Sport and games
Read, translate and render in brief.
Sport in Britain
Even if you are not interested in sport itself, it is useful to know something about that important part of British life. There are three major team sports in Britain.
1. Football, also known as «soccer».
2. Cricket, a strange game that few foreigner like or can even understand.
3. Rugby, also known sometimes as «football».
Of these, "football "or "soccer ''is most popular. During the football season, one of the most important things on television is the football match shown on the BBC on Saturday evenings around ten o’clock. On Saturday afternoons, the big sports’ day in Britain, some football grounds will have crowds of more than 40,000. Professional teams are organized into four divisions in England and Wales. Scotland has its own divisions. Tire bottom three teams or «clubs» of the First Division at the end of the season go into the Second Division. The top three teams of the Second Division go into the First. They are «promoted». The same thing happens between the Second and Third Divisions.
Recently football has been getting less popular. The crowds are not so big. Some clubs are always in financial trouble. It is said that one reason for this is «violence on and off the field». Players tackle each other very hard. They sometimes get into fights. Crowds of young spectators also get into fights. After some matches shop windows near the grounds are smashed up. So are some of the trains that carry football crowds.
The only game that comes anywhere near to challenging the popularity of football is rugby. It too is organized on a national scale and there are also numerous local leagues. Rugby is a game that is played rather than watched, however it does not attract anything like the same number of spectators as football.
Cricket seems to be more peaceful. A man with a small ball in his hand runs up to a spot and throws it. A few yards away a man with a bat, called a batsman, tries to hit it. The ball bounces in front of him. Sometimes it bounces up and hits him in the face. It is a very hard ball, and some batsmen have lost a few teeth this way or have had broken jaws. Cricket is played in the summer.
The story is told of an American arriving in Britain for the first time. At Victoria Station he saw newspapers with headlines like «Great Crisis for England» and «England’s Position Hopeless». He thought that a war is about to begin or that there was another great economic crisis. In fact, the newspaper headlines were all about a test match being played between England and Australia.
(from «Viewpoints» by Rober Scott, Roy Kingsbury)
major team sports — главные виды командных спортивных состязаний • головні види командних спортивних змагань
football grounds — стадион • стадіон
division — группа спортивных команд; лига • група спортивних команд; ліга
bottom teams — команды, находящиеся в конце списка • команди, що знаходяться наприкінці списку
in financial trouble — в тяжелом финансовом положении • у важкому фінансовому стані
violence on and off the field — хулиганские выходки на футбольном поле и на стадионе • хуліганські витівки на футбольному полі і на стадіоні
comes anywhere near challenging the popularity of football — пo популярности почти равен футболу • за популярністю майже дорівнює футболу
league — лига • ліга
it does not attract anything like the same number of spectators — не может привлечь столько зрителей • не може залучити стільки глядачів
The Football Match
Something very queer is happening in that narrow thoroughfare to the west of the town. A grey-green tide flows sluggishly down its length. It is a tide of cloth caps.
These caps have just left the ground of the Bruddersford United Association Football Club. To say that these men paid their shilling to watch twenty-two hirelings kick a ball is merely to say that a violin is wood and catgut, that «Hamlet» is so much paper and ink. For a shilling the Bruddersford United A.F.C. offered you Conflict and Art; it turned you into a critic, happy in your judgement of fine points, ready in a second to estimate the worth of a well-judged pass, a run down the touch line, a lightning shot, a clearance kick by back or goal-keeper; it turned you into a partisan, holding your breath when the ball came sailing into your own goalmouth, ecstatic when your forwards raced away towards the opposite goal, elated, downcast, bitter, triumphant by turns at the fortunes of your side, watching a ball shape Iliads and Odysseys for you; and what is more, it turned you into a member of a new community, all brothers together for an hour and a half, for not only had you escaped from the clanking machinery of this lesser life, from work, wages, rent, doles, sick pay, insurance cards, nagging wives, ailing children, bad bosses, idle workmen, but you had escaped with most of your mates and your neighbours, with half the town, and there you were, cheering together, thumping one another on the shoulders, swapping judgements like lords of the earth, having pushed your way through a turnstile into another and altogether more splendid kind of life, hurting with Conflict and yet passionate and beautiful in its Art. Moreover, it offered you more than a shilling’s worth of material for talk during the rest of the week.
(from "Good Companions » by J. B. Priestley)
sluggishly — медленно • повільно
catgut — струна • струна
to estimate — оценивать, определять глазомером • оцінювати, визначати на око
to escape — ускользать, избегать, убегать • уникати, утікати
to swap — обмениваться • обмінюватися
turnstile — турникет • турнікет
passionate — страстный, пылкий, влюбленный • жагучіш, палкий, закоханий
How Healthy Are You?
Check your knowledge.
