Prominent Scientists of Ternopilla
Ivan Verhratsky (1846-1919) was born in the village of Bilche-Zolote in Ternopillya, and graduated from the Lviv University. He is considered to be the founder of Ukrainian natural history. He is the author of the first textbooks on zoology, mineralogy, botany, and is the creator of terminology of different scientific subjects. Verhratsky excelled as a naturalist, a linguist, an ethnographer, a pedagogue, a prolific writer, and as a public figure. He devoted much of his efforts to teaching, to the rearing of a new scientific generation, to the spread of knowledge, and to the improvement of the educational system. Modern Ukrainian scientific botanical and zoological terminology and nomenclature are based on his works.
It will take much time only to enumerate some of the titles and ranks of the great scientist of the 20th century, our fellow countryman, Ivan Gorbachevsky (1854-1942): an academic of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, biochemist-hygienist, epidemiologist, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Dean of the Medical Faculty, professor and rector of the Karlov University in Prague, member of the Sanitary Council of the Czech Kingdom, member of the Highest Health Council of Austria-Hungary, member of the Council for Technical Investigations in Vienna, actual Privy Councilor, the first Minister of Health in Austria-Hungary, etc.
He was born on May 15th, 1854 in the village of Zarubyntsi in Ternopillya to a clergyman’s family. Having graduated from the Ternopil Gymnasium, Gorbachevsky received his medical education at the Vienna University. World recognition of his scientific efforts came with the investigations of the uric acid synthesis. He published more than 40 scientific articles, the most outstanding of them being: "Uber der Nervus Vestibuli" and "Synthese der Harnsaure." He also exercised a profound influence on the problems of forensic medicine.
Volodymyr Levytsky (1872-1956), an outstanding mathematician, a specialist in functional analysis, is known to be the founder of mathematical culture in Ukraine. The first who wrote a scientific article in the Ukrainian language, the first who prepared and published material on Ukrainian terminology in mathematics, physics, and chemistry, an unchangeable editor of the first Ukrainian scientific journal, Levytsky was born in Ternopil to a clergical family.
One of the main problems he devoted much of his attention to was terminology ("Addition to Mathematical Terminology", "Materials for Physical Terminology", "An Essay on Chemical Terminology", etc.).
Levytsky worked in the Lviv Pedagogical Institute, and since 1940, in the Lviv State University. Along with his scientific and pedagogical work, he carried out a good deal of literary work, edited the journal "Zbirnyk", and took part in the Shevchenko Scientific Society's activities.
Author of over 30 scientific articles, man of powerful mathematical ability, he died on July 14th, 1956.
A prominent Ukrainian mathematician M.A.Chaikovsky (1887-1970) was born on January 2nd, 1887, in the little town of Berezhany.
Being brought up in an educated family, the boy was interested in mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, and astronomy. While in gymnasium, Chaikovsky wrote his first work "Solar and lunar eclipses". He received his further education at the German Higher Technical School in Prague, then at Vienna and Lviv Universities. In 1911, Chaikovsky presented his doctorate thesis in Vienna and received a Doctor of Philosophy degree. He paid much attention to the problem of Ukrainian scientific terminology, and compiled "The Systematic Dictionary of Ukrainian Mathematical Terminology".
Chaikovsky began his professional career as a teacher in Lviv, Ternopil, and Rava-Ruska schools, and later he taught in the Kamjano-podilsk University.
In 1933, while working in Odessa, Chaikovsky became a sacrifice of Stalin's terror. He was arrested and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. These 10 years were spent in the Bilomor-Baltijsky Canal prison camp.
After his release, he worked at the Tomsk University, then, at the Semypalatynsk Pedagogical Institute.
In 1954, Chaikovsky returned to Ukraine and worked as an assistant- professor at the Lviv Pedagogical Institute. After rehabilitation in 1956, he became a professor at the Lviv University.
Chaikovsky died on October 7th, 1970, and was buried at the Luchakivske Cemetery in Lviv.
Ternopillya was also the home of the prominent scientist, teacher, and poet of mathematics Myron Zarytsky (1889-1961). He was born in the village of Mogylnytsa, near Terebovlya, in a clergical family, and received his education at the gymnasia in Ternopil, Berezhany, Peremyshl, and then, at the Vienna and Lviv Universities. The curriculum included mathematics, physics, and philosophy. He learned French by himself.
Having graduated from the University during Austro-Hungarian monarchy rule, Zarytsky couldn't work at higher establishments. He had to teach at secondary schools and the gymnasia of Halychyna. In 1930, he received a Doctor of Philosophy degree.
Zarytsky worked at the Lviv University from 1939. He was the Dean of the Physic-Mathematical Faculty, headed the Department of Probability Theory and of General Mathematics. From 1947, he delivered lectures at the Lviv Polytechnic Institute and the Uzhgorod University.
The author of more than 20 scientific papers, he excelled himself also as a philosopher, a connoisseur of poetry, world literature and history of mathematics ("Astronomy in Ancient Times", "A Reading-Book of Greek Mathematics"). He had a good command of Polish, German and Russian languages, and wrote mathematical articles in English, French, Italian, and Spanish. He translated Banah's "Course of Functional Analysis" from French into Ukrainian.
His scientific interests were focused on the set theory and the function theory of actual variables, and on the theory of set transformations measuring.
Zarytsky was known as a poet of formulas, and science was always creativity, inspiration and joy for him.
One of the outstanding world physicists, Olexander Smakula (1900-1983) made his appearance in science at the beginning of this century.
He was born on September 9th, to a peasant family, in the village of Dobryvody near Zbarazh. While studying at the Zbarazh and Ternopil Gymnasia, he showed an unusual gift for natural subjects and foreign languages.
In 1922, Smakula entered the Hettingam University to study mathematics, physics, and chemistry. In 1927, he received a Doctorate Degree in Philosophy and began his professional career at Pr. Polis Physical Institute.
The 1920's witnessed the establishment of quantum mechanics. Smakula was one of the first who applied its notion to the interaction mechanism elucidation of electromagnetic radiation with solid bodies. The notions and parameters of quantum oscillators were used for description of radiation crystals coloring. The mathematical relationship deduced became known as "Smakula's Formula".
Smakula directed optical and research laboratories in Germany. From 1930-1940, his scientific interests concentrated on problems of optics and crystal spectroscopy. In 1937, he was the first who took out a patent for the invention of an optical anti-reflector method. In 1951, Smakula was offered a job at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA, where he organized a physics and crystals laboratory known up till now for its achievements in solid body electronics.
The author of many patents and of more than 100 works, an Honored Member of the Ukrainian Society of Engineers (USA), Smakula never forgot his native land, and spent his life promoting its scientific and cultural development.
He participated in the activities of the Shevchenko Scientific Society and published his articles in Lviv newspapers. He visited the Ternopil Region in 1972. It was his last meeting with his motherland. Smakula died on May 17th, 1983.
A great thinker and researcher, Smakula devoted his whole life and all of his talents to experimentation and science, which greatly enriched our knowledge of the laws of nature and of the universe.
Words and word combinations:
plead: велика кількість
to enhance: збільшувати
to rear: виховувати
genius: геній burgomaster:
бургомістр clergy: духовенство
linguist: знавець мов
forensic medicine: патанатомія