Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА

ДОВІДНИК

 

МОРФОЛОГІЯ

 

Артикль (THE ARTICLE)

 

В англійській мові є три артиклі: а(аn) — неозначений, the — означений і нульовий, тобто значуща відсутність артикля.

Артиклі є визначниками іменників і ставляться перед ними та залежними від них словами. Основне призначення артиклів в англійській мові — уточнювати смисл вжитих у мовленні іменників.

Наприклад:

I like ice-cream (взагалі люблю морозиво).

I bought an ice-cream for my little sister (одну порцію морозива).

The ice-cream was very tasty (це куплене морозиво).

 

1) Неозначений і нульовий артиклі показують, що іменники вжиті у загальному значенні, тобто вони не виділені як щось конкретне. Неозначений артикль підкреслює, що йдеться про будь-який одиничний об’єкт з цього класу об’єктів, позначений цим іменником.

She has a new watch.

— Неозначений артикль вживається зі злічуваними іменниками в однині.

— Як і неозначений артикль, значуща відсутність артикля перед іменниками (нульовий артикль) означає, що йдеться про об’єкт взагалі, проте іменник представлений або незлічуваним іменником, або злічуваним іменником у множині.

I don’t like milk.

There are flowers in front of my house.

 

— Основні типи мовних ситуацій, що обумовлюють вживання неозначеного артикля:

а) Називання об’єкта (в однині) взагалі. Той, хто говорить, вводить у мовлення якийсь новий об’єкт і зараховує його до цілого класу таких самих об’єктів:

This is a new pen for you.

Going to school I met an old man with a dog.

б) Кількісна характеристика об’єкта, коли неозначений артикль має значення “один”:

Give те a sheet of paper.

 

— Основні типи мовних ситуацій, що обумовлюють значущу відсутність артикля (нульовий артикль) у мовленні:

а) Називання об’єкта взагалі або віднесення його до класу таких самих предметів. При цьому об’єкт означає речовину, абстрактне поняття або невизначену кількість предметів:

Honey is wholesome.

While there is life there is hope.

They sell bags and umbrellas at that counter.

б) Абстрагування від матеріального змісту об’єкта (так зване “розпредмечування”). Мається на увазі не названий об’єкт, а діяльність, пов’язана з цим об’єктом. У цьому разі іменники вживаються для вираження або якісної ознаки, або характеру дії. Зазвичай такі іменники входять до складу прийменникових і дієслівних словосполучень:

She goes to school every day.

My father usually goes to work by bus.

Примітки:

— Артикль не вживається перед іменником, після якого стоїть кількісний числівник, який відноситься до нього:

Go by bus 35.

This is room 46

— Артикль часто не вживається у телеграмах, оголошеннях, газетних і журнальних заголовках:

Library for young man or woman, (the Morning Star)

Girl Gymnast keeps Title. (News)

Present Received Thanks — Pete.

 

2) Означений артикль вказує на конкретний об’єкт (об’єкти), виражений іменником. Інакше кажучи, іменники з означеним артиклем називають об’єкти, що перебувають у полі зору співрозмовників або відомі їм:

Do you like the book?

I have got the magazine.

Означений артикль вживається з іменниками в однині і множині. Вживання з іменниками означеного артикля, що вказує на конкретні об’єкти, обумовлюється наступними мовними ситуаціями:

а) Вказівка на об’єкт, що знаходиться в полі зору співрозмовників:

Give те the pen, please.

б) Посилання на об’єкт, відомий співрозмовникам зі спільного минулого досвіду:

Do you like the poem ?

в) Додаткова конкретизація об’єкта шляхом вказівки на деякі ознаки, за якими цей об’єкт відрізняється від інших, подібних до нього:

Which is your friend?

The tallest boy in the group.

г) Родова характеристика об’єкта. У названому об’єкті узагальнено ознаки всього класу об’єктів, протиставляючи його іншим класам:

The telephone was invented in the 19th century.

The tragedy and the comedy first appeared in Greece.

r) Віднесення об’єкта до числа відомих показує, що він є невід’ємною частиною іншого, вже відомого співрозмовникам об’єкта.

Who is the author?

