Cities (London, Washington, Kyiv, Moscow)
London is the capital of Great Britain. It is an ancient city, it grew up around the first point where Roman invaders found the Thames narrow enough to build a bridge. They found a small Celtic settlement then known as Londinium and by A. D. 300 they turned it into a separate port and an important trading centre. Nowadays it is the cradle of British traditions and culture.
Over 8 million people live in London. It is the home of the nation's commerce and finance, the main centre of its legal system and press. It has the largest university and the greatest possibilities for entertainment and for sport in Great Britain. London is one of the most famous capital cities of the world, and every year it attracts crowds of visitors from home and abroad. They come to explore its historic buildings, to see its museums and galleries, its streets and parks, and its people.
It’s a pity I haven’t been to London yet, but I have read a lot about this famous city. So I have no doubt that London is worth sightseeing.
Sightseeing tours in London usually start in Trafalgar Square. It’s the centre of London and the best starting point for anybody’s tour of the English capital. Tourists are particularly impressed by the Nelson Column there in the centre of the square. From Trafalgar Square you can go along down Whitehall and see the Houses of Parliament which stretch along the Thames’s North Bank. It is a long building of about 1,000 feet. Big Ben, the famous clock, is in one of the Towers. It chimes the hours to the tune of Handel's music. Near the Parliament there is Westminster Abbey, an old beautiful chapel. Many great Englishmen are buried here: Newton, Darvin and others. The south side of the Abbey is called the Poet’s Comer where famous British writers and poets lie: Chaucer, Charles Dickens, Tennyson, Thomas Hardy. Here, too, are memorials to Shakespeare, Byron, Scott, Bums and Thackeray.
I must say that in London one meets the past and the present, the old and the modem. It is a city of contrasts.
London consists of three parts: the rich West End. the poor East End and the City — its financial centre. The biggest department stores, offices and banks can be found there. The City and the West End are the heart of the capital.
One of the best known museums is the British museum with its library, reading room and the collection of manuscripts both old and new. One of the greatest monuments is St. Paul's Cathedral, which is the Sir Christopher Wren’s masterpiece. The well-known architect of that day, he took part in rebuilding the city after the Great Fire of London. Sir Christopher Wren lies buried under the roof of his own great work. These words are written on his grave: «If you want to see his monument, look around».
London is full of parks and green spaces. Hyde Park is the lagest park in London, which is famous for its Speaker’s Corner.
In London all kinds of vehicles ride up and down the streets: doubledecker buses, lorries, vans, taxis, private cars. Besides, the oldest underground railway system called «tube " is still one of the largest in the world.
Word List on the Topic «London»
ancient — древний, старинный • стародавній, старовинний
invader — захватчик • загарбник
Celtic settlement — кельтское поселение • кельтське поселення
A. D. = Anno Domini (Lat.) — наша эра • наша ера
trading centre — центр торговли • центр торгівлі
cradle — колыбель • колиска
commerce — коммерция, торговля • комерція, торгівля
it is the home of the nation’s commerce and finance — он является торговым и финансовым центром страны • він є торговельним і фінансовим центром країни
entertainment — развлечение, отдых • розвага, відпочинок
to attract smb. — привлекать к.-л. • приваблювати кого-небудь
to explore smth. — изучать, исследовать ч.-л. • вивчати, досліджувати що-небудь
Trafalgar Square — Трафальгарская площадь • Трафальгарська площа
starting point — отправной пункт • відправний пункт
the Houses of Parliament — здание Парламента • будинок Парламенту
to stretch — простираться • простиратися
Westminster Abbey — Вестминстерское аббатство • Вестмінстерське абатство
chapel — церковь, часовня • церква, каплиця
to be buried — быть похороненным • бути похованим
manuscript — рукопись • рукопис
St. Paul’s Cathedral — Собор Св. Павла • Собор Св. Павла
Sir Christopher Wren — Кристофер Рен • Христофор Рен
masterpiece — шедевр • шедевр
the Great Fire — Великий пожар • Велика пожежа
Hyde Park — Гайд-парк • Гайд-парк