Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА
Сполучник (THE CONJUNCTION)
Сполучники — це службові слова, які вживаються для зв’язку членів речення і речень. Вони не виконують самостійної функції в реченні і не є членами речення.
За формою сполучники бувають:
а) прості (simple) (and, but, if, that тощо);
б) похідні (unless, because, until тощо);
в) складні (compound) (therefore, however, nevertheless тощо);
г) складені (composite) (as well as, so that, in order that, as soon as тощо).
Залежно від функції в реченні вони поділяються на сполучники сурядності і підрядності.
1) Сполучники сурядності поєднують однорідні члени речення, а також окремі речення. Вони поділяються на:
а) єднальні (copulative) (and, as well as, not only ... but also, neither ... nor):
Neither Nick nor his sister wanted to go there. (Hi Нік, ні його сестра не хотіли іти туди.)
б) розділові (disjunctive) (or, either ... or):
She is either in the reading-room or at the laboratory. (Вона або у читальні, або в лабораторії.)
в) протиставні (adversative) (still, yet, but, whereas):
Some people like coffee, whereas others don’t. (Деякі люди люблять каву, в той час як інші — ні.)
2) Сполучники підрядності приєднують підрядні речення до головного. Серед сполучників підрядності розрізняють:
а) сполучники місця (where, wherever):
She stood where I had left her.
б) часу (after, as, as long as, as soon as hardly (scarcely) ... when, until (till), since, when, while тощо):
What have you been doing since I last saw you ?
в) причини (as, because, for, now (that), on the ground that, since):
I can’t do it because I’m very busy.
г) умови (if, in case, once, on condition (that), provided (that), providing (that), so (as) long as, supposing (that), unless):
You may take my dictionary so long as you don’t keep it too long.
r) мети (for fear that, lest, so that, that, in order that):
He worked hard for fear that he might fail in the examination.
д) способу дії (as, as if (as though), so ... that, such ... that):
There was such a storm that day that the steamer could not leave the port.
е) порівняння (as ... as, (not) so ... as, than);
She returned sooner than we had thought, є) наслідку (so that):
The exam took place on Monday so that on Tuesday we could go to Lviv.
ж) допустові (in spite of the fact that, though (although), notwithstanding that):
She knows English perfectly though (although) she has never been to England.
Прислівники, які вводять підметові і присудкові підрядні речення: that, if whether.
Whether she will come tomorrow is not certain.
Ask him whether (if) he can do it tomorrow.
В англійській мові для зв’язку підрядних речень використовуються не тільки сполучники, а й сполучні слова — займенники who (whom), what, whose, which, that і прислівники when, where, why, how.
Сполучники відрізняються від сполучних слів тим, що сполучники не є членами речення, в той час як сполучні слова не тільки з’єднують підрядне речення з головним, а водночас є членами підрядного речення (підметом, додатком, означенням, обставиною):
I did not know what had happened with him. (Я не знав, що з ним трапилось.)
У цьому реченні займенник what (сполучне слово) є підметом підрядного додаткового речення.
1. Point out all the coordinating and subordinating conjunctions in the following sentences.
1. The sun is shining and there are very few clouds, but I’m sure it is going to rain. 2. You can use my dictionary on condition that you return it. 3. I can’t sing as you do. 4. This road seems longer as I thought. 5. We decided to open all the windows in spite of the fact that the weather was awful. 6. While I was reading he went out. 7. They are working hardly so that they may finish the work in time. 8. He was very tired and went to bed. 9. As soon as the dinner was ready, I asked everybody to sit at the table. 10. She wore a warm overcoat lest she should catch cold. 11. Although I wrote to my friend, I have had no reply. 12. I’ll come there either at 7 or at 8. 13. The child was thirtsty, for it was very hot. 14. She will come tomorrow if you ring her up. 15. You must leave at once, or you will be late. 16. Seeing that she was sad we decided not to tell her the truth. 17. Shealways gets up very early in order that she might not miss the first bus. 18. Stay here until she comes back. 19. I thought that the film began at 8 o’clock. 20. That text is not only too long but also too difficult and full of new words. 21.1 like him because he’s an honest person. 22. My friend was born in Canada, so she speaks English very well. 23.That needs no explanation since it is self-evident. 24. There were not so many people at the concert as the organizers expected. 25. Will you tell me whether you are ready with the task or not?
2. Insert conjunctions where possible and define their meaning.
1. The village is about seven ... eight kilometres from here. 2. Ann studies well ... Nick doesn’t. 3. He refused to do it ... he was very busy. 4. I’ll speak to her ... she comes. 5. He had ... come ... he fell ill. 6. He walked very quickly ... he was in a great hurry. 7. Mother ... Father were talking in the kitchen. 8. I said ... I should come in the evening. 9.The sun has set, ... it is still light. 10. ... you wish, I will help you. 11. We shall go to the park ... it doesn’t rain.
3. State the morphological composition of the following conjunctions.
As well as, that, and, neither ... nor, while, either... or, as soon as, lest, for, until, before, notwithstanding, although, nor, unless, provided, not only ... but, both ... and, supposing, no sooner... than, as though, as long as.
4. Point out all the coordinating conjunctions and define the group each belongs to.
1. But for a long time we did not see any lights, nor did we see the shore, but rowed steadily in the dark riding with the waves. (Hemingway)
2. Be quick, or it may be too late. (Dickens)
3. ... Mrs. Septimus Small let fall no word, neither did she question June about him. (Galsworthy)
4. The river was not high, so there was no more than a two or three mile current. (Twain)
5. Karl is solid and extremely certain of himself, while Joseph on the other hand, though no less certain of himself, is a good deal less solid. (Saroyan)
6. He could see no one, and he began to believe that either his instinct had deceived him, or else that the shadowing was over. (Greene)
5. Point out all the subordinating conjunctions and say what kind of subordinate clauses they introduce.
1. Early as he was, another man was there before him. (Dreiser)
2. We’re as we’re made. (Maugham)
3. They were all smiling widely at me as I came toward them. (Shaw)
4. Mr. Pancks has come down into the Yard tonight, on purpose that you should hear him. (Dickens)
5. Give me your promise that this shall be done. (Priestley)
6. Whatever I intend to do I’ll do without advice from the outside. (Dreiser)
7. Breakfast was not yet over before the men came to put up the marquee. (Mansfield)
8. As soon as he had gone, I looked at the clock. (Snow)
9. And yet tired though he was after his three long days, Soames dreaded the moment when the car should stop. (Galsworthy)
10. I extinguished my taper, locked my bureau, and left her, since she would not leave me. (Ch. Bronte)
11. Once they reached the open country the car lept forward like a mad thing. (Murdoch)
12. He was a tall fellow with a very wide mouth and prematurely bald in front, so that he appeared to have a colossal forehead. (Priestley)