Отже, вживання артиклів обумовлюється ситуацією.

Наприклад: у реченні I went to the shop to buy a book вживання неозначеного артикля з іменником book можна пояснити такою ситуацією: “У мого брата був день народження, і я вирішив купити йому в подарунок якусь книжку”. У реченні I went to the shop to buy the book вживання означеного артикля перед іменником book можна обгрунтувати так: “Хтось порекомендував певну книжку, або брат хоче мати саме цю книжку, і я пішов її купити”.

Для довідок:

1. Іменники, що означають власні назви, вживаються, як правило, без артиклів:

Petro, London, Great Britain Але: the Crimea, the USA

Якщо йдеться про членів цілої сім’ї, то перед прізвищем ставиться означений артикль:

The Whites live here.

Якщо перед прізвищем є слово, яке означає посаду, або форма звертання, артикль не вживається: Professor Stone,MrsBrown.

2. Загальні іменники у ролі звертання вживаються без артиклів.

Соте here, girl.

Listen to me son!

 

3) Означений артикль вживається перед власними назвами у таких випадках:

а) перед назвами морів, океанів, річок, заток, каналів, проток. Назви озер вживаються з означеним артиклем, якщо перед власною назвою не стоїть слово lake:

the Pacific Ocean, the Mississippi River, the Mediterranean (sea), the Suez Canal, the Finnish Gulf, the English Channel, the Ontario (але Lake Ontario)

б) з назвами деяких країн, міст, вулиць, площ: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Netherlands, the Congo, the Strand, the Mall

в) з назвами гірських масивів (але не окремих гір): the Alps, the Himalayas, the Carpathians (але Ben Nevis, Everest)

г) з назвами островів і архіпелагів: the Canaries, the Malay Archipelago, the Fiji Isles

r) з назвами кораблів, готелів, газет, журналів: the “Astoria”, “The Times”

д) з назвами сторін світу: the North, the South, the East, the West

е) з назвами пам’ятників, музеїв, галерей, бібліотек, (кіно) театрів: the British Museum, the Nelson Monument, the National Gallery

є) перед іменником з означенням, вираженим прикметником у найвищому ступені порівняння: February is the shortest month of the year.

 

TASKS

 

Insert articles where necessary and comment on their use.

1. (Загальні іменники) (Class nouns)

Here is ... large window. Through ... window we can see ... garden. Opposite ... window there is ... door. On ... door there is ... curtain. In... comer of... room there is ... round table. On ... table we can see ... number of... books and ... telephone. On ... bookshelf near... sofa we can see some ... newspapers and ... book by ... Jack London. There are ... two ... pictures in that room. One ... picture is small and ... other is very large. ... bookcases are full of... books. In ... front of... bookcases we can see ... big box. “Is ... box also full of ... books?”. “Yes, it is”. There is ... large sofa in ... room. On ... sofa we can see ... bag. There is no ... bed in ... room. On ... small table near ... window we can see ... flowers and ... glass of... water. In ... front of... window we can see ... arm-chair.

 

2.

Here is ... picture of... school building. In ... front of... school there is ... garden. In ... garden we can see ... apple-trees with ... apples on them.

... Autumn is coming. ... leaves are changing ... colour. Some of them are still green, ... others are red or yellow.

There is ... leaf falling from ... branch onto ... ground. ... grass is not yellow. It is still green. ... weather is warm. ... sun is shining brightly. ... sky is blue and clear. There are ... clouds in ... sky. We can see ... birds flying high up in ... air.

In ... middle of... garden there is ... flowerbed. There are ... few flowers on ... flowerbed. Near ... flowerbed we can see ... benches. There are ... lot of ... children in ... garden. They are having ... interval between ... lessons. Some of... children are sitting on ... benches, ... other children are running about in ... garden. ... two women and ... man are walking to ... gate. They are ... teachers. One of... women is ... teacher of ... English. She is carrying ... large bag full of... pupils’ exercise-books. Near ... gate we can see ... boy and ... girl looking at ... black cat sitting in ... tree.

... two old men walking among ... trees are also ... teachers. One of them is holding ... book in ... hand. ... other is holding ... newspaper.