What sort of shape are you in? Are you the sort of person who goes for a run each morning, or are you the other kind who gets out of breath when reaching for a cigarette?
Maybe you have a lot of energy. You go to work or school, you make decisions all day, you do extra work at home. Exercise? You don’t have enough time — why bother anyway?
Well, the answer to that question is your body design. Human beings weren’t built for sitting at a desk all day: your body is constructed for hunting, jumping, lifting, running, climbing and a variety of other activities. If you don’t get the exercise that your body wants, then things can go badly wrong. Your mind works all day, and your body does nothing: the results can vary from depression to severe illness to early death.
Not a very cheerful thought, and of course the natural reaction is «It’s not going to happen to me». Maybe, maybe not. Here are two ways of looking after yourself: firstly, by seeing if you are doing the right sort of exercise, and secondly by seeing if you have the right kind of diet.
(from «Modem English International" Mozaika)
shape — форма • форма
to get out of breath — задыхаться • задихатися
to bother — беспокоиться, волноваться, суетиться • тривожитися, хвилюватися, метушитися
body design — строение тела • будова тіла
severe illness — серьезная болезнь • серйозна хвороба
Game and Sport
Mustapha: Can you tell me something about the words *'game » and «sport,» please? I’m never quite certain about how to use them.
Mr. North: What’s the difficulty, Mustapha?
Mustapha: Well, football and tennis are games, aren’t they? Swimming and rowing and mountain-climbing are not games, are they? What’s boxing? Is that a game or a sport?
Ali: They have running and jumping and all sorts of things at the Olympic Games. But running and jumping are not games. That’s the difficulty.
Mr. North: There are many things at the Olympic Games that are not games. They’re athletic events. Let’s take the word «game» first. Football and tennis are games. When we use the word «game» we generally think of some kind of sport in which there are two sides or teams, the eleven men in a football team, for example, or fifteen if it’s Rugby football.
Mrs. North: It’s right to say that most outdoor games are played with balls, isn’t it?
Mr. North: Yes, most of them. Ice hockey’s an exception.
Mustapha: Games are played. That’s a useful thing to remember. But what about boxing?
Mr. North: Boxing’s a sport, not a game. It’s true that we talk about boxing matches and football matches. You can say, «Do you play football?» But if you ask about boxing, you must say, «Do you box?» or «Are you a boxer?»
Mustapha: You said that running and jumping were athletic events, didn’t you?
Mr. North: Yes, athletic events. The High Jump, the Long Jump, the Hop, Step and Jump, these are called field events. So are all the events in which the athlete throws something — a heavy weight, or a discus, or a javelin. Running races are called track events. The track is the ground that has been made for running on. The Marathon race is run across country, so it’s not a track event.
Ali: Some Englishmen are fond of hunting, shooting and fishing, aren’t they? Are these called sports?
Mr. North: Yes, but they’re expensive sports.
AH: Are you a hunter, Mr. North?
Mr. North: Good heavens, no! There’s no hunting in England now except fox-hunting. Foxes are almost the only wild animals we have left in England today — animals that can be hunted, I mean.
Mrs. North: And if a man hunts foxes, you must not call him a hunter!
AH: Why not?
Mr. North: We use the word hunter for men in Africa and India who shoot wild animals such as lions, or tigers, or elephants. And men who hunt animals for food are called hunters, too.
Muslapha: What do you call men who hunt foxes in England?
Mr. North: There’s a good book by a writer called Siegfried Sassoon. «Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man» is the title.
Ali: And what do you call men who go out shooting birds or rabbits? The birds and rabbits are eaten, aren’t they? Can’t I call these men hunters?
Mr. North: No, not in England. We can say a person is fond of shooting, but we can’t call him a hunter.
Muslapha: It’s all very puzzling.
Mrs. North: I’m afraid it is. Don’t use the word hunter if you ask a man whether he hunts foxes. Say, «Do you hunt?» Then you’ll be all right.
(from A. S. Hornby)
exception — исключение • виняток
expensive — дорогой • дорогий
memoirs — мемуары • мемуари
Sports People Play in America
To most Americans, work is a necessary chore. According to a recent poll, Americans work longer hours and have 36% less leisure time today than they had 15 years ago, so they value the time away from their jobs. The choice of leisure time activities is enormous, and everybody can find something to enjoy.
Among the most popular leisure time activities are sports of every kind. It is said that the American pastime is baseball, but football, basket-ball, hockey, and, in more recent times, soccer are also very popular activities that Americans enjoy as spectators and/or participants.
Americans spend a lot of time and money on physical activities ranging from bowling to skiing. The object of these activities is not only enjoyment. Doctors have found that vigorous exercise keeps people feeling healthier and looking better. So Americans are working at maintaining or recapturing their youth and vigour.
