Read, translate and render in brief.
Music is the Universal Language
The new music has achieved a degree of integration of art into everyday life that is probably unique in modem societies; to find anything comparable one would have to look back at Middle Ages or primitive men. Like a medieval cathedral or the carving in a tribal village, the art of rock is constantly present as a part of everyday life, not something we admire in a museum or listen to over coffee after dinner and the day’s work are done. It is significant that nearly everyone who deeply feels the music also makes an attempt at playing an instrument and even at composing. For the lover of rock, as for men in earlier times, art is a daily companion to share and interpret experience and emotion.
(After Ch. Reich)
unique — уникальный • унікальний
comparable — сравнимый, заслуживающий сравнения • порівнянний, що заслуговує порівняння
medieval — средневековый • середньовічний
carving — идол • ідол
tribal — племенной • племінний
significant — многозначительный, выразительный • багатозначний, виразний
to make an attempt — делать попытку • здійснювати спробу
to share — разделять • розділяти
What Rock Music Really Means
«Rock is everywhere,» said my 16-year-old-son. Are there any parents who would not agree? It zooms through the house, throbs behind closed doors, and we wonder at the hold this deafening music has on our children.
An enormous percentage of teenage spending money goes on music. In this country last 2 billion was spent on popular records. Equally astonishing was the sale of guitars: two million of them. My son bought two. The young also rush to the concerts; 560,000 applied for 20,000 available tickets to hear Rolling Stones in New York City’s Madison Square Garden. Why do they go in such fantastic numbers?
To understand look into the music itself. It is first of all extraordinary and creative. It is absolutely 20th century in conception — electronic sounds, distortion, brilliance of improvisation — there are no limits. If the creators are young, do not underestimate them; the best of rock is serious music, intellectual as well as emotional. Classical music is not so far off. Rock composers have made interesting use of European and Indian classical music.
Three things distinguish rock — the relentless beat, the freedom of conception and overpowering volume. This is physical, powerful music. Amplifiers at rock concerts produce a sound intensity which sometimes reaches 120 decibels (a new jet on takeoff must not exceed 108). Why so loud? «Without amplification, the music just doesn’t exist,» explains a young friend. Together with the pulsing, driving beat, it creates passionate excitement — one wants to move, to dance. Electronics and inspiration produce incredible effects. Small wonder that the listener is carried right into the music.
Rock music is central to the youth culture. The young are unified by it, communicate through it.
Rock is beautiful because it is «sun at dawn, mountains in a storm, rivers, the stars, nature,» said a young boy. In other words, it includes everything.
(After Ch. Reich)
to throb — пульсировать • пульсувати
percentage — процент, процентное отношение • відсоток, відсоткове відношення
available — годный, доступный, действительный • придатний, дійсний, що має силу
creative — творческий • творчий
distortion — искажение • викривлення
underestimate — недооценивать • недооцінювати
to distinguish — различать, отличать • розрізняти, відрізняти
amplifier — усилитель • підсилювач
passionate — страстный, пылкий, горячий • жагучий, палкий, гарячий
incredible — неправдоподобный, невероятный • неправдоподібний, неймовірний
During the past ten years the music world has seen a number of different styles. After the flower power movement* of the 1960s came the extravagant glitter rock of the early 70s. This reached its peak in 1974 with singers like Gary Glitter and David Bowie.
1976 saw the emergence in Britain of the punk bands: loud and noisy groups who sang about, and often practised violence. Punks weren’t particularly glamorous. With their tom clothes, ugly tattoos and blank expressions they were a strange, almost frightening sight.
By 1979 the mood had changed. Dismal punk fashions were gone. Their successors, the New Romantics, were a different matter. Wearing bright and unusual clothes, garish make-up and weird hair styles the New Romantics made a refreshing change from the old punks. But they lacked one thing — a central leader. Now they have found him in Adam Ant, lead singer with «Adam and the Ants,» Britain’s best- known new rock band. Adam Ant was correct in believing that people were tired of punk uniformity and wanted a more glamorous image. He is an admirer of the North American Indians and it was to them that he turned for inspiration.
(from «Modem English International»)
glitter — мерцающий, мигающий • мерехтливий, миготливий
emergence — появление • поява
punk-bands — панк-группы • панк-групи
violence — сила, стремительность • сила, стрімкість
glamorous — колдовской, зачаровывающий • чаклунський, що зачаровує
tattoo — барабанный бой; татуировка • барабанний бій; татуювання
garish — кричащий, показной • кричущий, показний
inspiration — вдохновение • натхнення
The Role of Music
Here is another science-fiction projection on the role of music. The world changed after some natural disaster and the earth became covered by thick fog. Conditions of life changed.
* The Hippies preached a philosophy of peace and love and gave flowers to surprised strangers in the street.