 

3. English meals

... English people have four meals ... day: ... breakfast, ... dinner, ... tea and ... supper. In some households ... dinner is served in ... evening and ... midday meal is called ... lunch.

... English people prefer ... substantial breakfast of ... porridge or ... bacon and ... eggs, ... hot toast, ... buttered bread or ... rolls, ... marmalade or ... jam, ... tea or ... coffee.

... Lunch is usually eaten at about 10’clock. ... cold meat, ... potatoes, ... salad and ... pickles with ... pudding or ... fruit to follow are taken for ... lunch.

In some houses ... dinner is ... principal meal of ... day. ... first course is ... soup, ... second course is some kind of... fish: ... herring, ... cod, etc. ... third course is ... meat and ... vegetables with nearly always ... fried, boiled, baked or mashed potatoes.

Last of all comes ... blackberry and ... apple-pie, ... plum pudding or ... pan-cake. ... poultry, particularly ... chicken, ... duck, ... goose and ... turkey, is often eaten at ... dinner.

Before ... dinner ... table is laid in ... dining-room.

... table-cloth is put on ... table. ... knife, ... fork, and ... spoon are put on ... table for each person. ... glasses, napkins, ... decanter of ... water, and ... cruet-stand containing ... salt-cellar, ... pepper-pot and ... mustard-pot are put on ... table, too. After ... meal things are cleared away and washed up.

Stricktly speaking ... tea is not ... meal at all. Very often ... guests come to ... tea, which is served in ... drawing-room.

... tea service, i.e. ... cups, ... sausers, ... plates, ... tea-pot and ... sugar-basin are brought in on ... tray.

... plate, ... cup of tea, ... teaspoon, ... knife and ... paper napkin are handed to each guest, and ... sandwiches, ... cake, ... buns and ... cakes are handed round. ... tea-making in ... England is ... art.

... hostess pours out ... tea and asks ... guests in turn whether they like their tea strong or weak, with ... sugar or without it.

... omelette or ... sausages, sometimes ... bacon and eggs or ... cold meat is taken for ... supper. That is followed by ... fresh or tinned fruit according to ... season.

 

4. (Географічні назви) (Geographical names)

... Map of... British Isles

Here is ... map of... British Isles. On ... map you can see ... England,... Scotland, ... Wales and ... Ireland.

... London is ... capital of... Great Britain. It is also ... capital of... United Kingdom.

Some parts of... England are really beautiful. There are ... lot of... lakes, ... rivers,... hills and ... mountains in ... England. But ... mountains are not very high. ... Cheviot Hills are in ... north of ... country. ... South of... Cheviot Hills one can see ... Pennines. ... West of... Pennines there are ... Cumbrian Mountains. There is ... number of beautiful lakes in ... mountains. This part of ... country is called ... Lake District.

This is ... Wales. There are ... plenty of hills and mountains in ... Wales. Here is ... big mountain. Its name is ... Snowdon. It is 3560 feet high.

There is ... much coal in ... Wales. It is one of ... big mining districts in ... Britain. In ... towns and ... villages of ... Wales one can see thousands of ... miners.

... Britain is ... industrial country. There are ... lot of factories and mines there. Sheffield is ... big centre of... steel industry, and in Manchester there are many textile factories. ... West of Manchester is Liverpool. It is one of ... big ports on ... west coast of ... island.

Glasgow is ... very large city in ... Scotland. It is also ... large sea port and ... big ship-building centre. Edinburgh is ... capital of ... Scotland. It is near ... east coast of ... country.

... Oxford, ... Cambridge and ... Edinburgh are ... university towns. You can find ... number of students there.

 

5.

1. Has ... postman come yet? I am expecting ... letter from my father. 2. My brother can drive ... car. 3. I got... interesting book from ... library. ... librarian said that I could only keep it for ... week as ... teacher of... English also wanted it. 4. She couldn’t do such ... thing. 5. What ... fine weather we are having today! 6. When ... moon passes between ... earth and ... sun, ... eclipse results. 7. There is ... red book and ... green book on ... table in ... room. 8. Can you tell me how to get to ... museum? Go straight down ... street until you come to ... bridge. Then turn to the right and you will see ... large white building. That is ... museum. 10. I want to write ... letter to ... father. 11. He asked ... student ... question. 12. I’m reading “... American Tragedy”, ... novel by ... Theodore Dreiser. 13. ... door opened and ... man entered ... room. 14. I took ... bus Number 9 and went home. 15. She opened ... book and began to read. ... book was about ... life of ... poor and ... rich in ... USA.

