Розмовні теми з англійської мови для вступу до аспірантури -

My Speciality

Computer Sciences

A wide utilization of computer science means is an indispensable condition for the state-of-the-art of any country. The working arsenal of information is the computer systems, in particular the information control systems and technologies. Such systems and technologies are the unity of software and hardware. Thus, the curricula at the Computer Sciences Department are based on the experience of working out, manufacture, control and adjustment, and introduction of computerized systems components, in particular the computerized systems of information processing and control, computerized systems of designing, artificial intelligence systems and system software, automatic systems of text and graphic information processing, intellectual decision-making systems. The academic program embraces the higher general education and the professional training.

The students are required to take the following courses: humane, general and special mathematics, programming, computer simulation (modeling), and structural scheme-technical and architectural systems. Besides they are trained in marketing and management in computer business, computerized development of business plans, computerized accounting at small enterprises, etc. Our graduates can work as junior scientific assistants at different enterprises, production and scientific production associations, scientific research and design organizations, state and bank establishments, information centers of different levels, the higher educational establishments, etc. At their places of business they make computer applications software, and are particularly strong in specialists markets such as artificial intelligence, computer-aided design, mathematical software, and geographical information system and data visualization. They make major advances in the field of 'virtual reality', a three­dimensional computer simulation technique with a host of industrial and other applications. Such technique is used to design buildings and a range of products, including cars, pharmaceuticals, and machine tools.

The graduates of our university make their contribution to the development of the production sector 'Computers' which produces an extensive range of systems, central processors and peripheral equipment, from large computers for large-scale data-processing and scientific work to mini and microcomputers for control and automation systems and for home, educational and office use. Nowadays they are concentrated on developing new products for specialized market which includes hand-held, pocket-sized computers, increasingly used by sales forces, and notebook and pen computers. Our graduates are engaged in the computing services industry which comprises software houses, production of packaged software, consultancy, information technology ’outsourcing’, processing services, and the provision of complete computers systems. They work at companies that provide information technology education and training independent maintenance, support, contingency planning and recruitment and contract staff. The Department generates a well-educated and well-trained workforce which is considered essential for economic growth, particularly at a time of intense international competition and rapid technological advance. It takes measures to see that education and training are broadly based and students can acquire relevant knowledge and skills. The graduates realize that the progress in any work is a matter of quality, and not a mere number of new machines, apparatus and materials. Education-business cooperation at the Department is constantly being strengthened.

Words and word combinations

state-of-the-art: світовий рівень розвитку науки;

computer science: інформатика;

utilization: ужиток;

means of: засоби;

computer system: обчислювальна система;

software: програмне забезпечення;

hardware: технічне забезпечення;

working out: розробка;

manufacture: виробництво;

adjustment: регулювання;

introduction: введення;

information processing: обробка інформації;

artificial intelligence: штучний інтелект;

automatic system: автоматизована система;

decision-making: прийняття рішення;

to require: вимагати;

computer simulation: комп’ютерна симуляція;

recruitment: комплектація особового складу;

accounting: бухгалтерський облік;

software house: фірма, що спеціалізується на розробці ПК;

packaged software: стандартне програмне забезпечення;

outsourcing: залучення співвиконавців;

contingency planning: планування непередбачених затрат.

Electrical Engineering

An electrical engineer is someone who designs and develops new electrical equipment, solves problems and tests equipment. He deals with electricity, electro-magnetism and electronics. It also covers power, control systems, telecommunications and signal processing. These engineers are usually concerned with large-scale electrical systems such as motor control and power transmission, as well as utilizing electricity to transmit energy. Electrical engineers may work on a diverse range of technologies, from the design of household appliances, lighting and wiring of buildings, telecommunication systems, electrical power stations and satellite communications. They may plan their designs using computer-aided software or they may also sketch ideas by hand.

There are many sub-disciplines of electrical engineering. Some of them specialize exclusively in one sub-discipline, while others specialize in a combination of sub-disciplines. Students obtaining this occupation need to have units in physics, math, computers and project management. Electrical engineering courses are a mix of design and lab work. Students are taught to design and develop different solutions to a variety of real life situations.

Electrical engineers need to be logical, detail-oriented and need to work well in a team setting. They must also be creative and be able to think outside of the box. They must be able to communicate their ideas to their team and also need to understand engineering in general before specializing in electrical engineering in particular.

