Розмовні теми з англійської мови для вступу до аспірантури -


International Relations of Ukraine with the Foreign Countries

International contacts are primarily official contacts among the governments of independent countries with Ukraine. Most national governments maintain peaceful relations with Ukraine through special representatives who work to promote international cooperation.

The term international relations also refers to other kinds of international contacts besides relations among governments. These contacts include the dealings of multinational corporations (businesses that operate in two or more countries) and such worldwide programs as the Red Cross and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). International relations also involve such activities as the flow of trade, the movement of people between countries, joint research in space exploration, exploration of the world oceans, visits of scientists and experts, and work at laboratories, universities, and factories.

The government of Ukraine and every country tries to obtain benefits for its citizens. Thus, governments cooperate with one another if such action serves the interest of, their people. Such problems as pollution and the spread of disease affect the people of all nations. These problems cannot be solved by one government acting alone, and so governments work together in dealing with them.

No world government has the authority to force national governments to cooperate. The government of every independent state is sovereign-that is it recognizes no authority higher than its own. Countries may bring their disputes to an international court for settlement. However, such a court has little power to enforce its decisions. If two countries cannot settle their differences, they may go to war.

Countries maintain peaceful international relations by a number of methods, including the use of diplomacy, international conferences and organizational treaties, and international law.

Traditionally, Ukraine has maintained relations with other governments through its diplomats. Ukraine usually sends diplomats to live in other countries. Ambassadors and other diplomats carry on day-to-day relations between Ukraine and the government of the country in which they serve. They arrange treaties, protect the rights of fellow citizens who are abroad, and work to gain political advantages for Ukraine. Through negotiations (discussions), they may settle disputes between nations.

Ukraine has an office for the conduct of foreign affairs. This office is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The office of foreign affairs supervises Ukraine's relations with other governments. This office assigns diplomats to other countries and sends representatives called consuls to foreign cities. Consuls work to promote and protect the economic interests of their fellow citizens who are abroad.

In recent years, governments have also communicated with each other by allowing their statements to be broadcast on television or distributed through other forms of mass media. This use of TV and other media has reduced the traditional role of diplomats somewhat.

Most nations, including Ukraine, belong to the United Nations and send delegates to this international organization. The delegates discuss ways of solving problems and promoting world peace.

A treaty is a formal agreement made by national governments. The agreement may be bilateral (signed by two countries) or multilateral (signed by more than two countries). Only the official representatives of independent countries may draw up a treaty. Before the agreement can go into effect, it must be approved by the governments of the countries involved. Ukraine has signed many treaties in the last few years promoting its economic interests. Ukraine has also signed arms-control treaties with other governments to limit, regulate, reduce, or eliminate weapons or armed forces. A number of treaties designed to control nuclear weapons have been signed by Ukraine.

International law consists of rules that governments are expected to observe in their relations with one another. Some rules have developed through customs. Others have been established in treaties.

Words and word combinations:

international relations: міжнародні відносини

multinational: багатонаціональний

movement of people: рух людей

benefits: пільги

ambassador: посол

bilateral: двохсторонній

multilateral: багатосторонній

cooperation: співпраця

dealings: справи

flow of trade: течія виробництва

to obtain: отримувати

diplomacy: дипломатія

to be abroad: перебувати за кордоном

arms-control treaty: договір про контроль озброювання





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