 

6.

I. I can’t find ... book which you gave me ... last week. 2. Yesterday Ispoke to ... man who had just returned from ... north of ... America. 3.They were standing on ... top of ... hill. 4. ... magazine which you lent me ... last month is of... great interest. 5. He is ... teacher whom we all like very much. 6. She is ... teacher of... mathematics. 7. I know ... man who lives in ... house where you live. 8. ... street which leads to ... cinema is very wide. 9. ... person who is sitting next to me is ... famous painter. 10....girl standing at ... blackboard is my best friend.

 

7. (Незлічувані іменники, що означають речовини) (Uncountable material nouns)

1. ... coal is one of... most important natural resources in our country. 2. ... most common kind of... fuel used by man is ... wood. 3. Put ... wood on ... fire. 4. ... silver is not so heavy as ... gold. 5. ... oil is known to be lighter than ... water. 6. Please cut ... grass in the garden. 7. ... Water which we drink in our town is filtered at waterworks. 8. I don’t like ... milk. 9. Pour ... milk into the cup, please. 10. We make ... butter and ... cheese from ... milk. 11. Pass me ... sugar, please. 12. She doesn’t like ... sugar. 13. Where is ... sugar? 14. This district is rich in ... coal. 15. Is your shirt made of... silk or ... cotton? 16. This is ... bronze, not ... copper. 17. I like ... tea. She likes ... coffee. 18.1 always drink ... boiled water. 19. Bring me ... hot water, please. 20. There is ... snow on the ground. 21. There is ... hot and ... cold water and ... gas in my flat.

 

8. (Абстрактні іменники) (Abstract nouns)

1. It is ... heavy work. 2. You must face ... life seriously. 3. He likes ... silence of this room. 4. They often sit for hours in ... silence. 5....love is necessary for us. 6. ... love which he gave her was full of ... beauty. 7. Alice knew nothing of... literature except some American writers of the 19th century. 8. This man lives in ... poverty. 9. ... poverty of his room struck us very much. 10. She has ... hard life. 11. In his novels the author describes ... life of... youth in his country. 12. ... air was full of... warmth and ... freshness. 13. I like ... music. 14. ... music which she heard yesterday was beautiful. 15. Last week I learnt ... interesting news. 16. ... news which he told me were of... great interest for our family. 17. I had ... little hope for ... better life. 18.1 spent... good time by my aunt’s. 19. ... time spent together gave us both ... great deal of... joy. 20. I can see ... beauty and ... peace of their home. 21. What... delightful weather we are having! 22. Suddenly ... idea came to her. 23. He hated ... idea of going there. 24. Standing on the terrace I could hear ... murmur of ... sea below me. 25. I’ll come in ... hour. 26. ... hour spent with him made much good for me. 27. ... light moves quickest of all. 28. It is ... time to start. 29. She didn’t like ... changes in ... life. 30. He looked at her with ... amazement.

 

9. (Числівники) (Numerals)

1. Take bus ... Number 8. 2. Take ... first turning to the left. 3.Read ... exercise 3. 4. Find ... chapter 10. 5. I live at ... number 43, Green Street. 6. She bought ... three dozen of apples. 7. She is ... first pupil in her form. 8. ... thousands of people go to the sea in summer. 9.... second attempt proved more successful than ... first. 10. Having eaten the porridge I asked for ... second portion. 11. He made ... second, ... third, ... fourth experiment with the same result. 12. Nobody answered my bell, so I had to ring ... second time. 13. ... two pupils entered the classroom. 14. He lives in ... flat Number 10. 15. I wear ... size thirty-six shoes. 16. There are only ... forty thousand aborigines in Australia. 17.... fourth visit of him to Canada took place in 1995. 18. Today is ... fifth of October. 19. ... thousand new books were sold here last year. 20. ... first text is more difficult than ... second one.