Art, too, changed. The art of objects was gone. Books wouldn’t last; and so the memory increased enormously, and men carried their libraries in their heads — a cheaper and much more convenient way. As a result, academic accuracy, the continual quoting of authorities, disappeared. A new epic age resulted. Men in the dusk composed, jointly developed great epics, sagas, and choruses, which grew like trees, generation after generation. And, as bardic poetry returned, it united again with its brother, music. Wood-winds and strings were ruined by the damp. But stone instruments like those used by the dawn cultures, returned — giving beautiful pure notes. Just as the Arabs had had no plastic art, but instead, a wonderful art of singing verse, so the creative power of men swung from eye to ear. Men could hear for miles: their ears grew as keen as a dog’s. They appreciated intervals of sound which to the old men of the open air would have gone unnoticed. Men lived largely for music and they felt they had made a good exchange when they looked at the last shreds of pictorial art.
(After H.F. Heard)
projection — выпуск, проект • випуск, проект
disaster — бедствие, внезапное большое несчастье • лихо, раптове велике нещастя
accuracy — точность, пунктуальность • точність, пунктуальність
to disappear — исчезать • зникати
generation — поколение • покоління, генерація
verse — стих, строфа • вірш, строфа
to appreciate — оценивать • оцінювати
shred — кусок, клочок • шматок, клаптик
pictorial art — живопись • живопис
Elvis Presley — Story of a Superstar
When Elvis Presley died on August 16, 1977, radio and television programmes all over the world were interrupted to give the news of his death. President Carter was asked to declare a day of national mourning. Carter said: «Elvis Presley changed the face of American popular culture... He was unique and irreplaceable». Eighty thousand people attended his funeral. The streets were jammed with cars, and Elvis Presley movies were shown on television, and his records were played on the radio all day. In the year after his death, 100 million Presley albums were sold. ,
Elvis Presley was bom on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi. His twin brother, Jesse Garon, died at birth. His parents were very poor and Elvis never had music lessons, but he was surrounded by music from an early age. His parents were very religious, and Elvis regularly sang at church services. In 1948, when he was thirteen, his family moved to Memphis, Tennessee. He left school in 1953 and got a job as a truck driver.
In the summer of 1953 Elvis paid $4 and recorded two songs for his mother's birthday at Sam Phillips’s Sun Records studio. Sam Phillips heard Elvis and asked him to record «Thai’s All Right» in July 1954. 20,000 copies were sold, mainly in and around Memphis. He made five more records for Sun, and in July 1955 he met Colonel Tom Parker, who became his manager in November. Parker sold Elvis’s contract to RCA Records. Sun Records got $35,000 and Elvis got $5,000. With the money he bought a pink Cadillac for his mother. On January 10, 1956, Elvis recorded «Heartbreak Hotel,» and a million copies were sold. In the next fourteen months he made another fourteen records, and they were all big hits. In 1956 he also made his first movie in Hollywood.
In March 1958, Elvis had to join the army. When his hair was cut thousands of women cried. He spent the next two years in Germany, where he met Priscilla Beaulieu, who became his wife eight years later on May 1, 1967. In 1960 he left the army and went to Hollywood where he made several movies during the next few years.
By 1968 many people had become tired of Elvis. He hadn’t performed live since I960. But he recorded a new album, «From Elvis in Memphis," and appeared in a TV special. He became popular again, and went to Las Vegas, where he was paid $750,000 for four weeks. In 1972 his wife left him, and they were divorced in October 1973. He died of a heart attack. He had been working too hard and eating and drinking too much for several years. He left all his money to his only daughter, Lisa Marie Presley. She became one of the richest people in the world when she was only nine years old.
(from «American Streamline »)
to interrupt — прерывать • переривати
death — смерть, кончина • смерть
to declare — объявлять, заявлять, провозглашать • повідомляти, заявляти, проголошувати
mourning — траур • траур
unique — уникальный • унікальний
irreplaceable — незаменимый • незамінний
funeral — похороны, похоронная процессия • похорон, похоронна процесія
to jam with cars — создавать «пробки» на дорогах • створювати «пробки» на дорогах
religious — религиозный • релігійний
church service — церковная служба • церковна служба
heart attack — сердечный приступ • серцевий напад
Conductors in Great Britain
Out of 13 major orchestras in Britain, only five have an associate conductor as a trainee.
Obviously the opportunities for any hopeful conductor, however gifted, to gain essential and regular experience are severely limited. The occasional post as a repetiteur with the Royal Opera or Sadler’s Wells companies occur only seldom, and a touring conductor for dance has the worst of all worlds in the conditions surrounding his work. A vicious circle is created whereby experience is difficult to obtain, and orchestras decline to engage an aspirant because of his lack of experience. I sometimes wonder, however, on what criteria they base their choice of conductors from elsewhere.
A close look at some concert details illustrates the current situation. Out of 182 concerts at the Festival Hall between February 1968 and July this year (1969), given specifically with the aid of funds from Greater London Council and the Art Council, only 16 are or were advertised as having native British conductors for the programmes. A survey limited to the five major symphony orchestras in London, based on their published brochures for the 1968—1969 season beginning last autumn, shows 31 concerts with British conductors out a total of L63. Only when the prompts are taken into account does the proportion significantly alter. Conductors as such have no professional organization, however. They therefore have no means of suggesting what some of us also know to be true — that a certain proportion of conductors freely engaged from abroad are, to put it kindly, in no way superior to some of those consistently ignored at home.