Electrical engineers usually work in a lab, an office, a mine or in industrial plants. An electrical engineer usually can pursue a technical career in any industry. An electrical engineer also spends a lot of time doing project management, such as meeting with clients, determining budgets and preparing project schedules. Engineering projects usually require written documentation, so strong writing and communication skills are important.

Words and word combinations

to solve problems: виршувати проблеми

to deals with: мати справу з

to cover: охоплювати

motor control: управління двигуном

power transmission: передача електроенергії

to utilize: утилізувати

to diverse: диверсифікувати

household appliances: побутова техніка

satellite communication: супутниковий зв'язок

computer-aided software: комп'ютерне програмне забезпечення

detail-oriented: предметно-орієнтований

to pursue: переслідувати

to determine: визначати

to require: вимагати

Food Processing and Production

Nowadays there is a growing need for engineers who are familiar with the fundamental problems m food processing and production. In the near future many of the food production engineers will be recent university graduates. The students of the Ternopil National I. Pul'uj Technical University will apply their theoretical and practical knowledge at different food industry enterprises after completing their course of study at the University. The level of specialists training will allow them to develop competitive and qualitative technological equipment for food production and processing factories and plants, to conduct reconstruction and technological installation of food production enterprises, to provide technical maintenance of the equipment, its assembling, diagnostics and repair.

The Department of Processing Technologies in Food Industry was founded in 1995 and today it includes two chairs: food technologies equipment and food biotechnologies and chemistry. Educational process and scientific research are provided with all necessary installation in special laboratories (laboratory of food industry processes and apparatuses, canning technologies laboratory, technical microbiology lab., refrigerating technologies lab. and many others). The students are taught and assisted by highly-qualified lecturers, including Doctors of Sc., Candidates of Sc. and Assistant-Professors.

As engineers make the vast contribution in design, assembling and maintenance of new types of equipment we need their analytical frame of mind and their imagination. They may design an instrument or device themselves; invent new model, test it, its components, analyze its performance and make a mathematical analysis. So they must be aware of making drawings and specifications. They may be concerning themselves with the development of a new production process, or the adaptation of current process to a new product. Besides, food industry engineers must have a deep knowledge of foods, their components and processing technologies. They may utilize their engineering know-how in determining the best processes and equipment for the mass production of high-quality products. They may be project engineers in charge of the design and installation of a highly automatic conveyer system for handling different kinds of parts between various assembly stations.

Being a student of our university you have a chance to get a wide range of necessary knowledge in exact humanitarian sciences, marketing and management, to learn one or two foreign languages.

After graduation from the university young people will be able to work at different enterprises of food and processing industry, food industry mechanical engineering, small and joint ventures, in scientific-research institutions, design bureaus. The best students of our department have an opportunity to develop the scientific abilities, continuing their study at the post-graduate courses.

Words and word combinations

graduate: випускник

to complete: завершувати

competitive: конкурентоспроможний

equipment: обладнання

to conduct: проводити

reconstruction: реконструкція

installation: установка

scientific research: наукове дослідження

contribution: вклад

maintenance: технічне обслуговування

imagination: уява

performance: продуктивність

current: сучасний

handling: користування

assembly stations: складальні станції

joint ventures: спільні підприємства

opportunity: можливість


When studying economics for the first time, it is necessary to know what economics is all about. Unfortunately, it is not possible to define the subject by a single word. Economics was defined as the study of humankind in the everyday business life. This means that economics deals with production, distribution, exchange and consumption. It answers such questions as: How do we produce all the things we need? How are prices determined? Economics is also concerned with unemployment, inflation, international trade, the interaction of business and labour, and the effects of government spending and taxes.

Economics does not stop with the description of economic activity because description alone leaves unanswered many important why and how questions. Economics is a social science like history, geography, politics, psychology and sociology. It is the study of human efforts to satisfy what seems like unlimited and competing wants through the careful use of relatively scarce resources. Economists study what is or tends to be and how it came to be. They do not in any way pretend to tell what ought to be. People must make up their own minds about that. Economics is therefore concerned with activities relating to wealth, i.e. production, consumption, exchange and distribution.

For our own purpose, we shall define economics as the study of man in his attempts to gain a living by utilizing his limited resources.

Words and word combinations

what economics is all about: що складає економіку

to be concerned with: мати справу із; займатися

the effects of government spending: ефективність урядових витрат

unlimited and competing wants: необмежені потреби, що постійно


to make up one’s own mind: вирішувати самому

to gain a living: заробляти на життя

consumption: споживання

international trade: міжнародна торгівля

the interaction: взаємодія

attempt: спроба

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