Матеріали для Нової української школи 1 клас - планування, розробки уроків, дидактичні та методичні матеріали, підручники та зошити

Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА

ДОВІДНИК

 

МОРФОЛОГІЯ

 

Займенник (THE PRONOUN)

 

1) В англійській мовайменники поділяються на:

1. Особові (personal) (I, you, she, he, it, we, they; me, you, her, him, it, us, them)

2. Присвійні (possessive) (my, your, her, his, its, our, their; mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs)

3. Зворотні (reflexive) (myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself; ourselves, yourselves, themselves)

4. Взаємні (reciprocal) (each other, one another)

5. Вказівні (demonstrative) (this, that; these, those)

6. Питальні (interrogative) (who (whom), whose, what, which)

7. Відносні (relative) (who (whom), whose, what, which, that)

8. Неозначені (indefinite) (some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, one)

9. Означальні (defining) (all, both, each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, either, another, other)

10. Сполучні (conjuctive) (who (whom), whose, what, which)

11. Кількісні (quantitative) (many, much, a few, a little, few, little)

12. Заперечні (negative) (no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing).

 

2) Особові, присвійні та зворотні займенники в англійській мові змінюються за особами і числами:

 

Число

Особа

Особові займенники

Присвійні займенники

Зворотні займенники

Однина

1

І

me

my

mine

myself

 

2

you

you

your

yours

yourself

 

3

he

him

his

his

himself

 

 

she

her

her

hers

herself

 

 

it

it

its

its

itself

 

1

we

us

our

ours

ourselves

 

2

you

you

your

yours

yourselves

 

3

they

them

their

theirs

themselves

 

Особові займенники I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they вживаються вреченні у ролі підмета, а займенники те, you, him, her, it, us, you, them — у ролі додатка:

She met me at the station.

Після присвійних займенників my, your, her тощо вживається іменник, а після форм mine, yours, hers тощо іменник не ставиться ніколи.

This is not your book, it’s mine.

Зворотні займенники вживаються з дієсловом як додаток; вживаючись з особовими займенниками або іменниками, вони підсилюють їхнє значення:

She washed herself with warm water.

You did it yourself.

 

3) Неозначені займенники someanyno та похідні від них вживаються в різних типах речень.

Стверджувальні речення

some, something, somebody, someone

Загальні питання

any, anything, anybody, anyone

Спеціальні питання

some, something, somebody, someone

Альтернативні питання

any, any, anybody, anyone

Заперечні речення

(not) any/no, (not) anything/nothing, (not) anybody/

 

nobody, (not) anyone/no one

Прохання

some, something, somebody, someone

Пропозиція

 

There is some milk in the glass.

Is there any milk in the glass?

Where is there some milk?

Is there any milk in the glass or cup?

There is not any milk in the glass.

(There is no milk in the glass.)

Will you give me some sweets, please?

Примітки:

— Займенник some перед числівником має значення “близько", “приблизноThere are some twenty pupils in the corridor.

Займенник any (anything, anybody, anyone) у стверджувальних реченнях має значення “всякий”, “будь-який"Any flower smells sweet.

— В англійській мові у заперечному реченні може вживатися лише одне заперечення; тому, якщо в реченні стоїть запере­чний займенник по, дієслово вживається у стверджувальній формі: I saw nobody there.

 

4) Займенники many і few вживаються зі злічуваними іменниками, a much і little — з незлічуваними:

I spent many days there.

She has much free time on Sunday.

Примітки:

Якщо займенники few і little вживаються з артиклем а, вони змінюють своє значення.

There are few people in the street. малo (не досить)

There is little time left.

There are a few leaves on the trees. кілька, трохи (але досить)

I've got a little time.

 

5) Займенник one виражає неозначену особу і вживається як підмет в неозначено-особових реченнях.

One never knows what his answer may be. (Ніколи не знаєш, яку відповідь він дасть.)

Якщо one у ролі підмета вжито з дієсловами mustshouldoughtcanmayто в українській мові таким словосполученням відповідають слова потрібно, необхідно, можна:

One can find ... — Можна знайти ...