(from «Moscow News »)
trainee — проходящий подготовку • що проходить підготування
obviously — очевидно, ясно • очевидно, ясно
opportunity — удобный случай • нагода
gifted — одаренный • обдарований
essential — существенный; сущность • істотний; сутність
occasional — случайный • випадковий
repetiteur — репетитор • репетитор
to occur — встречаться, находиться, приходить на ум • зустрічатися, знаходитися, приходити на розум
vicious — порочный, ошибочный • порочний, помилковий
to obtain — получать, добывать; быть в употреблении • одержувати, добувати; бути у вжитку
to advertise — извещать, помещать публикацию, рекламировать • сповіщати, поміщати публікацію, рекламувати
survey — обозрение, просмотр • огляд, перегляд
brochure — брошюра • брошура
to take into account — принимать во внимание, в расчет • брати до уваги, у розрахунок
significantly — многозначительно, выразительно • багатозначно, виразно
superior — высший, лучший, превосходный • вищий, кращий, чудовий
consistently — стойко, последовательно • непохитно, послідовно
John Lennon was murdered just before 11 p.m. on December 8, 1980, outside the Dakota, in an apartment building where he lived in New York City. He had just got out of a car and was walking to the entrance when a voice called, «Mr. Lennon». Lennon turned and was shot five times. The killer threw his gun down and stood there smiling, «Do you know what you just did?» shouted the doorman. «I just shot John Lennon," the killer replied. Lennon was rushed to the hospital in a police car, but it was too late. The killer was 25 year- old Mark Chapman from Hawaii. Earlier the same evening he had asked Lennon for his autograph. In fact, he had been hanging around outside the apartment building for several days. Chapman was a fan of Lennon and had tried to imitate him in many ways. It is said that he even believed that he was John Lennon.
1940: Bom in Liverpool, England.
1942: Lennon family deserted by father. Mother leaves. John brought up by aunt.
1956: Forms rock band at school.
1957: Student at Liverpool College of Art.
1958: Mother killed in a car accident.
1960: Goes professional as one of «The Beatles» (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, Best, Sutcline). Plays in Hamburg, Germany.
1961: Plays in Hamburg and Liverpool. Sutcliffe (Lennon’s best friend) dies of brain tumour. Brain Epstein begins to manage the Beatles.
1962: Ringo Starr replaces Pete Best as Beatles drummer. Married Cynthia Powell, an art student. Beatles' first record «Love Me Do». First TV appearance.
1963: Three records number 1 in British Top 20. Incredible popularity. Son Julian born.
1964: First hit record in US "1 Want to Hold Your Hand». Two US tours. In April, Beatles' records number 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in US Top 20. First movie «A Hard Day’s Night». First book.
1965: «Help!" Beatles’ second movie. Beatlemania at its height. US tour. Huge audiences in sports stadiums. Beatles receive MBE (special honorary award) from Queen Elizabeth.
1966: Lennon in movie «How I Won the War» — not a musical. Meets Yoko Ono, Japanese avant-garde artist.
1967: «Sergeant Pepper» — Beatles’ most famous album. All the Beatles interested in meditation. Manager Brian Epstein found dead from overdose of sleeping pills.
1968: In India with Beatles for meditation. Beatles ’ company, «Apple,» founded. Lennon art exhibit «You Are Here». Lennon divorced by wife.
1969: Beatles ’ movie «Let It Be ». Rumours of quarrels about money. Talk of Beatles breaking up. Beatles’ last public performance on roof of Apple Building. Lennon and Yoko marry. He 29, she 39. Lennon still recording with Beatles but some work solo.
1970: McCartney leaves Beatles. Others start solo careers.
1971: Lennon’s album «Imagine» — most successful album. Lennon and Yoko Ono in New York one-room studio apartment.
1972. Charity concerts.
1973: Lennon and Yoko Ono separate. Lennon in Los Angeles. Lennon ordered to leave US — protests and appeals.
1974: Drinking problems — still fighting deportation.
1975: Lennon and Yoko Ono together again in New York. Permission to stay in US. Son Scan born October 9 (Lennon's birthday).
1976: Retires from public life. Extensive travel. Business affairs managed by Yoko Ono.
1976: Full-time father. Very close relationship with son. Owns seven apartments in same building — one for cold storage of fur coats.
1980: First record in six years. Album "Double Fantasy». Single «Starting Over». Good reviews from critics. Many said it was «a new beginning». December, 8 Lennon murdered. Massive media coverage. TV and radio programmes interrupted to give news. Record companies on overtime to meet demand for records.
1981: Three records in Top 20 charts: «(Just Like) Starting Over, » «Imagineand «Woman".
1984: Lennon’s last album, «Milk and Honey»released. «Nobody Told Me» reaches Top 20.
(from «American Streamline »)
I to be murdered — быть убитым • бути вбитим
killer — убийца • убивця
permission — разрешение • дозвіл