or television.
The 20th century has also seen the role of the stage director assume greater and greater importance.
In a revival of a classic by an experimental director the main interest is focussed on how he reinterprets the play, so that it illuminates not only the period in which it was written, but also contemporary reality.
The experimentalists have been greatly interested in the relationship between the audience and the actors. In the conventional theatre the audience is completely separated from the actors. In the experimental theatre, on the other hand, one of the most important aims is to do away with the separation between the audience and the stage, so that everyone, actors and spectators, are taking part in a collective theatrical experience.
(from «Morning Star")
partly — отчасти, несколько • почасти, декілька
desire — желание, просьба, требование • бажання, прохання, вимога
to save — спасать, охранять • рятувати, охороняти
boredom — скука • нудьга
to assume — принимать на себя, предполагать • приймати на себе, припускати
importance — важность, значительность • важливість, значущість
revival — возрождение, оживление • відродження, пожвавлення
to be focussed on — быть направленным, сконцентрированным на • бути спрямованим, сконцентрованим на
conventional — условный, обусловленный • умовний, зумовлений
completely — полностью • цілком
to be separated from — быть отделенным от ч.-л. (к.-л.) • бути відділеним від чого-небудь (кого-небудь)
separation — разъединение, разлука • роз’єднання, розлука
experience — опыт, испытание, переживание • досвід, випробування, переживання
Theatre in the USA
Puritan prejudice prevented early flourishing of an American theatre.
First Colonial theatre opened at Williamsburg, Va., 1716.
Philadelphia, New York City and Charleston became theatrical centres, mid-18th century.
George Washington lent prestige to legitimate theatre, 1790s.
Touring companies travelled throughout nation, 19th century.
Theatre reached popular peak in the 1890s.
High-quality native drama emerged, 20th century.
Decline of Broadway lamented, 1970s.
Recent years have seen rise of subscription, public and regional theatre, owing partly to Federal financial grafts.
New York City first recorded theatrical performance was given in a large room in a commercial building in 1732. Philadelphia’s waterfront was home to a theatre district from the mid-18th century, with plays performed in the large spaces provided by sail lofts and warehouses. The first full British company to come to America played in 1752, a new theatre that had been built at Williamsburg, and then moved onto New York and Philadelphia.
By the 1750s such well-known British Thespians as the Shakespearean actor Thomas Kean had toured the Colonies’ largest cities. In 1767 the first full-length play of literary distinction by an American playwright, Thomas Godfrey’s, the Prince of Parthia, was produced in Philadelphia’s handsome Southwark Theatre. That same year New York City saw the first performance in its new John Street Theatre, where President George Washington was later among those regularly in attendance.
By the mid-19th century most of the nation’s major Western cities had their own theatres, including New Orleans, St. Lovis, Chicago and San Francisco. Thereafter the West was the scene of continuous theatrical activity as touring companies from Britain and the East regularly visited mining camps, cattle towns and virtually every population centres with more than a few hundred inhabitants. The Stagecoach and the growing network of railroads made it relatively easy for these travelling companies to reach audiences, with a fare varying from Shakespeare to low comedy.
Many of Great 19th century stars who held American audiences spellbound were British or European imports — among the best known being William Macready, Sir Henry Irving, Ellen Terry and Sarah Bernhardt. But the 19th century also gave rise to a host of brilliant native-born actors, among them Charlotte Cushman, Laura Keene, Edwin Booth and Minnie Maddem Fiske. Later in the century, when vaudeville became popular, such glamorous singing stars as Lillian Russell attained international celebrity. For those unable to afford the more expensive playhouses there were «10-20-30-cent» theatres, where the audience could enjoy hair-raising melodramas such as East Lynne and Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
With the establishment of the Theatre Guild in New York in 1919, performance and production standards on Broadway were raised to a new level. It was during the first half of the 20th century, when an American dramatic literature of consistent high quality developed, that Novel Prize-winning dramatist Eugene O'Neill established himself as the nation’s foremost serious playwright. With the end of World War II the Broadway stage entered a new and more introspective period as audiences familiar with the revolutionary psychoanalytical theory flocked to see intensely personal examination of the human condition by such dramatists as Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller and, in the 1960s, Edward Albee.