 

10. (Частини світу) (Cardinal points)

1. Canada occupies ... whole of... northern part of ... continent of ... North America and ... number of... islands, ... biggest of which are Vancouver in ... west, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in ... east and ... Victoria and Baffin Islands in ... north. It stretches from ... forty-ninth parallel in ... south to ... Arctic Circle in ... north and from ... Pacific Ocean in ... west to ... Atlantic Ocean in ... east. 2. ... Rocky Mountains, continuing ... northward from ... USA, stretch parallel to ... Canada’s Pacific Coast. ... east of these mountains are ... high plains of Alberta and Saskatchewan, ... low plains in ... region of... Great Lakes and ... River St. Lawrence. Mountains also run parallel to ... Canada’s east coast in ... Labrador and ... Baffin Islands. 3. New Zealand is situated ... south-east of... Australia and consists of three large and many small islands. ... two main islands stretch for nearly 900 miles from ... north to ... south. ... mountains run from ... south-west to ... north-east throughout both ... larger islands. 4. He lived long in ... North. 5.... east of this country is occupied by ... tundra. 6. My best friend came to our town from ... East. 7. He travelled in Canada from ... East to ... West. 8. Rockwell Kent’s landscapes show ... beauty of... nature in ... Far North. He was ... explorer of... North. 9. ... silver, ... iron and ...other metals are mined in many parts of Australia, mostly in ... New South Wales. Sugar is produced along ... north-east coast, while fruit-growing is developed in ... south. 10. We live in ... Western Ukraine.

 

11. ... British Museum

... Bloomsbury Street is ... oldest in ... London. It dates from 1665. It is ... “literary district”, many writers and art critics used to live here. But it is mostly known for ... British Museum, ... pride of... Britain.

It is ... immense, light-grey building, like ... Greek temple. (It was founded in 1753).

... British Museum was, and probably is one of... most famous and important libraries in ... world.

... British Museum, situated in ... Great Russell Street, is about ten minutes’ walk from both ... Dean Street and Macclesfield Street. ... lot of people spend ... great deal of time in ... Museum reading-room.

During ... Second World War, ... reading-room was badly damaged, over 150,000 volumes perished in ... flames caused by ... nazi bombs.

... British Museum has ... wonderful art gallery, too. It has ... unique collections of... sculpture,... ceramics, ... drawings, and ... paintings of... Egyptians, ... Greeks, ... Romans, ... Normans, ... Africans, ... Chinese, ... Indians and many other peoples.

 

12. ... Great Britain

... British Isles lie in ... north-west of... Europe. They consist of ... two large islands, ... Great Britain and ... Ireland, and many smaller ones. ... Great Britain, ... largest island in ... Europe, includes ... England, ... Scotland and ... Wales. It is separated from ... Ireland by ... Irish Sea, and from ... Continent by ... English Channel and ... Straits of Dover. ... Great Britain and ... Northern Ireland form ... United Kingdom.

... surface of... England and ... Ireland is flat, but... surface of... Scotland and ... Wales is mountainous. ... mountains are almost all in ... western part. ... highest mountain in ... United Kingdom is ... Ben Nevis in ... Scotland (1343 m). ... longest river is ... Severn. It is in ... south-west of... England. ... Thames is not so long as ... Severn. ... sea enters deeply into ... land and has ... great influence on ... climate. ... winter is not very cold and ... summer is not very hot.

... main ports of ... country are ... London, ... Liverpool, ... Glasgow and others.

 

13. (Власні іменники) (Personal nouns)