One should take into consideration ... — Необхідно мати на увазі...

One вживається замість раніше згадуваного злічуваного іменника.

I lost ту pen, I must buy a new one.

Примітка:

Для заміни злічуваного іменника у множині вживається форма onesThese shoes are too smallI need some bigger ones.

 

Займенник one не вживається після присвійних займенників або іменників у присвійній формі: Your answer is good, but Ann’s is better.

Ones не вживається після these, those, other, others, які також замінюють відповідний іменник: These dresses are better than those.

Але: Which vase do you prefer: this one or that one?

One іноді вживається після the first, the next, the last.

January is the first month of the year, and December is the last one.

 

TASKS

 

1. Replace the words in bold type by the necessary personal pronouns.

1. Ann worked hard at history. 2. Father will ask Nick to bring some flowers from the garden. 3. The librarian gave the children interesting books. 4. My friend is going to visit Canada next year. 5.This text is too difficult for the pupils of the ninth form. 6.Thestudents will pass the exam tomorrow. 7. The girls cleaned the room yesterday.

 

2. Change the following sentences as in the given model and translate them into Ukrainian.

Model I: This is my book. — This book is mine.

Це моя книга. — Ця книга моя.

Model II: This is my book. — And that one is his (hers).

These are my books. — And those ones are ours (theirs).

1. This is my purse. 2. This is your decision. 3. These are our flowers. 4. This is their writing-table. 5. This is my umbrella. 6. These are our tickets. 7. This is my hat. 8. These are our post-cards. 9. This is their part of work. 10. These are your seats. 11. This is my dictionary.

 

3. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. He demands much of himself.

2. I saw myself in the unruffled water as if it were a mirror.

3. Modest people don’t speak much of themselves.

4. She ought to be ashamed of herself.

5. You see yourself that you are wrong.

6. He tried to justify himself, but nobody believed him.

7. The tourists found themselves in a large dark cave.

8. We have often done the same thing ourselves.

9. Can he do it by himself or does he need help?

10. I’ve done the work myself.

 

4. Complete the following sentences using either each other or one another.

Model. The two friends looked at each other.

All the friends assembled looked at one another.

 

1. All of us put down

...telephone numbers.

2. Without saying a word, my friend and I nodded to

...

3. When my fellow student and I met again we recognized

...at once.

4. The two friends exchanged

...photos.

5. The sorrow-stricken brother and sister didn’t look into

...eyes.

 

5. Put questions to the words in bold type.

1. He showed me his new suit.

2. We sent them a long letter.

3. She gave us her dictionary.

4. Her composition was the best.

5. She has made many bad mistakes in her exercise.

6. The third text in the book is the most difficult.

7. These are my sister’s toys.

 

6. Insert the pronouns who, whom, whose, what, which:

1. ... of you will do it? 2. ... will help me? 3. ... of these pupils is the best? 4. Here are the compositions. ... is yours? 5. ... books are these? They are mine. 6. ... piece of cake will you have? 7. ... doesn’t understand the rule? 8. ... way did she go? 9. ... do you know about her? 10. ... is he? He is a teacher. 11. ... English books have you read this month? 12. ... way is to the theatre? 13. ... knows his address? 14.... would you like to drink? 15. ... teaches you English?

 

7. Insert the necessary relative pronouns.

1. The man ... has just come in is our best friend. 2. The woman ... you see in the corner of the room is waiting for the manager. 3. The girl ... I have spoken about will be here in an hour. 4. The dog ... is running along the street has evidently lost its master. 5. The album ... is lying on the shelf contains many nice sketches. 6. 1 shan’t be able to attend these lectures, ... is a pity. 7. The book ... you are looking for is in thebox. 8. The cat ... is looking at me with devoted eyes is my pet-cat. 9.... has done it is unknown. 10. I don’t know ... of them speaks French.

 

8. Insert indefinite pronouns some or any.

1. She asked me ... questions. 2. Have you got ... interesting magazines? 3. My friend asked me whether I had ... information about the accident. 4. If there are ... new newspapers there, bring ... for me. 5. She asked me for ... stamps, but I hadn’t .... 6. Give me ... water, please. 7. There isn’t ... butter in the refrigerator. 8. ... of the sugar was packed in bags. 9. Why didn’t you buy ... tea? 10. Can I have ... milk? 11. I want ... matches. Have you got ...?