At the same time, however, less costly «off-Broadway» productions flourished. Most significant, a trend appeared toward subscription and public theatre at such institutions as New York City’s throughout the country. By the mid-1970s many such theatres were receiving financial support from the Federal and state governments or private foundations, or were finding a measure of financial security through associations with universities and the practice of selling season subscriptions to assure audiences. Increasingly the newer generation of American playwrights was finding an outlet for its work in such theatres rather than in the commercial houses of Broadway.
(from «Family Encyclopedia of American History»)
prejudice — предубеждение • упередження
flourishing — процветание • процвітання
inhabitants — жители • жителі, мешканці
network — сеть • мережа
establishment — установление, возникновение • установлення, виникнення
significant — значимый, существенный, важный • істотний, важливий
generation — поколение • покоління, генерація
The Audience and the Actor
William Charles Macready (1793—1873) was the son of a travelling player and theatrical manager who had once performed with Charles Macklin. Although Macready’s childhood was spent in and around various theatres in London, he was not at first destined for the stage. He was sent to a college where he acquired a gentlemanly education upon which he prided himself for the rest of his life. His intention was to prepare himself for the bar, but at the age of 16 he found himself involved into the stream of theatrical life. In 1810 he made his debut in the role of Romeo.
From 1810 to 1816, Macready played many roles throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland, even supporting the great Sarah Sid- dons in several plays. At the end of this period he was given a five years’ engagement at Covent Garden. As Edmund Kean faded from the scene, Macready earned the position of leading tragedian of the English stage. He was regarded as the actor under whose management the legitimate, classical stage could peacefully develop. Macready’s productions were marked by extensive rehearsals and careful attention to scenery and costumes.
Macready’s repertoire included the great tragic roles of Macbeth, Othello, Richard and Coriolanus. Macready reduced the high passions of tragedy to the restraint of the drawing-room, he succeeded best in the plays of his own day, plays which infused the tragic with domestic touches that Macready pointed the way toward the refined drawing-room realism that developed in the middle of the XIX century. His artistry speaks for itself in the pages of his Diaries.
From circumstances that I do not remember, the season at Bath was a dull one, and the theatre suffered proportionately with the other places of amusement. But this did not prevent me from using as means of study for my improvement the practice it afforded me. A full attendance is too generally required as a spur to a performer's exertions, and to a beggarly account of empty boxes many have been in the habit of slurring over (or what is known as «walking through») their parts.
(from magazine «Time »)
various — различный, разный • різноманітний, різний
to destine — назначить, предназначить, предопределять • призначати, призначати, визначати
to acquire — приобретать, достигать, изучать • набувати, досягати, вивчати
to pride — гордиться • пишатися
for the rest of his life — до конца своей жизни • до кінця свого життя
intention — намерение • намір
to involve — впутывать, вовлекать • вплутувати, втягувати
the stream of theatrical life — поток театральной жизни • потік театрального життя
to make a debut — дебютировать • дебютувати
engagement — обязательство, дело, занятие • зобов'язання, справа, заняття
to earn the position — занять положение • зайняти положення
to be regarded as — рассматриваться как • розглядатися як
legitimate — законный, правильный • законний, правильний
peacefully develop — мирно развиваться • мирно розвиватися
careful attention — пристальное внимание • пильна увага
to succeed — преуспевать • процвітати
to infuse — вливать, вселять • вливати, вселяти
circumstance — обстоятельство • обставина
to suffer — страдать • страждати
amusement — развлечение, увеселение • розвага, звеселяння
improvement — улучшение, совершенствование • поліпшення, вдосконалювання
to afford — давать, приносить плоды; быть в состоянии • давати, приносити плоди; бути в змозі
attendance — посещаемость • відвідування
to require — приказывать, требовать, нуждаться в ч.-л. • наказувати, вимагати, потребувати чого-небудь
spur — стимул • стимул
exertion — старания, усилия • старання, зусилля
beggarly — бедный, нищенский • бідний, злидарський
to be in a habit of doing smth. — иметь привычку ч.-л. делать • мати звичку щось робити
to slur — глотать слова, произносить неясно • ковтати слова, вимовляти неясно