1. ... Dinny looked up at... house. This wasn’t... Dinny I knew many years ago. 2. Margaret was talking to ... Browns. 3. In ... dim light of ... moon he scarcely recognized ... Lily he had known. 4. But ... Mary of that evening wasn’t... Mary I knew. 5.1 want to see ... Aunt Betty and ... Uncle Tom next week. 6. ... little Kate began to cry. 7. ... old Peter didn’t sleep. 8. Suddenly I saw ... pretty little Ann in ... garden. 9. ... London is ... capital of... Great Britain. 10. This is ... London I often saw in my dreams. 11. There are ... lot of interesting places in ... London, such as: ... Tate Gallery, ... National Gallery, ... National Portrait Gallery, ... British Museum, ... Houses of Parliament, ... Westmister Abbey, ... Buckingham Palace, ... Trafalgar Square. ... best known streets are: ... Whitehall, ... Downing Street, ... residence of... Prime Minister, ... Fleed Street which stands for ... press, ... High Street and ... Strand. 12. Last summer I visited ... Medici Palace. 13. ... doctor Glinn has been working at ... hospital for 5 years already. 14. ... engineer Barstow left ... town for ... North. 15. ... clever Peter knows almost everything. 16. I live in ... Green Street. 17. “... father is not at ... home”, said ... little Jane. 18. ... old Harry doesn’t work, he is ... pensioner. 19. I have no doubt that you are ... Miss Wilier I have often heard named. 20....poor Edward couldn’t find ... answer. 20. ... great romantic English landscape painter Joseph Mallord William Turner was bom in ... Devonshire.

 

14. (Дні тижня, місяці) (Days, months)

1. Robinson Crusoe found his servant on ... Friday. 2. ... Sunday is my favourite day in ... week. 3. Let’s meet on ... Saturday. 4. I’ll never forget... November of 1996. 5. ... cold April is ... usual thing in this region. 6. ... February is... shortest month of... year. 7. ... scientist had been working ... whole June before ... problem was solved. 8. Mary is going to ski in ... country on ... following Sunday. 9. ... last Monday was wet and windy. 10. I was born in ... January, 1973. 11. ... two friends decided to go there on ... Tuesday. ... Tuesday came but they didn’t go. 12. It is ... beginning of... May now. 13. I don’t remember exactly when he visited me last, but I am sure it was on ... Friday. 14. My day off is ... Saturday. 15. ... Saturday which came was bright and sunny. 16. I’ll leave ... town in ... February. 17. ... warm January is not ... usual thing in Ukraine.

 

15. London

It is certain that ... foreigner must be surprised by ... first sight of London. It will seem as if there are ships anchored in ... very streets of ... town, because ... ships are being loaded and unloaded at ... docks in ... specials pools built along ... river Thames.

On ... other hand London is very attractive for ... tourists. It’s very old and full of... historic associations, full of... customs and traditions. Englishmen themselves are ... mixture of... past and ... present, of... old- fashioned and ... very modern.

Visitors are usually greatly surprised by ... number of bridges across ... river. ... capital has 14 bridges, ... famous ... London Bridge being among them.

... appearance of London houses has its own peculiarity. ... main feature of almost every rooftop is ... chimney. Modern methods of... internal heating have made ... little difference to this pleasure. There are very few British houses from which ... old fashioned open fire has been eliminated, even though ... central heating has been installed. And ... fireplace requires ... chimney.

There is ... lot of traffic in ... streets of... town: ... endless lines of... buses, motor-cars and taxis. ... traffic regulations in London differ from ours: they drive on ... left side of... road instead of... right.

... quickest way to get about... modem London is ... Underground. It seems that everyone in ... London Underground is always in ... hurry.

... coloured advertisements are everywhere in ... London Underground: on ... walls of... excalator, on ... platforms;... special posters advertise everything — ... food,... medicine, ... clothes, ... furniture,... cigarettes.

... streets of London are always of... great interest to ... tourists. In some parts of London they are very much alike, as ... houses are not very big, they are mostly two-storeyed buildings with many front-doors and ... little gardens.

 

16. Comment on the use of articles or their absence.

1. Chaucer exerted a great influence on English literature.

2. Daniel Defo published his famous book “Robinson Crusoe” when an elderly man.

3. Richardson wrote novels in the form of a series of letters.

4. Robert Burn’s father worked hard to make both ends meet.

5. Walter Scott revived the old national and popular element of Scotch poetry.

6. Shelley and Byron met in Switzerland in 1816.

7. Thackeray used the novel as an instrument of satire.

8. When a boy, Rudyard Kipling lived in India.

9. Oskar Wilde dazzled London with ironical social comedies full of wit, epigram and paradox.

10. Keats devoted his life entirely to poetry alone.




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