 

9. Insert much, many, little, few.

1. There were ... people in the yard. 2. How ... time does it take you to get to the Institute? 3. How ... times did you visit our museum? 4. Hurry up! There is ... time left. 5. I have not heard ... about this singer. 6. She is a person of... words. 7. It’s raining. There are ... people in the street.

 

10. Complete the sentences as in the model.

Model: Which of the dresses do you want to buy?

The one with a pleated skirt.

Which is my cup here? The one ...

Which of these hats do you like most of all? The one ...

Which seat do you want to take? The one ...

Which magazine shall I give you? The one ...

Which window is that of your room? The one ...

 

11. Insert no or none.

1. I have ... ticket. 2. ... newspapers wrote about this event. 3.There is a telephone in her flat, but there is ... in mine. 4. I bought a lot of interesting books in Kyiv, but my friend bought ... 5. She had ... mistakes in the test. 6. Tomorrow I’ll have much free time, but today I have ...

 

12. Translate the sentences.

1. Both brothers live in Canada. 2. She gave me two interesting books yesterday; I have read both. 3. You are both right. 4. They have both gone to the Crimea. 5. We must both go there. 6. She invited us both.

 

13. Insert either or neither.

1. You may go by ... road. 2. Here are two dictionaries. You may take ... of them. 3. There are a lot of trees on ... banks of the river. 4. ...of the statements is true. 5. ... my friend nor I liked this story. 6.... of the examples is correct. 7. We accepted ... offer.

 

14. Insert each or every.

1. There are flowers and trees on ... side of the street. 2. ... of us received a nice present. 3. I see my best friend ... day. 4. We have ... reason to believe her. 5. We go to the Black sea ... year. 6. ... student at our Institute goes in for sport. 7. There were four pupils in the room, and I gave a new book to ... of them.

 

15. Insert other or another.

1. The child was sitting in one arm-chair. I was sitting in ... 2. Give me ... pen. 3. They have ... intentions.

4. Where are the ... books that Igave you? 5. The library is on the ... side of the street. 6. She will stay here ... three days. 7. There is only one glove in the box. Where is the ...?

 

16. Compete the sentences as in the model.

Model: — Read my letter...

Read my letter and that of my sister.

— Look through these magazines...

Look through these magazines and those received before.

1. I couldn’t answer your question... 2. Copy the figures written in this list... 3. Which do you want to have: a bag made of cloth...? 4. The vase on the shelf is more beautiful than... 5. She reread his telegram... 6. Compare the pictures in this book... 7. Show me the hat on the upper shelf... 8. Give me the book in the blue cover... 9. The medicine given me by your doctor has helped me much better than... 10. Have a look at my postcards...

 

17. Point out the pronouns in the following sentences and define the class each belongs to.

1. What are you talking about? (Snow)

2. What was it in this girl that reminded him of that one with whom he had lived but two years, and mourned fifteen? (Galsworthy)

3. I can only say what I think. (Hemingway)

4. None of us except Coliingwood knew what the Prime Minister thought of Roger or his policy. (Snow)

5. Elizabeth and George talked and found each other delightful. (Aldigton)

6. Husbands and wives never listen when they talk to each other, only when the other is talking to somebody else. (Fowler)

7. Let me tell you something. (Priestley)

8. We said good-bye to one another and arranged to meet in the autumn. (Maugham)

9. I have made myself perfectly pleasant here. (Shaw)

10. This is where we wash ourselves, Eliza, and where I am going to wash you. (Shaw)

11. Who could tell what his son’s circumstances really were? (Galsworthy)

12. Would she go with them or stay here and write to William? Which, which should it be? (Mansfield)

13. You see, Hushabye, you are what women consider a good-looking man. (Shaw)

14. You are somebody now, and don’t let anybody forget it. (Priestley)

15. She rises with an air of one who waits and is almost at the end of her patience. (Shaw)









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