In the spring and summer, neighbourhood teams organized into leagues to compete in softball or baseball games, imagining that they are in Yankee Stadium playing for 40,000 cheering fans. In the cooler weather, basket-ball is popular, indoors or outdoors. Boys and young men also play football, just for fun, without the formality of yard markers, goal posts, padding, and officials. (American football is not the same game as European football which, in the United States, is called soccer).
Golf, one of the most popular participation sports, is played all year except when the ground is covered with snow. Since it is a relatively mild form of athletics, it can be played by people of all ages. Doctors highly recommend it for exercise and often practice what they preach. Americans joke about not getting sick on Wednesday (the doctor’s traditional day off) because all the doctors are out on the golf course. Although the only equipment needed for golf is a set of clubs, some balls, and tees, the annual expenditure for golf equipment is more than $1 billion!
Another popular sport is bowling. It is estimated that 67 million people bowl in the United States. Many bowling leagues (groups of teams that compete against each other) are formed by members of organizations such as churches or charitable groups. Bowling is another game that is not too strenuous and can be played with a minimum investment in equipment.
Skiing attracts both individuals and families. It is especially popular among young, unmarried people who have the stamina and money and who expect to meet other attractive, successful singles on the slopes or in the lounges. Although it requires much more physical exertion, is not readily accessible to many Americans, and is more expensive than many other sports, about 15 million Americans participate. Those who do not live in mountainous areas can ski at local «mountains» artificially created and covered with artificial snow. Skiers with more time and money go to resorts with real mountains in places such as Aspen, Colorado. Many skiers go to Europe to the Alps — the ultimate challenge for serious skiers.
Tennis has become popular as a participation sport. It is played all year, either indoors or out, does not require much equipment, and provides good vigorous exercise. It is also an individual sport which provides plenty of competition at all levels of ability.
Some people get their exercise at health clubs, which have exercise equipment and, in some cases, indoor tennis and racquetball courts. Others join country clubs with golf courses and swimming pools. Those who want privacy equip their homes with exercise bicycles, treadmills, and weights to work out in their bedroom or family room. Walking, running, and jogging are also popular ways of keeping the body fit. Many Americans jog a few miles before going to work in the morning, using jogging trails in paries or simply running around the block several times.
(from magazine «Time")
necessary chore — повседневное занятие • повсякденне заняття
pastime — приятное времяпровождение, развлечение, игра • розвага, гра
to bowl — играть в кегли • грати в кеглі
vigorous — сильный, мощный • сильный, потужний
just for fun — просто ради забавы • просто заради забави
to preach — проповедовать • проповідувати
annual — годовой • річний
to estimate — оценивать • оцінювати
strenuous — энергичный, напряженный • енергійний, напружений
investment — инвестирование, помещение денег • інвестування, розміщення коштів
stamina — запас жизненных сил • запас життєвих сил
physical exertion — физическая выдержка, выносливость • фізична витримка, витривалість
accessible — доступный • доступний
artificial snow — искусственный снег • штучний сніг
privacy — уединение, уединенность • самота, самітність
It’s time now for our «Olympic Update». Out report is coming live by satellite from the Olympic Games. Here’s our reporter, Pat Sweeney.
This is the Olympic swimming pool, at the centre of the Olympic complex. The most important event today was certainly the women’s 200-meter freestyle competition. An American, Doris Kennedy, was first and won the gold medal. She swam the 200 meters in a new world’s record of 1 minute 58 seconds. The United States won two gold medals yesterday and three the day before, so in the fust three days of the Olympic Games the American team has won six gold medals.
Here you see Jack Lumber from Canada. This morning he won the men’s javelin final. On his first try he threw the javelin over 100 meters. Nobody had even done that before — a new world’s record. Unfortunately, there was nearly a terrible accident in the javelin event. Harry Jones, the American competitor, slipped when he was throwing his javelin, and it hit a judge in the foot. Luckily, the judge was fine.
Here we are in the Olympic Gymnasium. Olga Ivanova, the fifteen-year-old Russian gymnast, has just finished her routine. We’re waiting for the results now.
And here they are! She has an average of 9.5 points. That’s the best score today! Olga’s won the gold medal.
We’re waiting for the last jumper. Ted Kelly from England is going to jump. The bar is at 2.30 meters.
Now he’s beginning his last try.
And he’s jumped!
Oooh! He’s crashed into the bar!
He’s landing. The bar’s fallen. Is he hurt?
No, no, he’s all right. He’s getting up and walking away, but he’s a very disappointed man.
(from «American Streamline»)
terrible accident — ужасный несчастный случай • жахливий нещасливий випадок
to slip — поскользнуться • посковзнутися
an average — в среднем • у середньому
to crash — падать, рушиться с треском • падати, валитися з тріском
to be disappointed — разочароваться • розчаруватися