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Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА

ДОВІДНИК

 

МОРФОЛОГІЯ

 

Словотворення (WORD-BUILDING)

 

В англійській мові існують такі основні способи словотворення:

1) афіксація (додавання до кореня або основи суфіксів і префіксів);

2) зміна наголосу;

3) конверсія (перехід слова з однієї частини мови в іншу без зміни вимови й написання);

4) складання слів або їхніх основ.

 

Утворення слів за допомогою суфіксів і префіксів

Утворення іменників

 

Найважливіші суфікси, за допомогою яких утворюються іменники:

а) від дієслів:

 

r

to work

працювати

worker

робітник

 

to teach

учити

teacher

учитель

 

to mine

добувати руду

miner

гірник, шахтар

r

to invent

винаходити

inventor

винахідник

 

to construct

конструювати

constructor

конструктор

 

to sail

пливти

sailor

моряк

-ant

to assist

допомагати

assistant

помічник

 

to serve

служити

servant

слуга

-ment

to move

рухати(ся)

movement

рух

 

to develop

розвивати(ся)

development

розвиток

 

to encourage

заохочувати

encouragement

заохочення

-ing

to go

йти, ходити

going

ходіння

 

to sleep

спати

sleeping

спання

 

to read

читати

reading

читання

-tion

to produce

виробляти

production

продукція

-ation

to organize

організовувати

organization

організація

 

to mobilize

мобілізувати

mobilization

мобілізація

 

б) від прикметників:

 

-ness

dark

темний

darkness

темнота

 

happy

щасливий

happiness

щастя

-ism

material

матеріальний

materialism

матеріалізм

 

Утворення прикметників

 

а) від дієслів:

 

-able

to read

читати

readable

такий, що легко читається

 

to move

рухати(ся)

movable

такий, що легко рухається

-ent

to differ

відрізняти(ся)

different

різний

 

to insist

наполягати

insistent

наполегливий

-ive

to act

діяти

active

активний

 

to compare

порівнювати

comparative

порівняльний

 

to express

виражати

expressive

виразний

 

б) від іменників:

 

l

centre

центр

central

центральний

 

nation

нація

national

національний

-ful

peace

мир

peaceful

мирний

 

fruit

плід, фрукт

fruitful

плідний

 

beauty

краса

beautiful

красивий

-ous

glory

слава

glorious

славетний

 

danger

небезпека

dangerous

небезпечний

fog

туман

foggy

туманний

 

wind

вітер

windy

вітряний

 

rain

дощ

rainy

дощовий

 

sun

сонце

sunny

сонячний

-less

home

дім

homeless

бездомний

 

fruit

плід, фрукт

fruitless

неплідний, марний

 

use

користь

useless

некорисний

-lу

day

день

daily

щоденний

 

friend

друг

friendly

дружній

 

Утворення дієслів

 

Дієслова утворюються від прикметників та іменників за допомогою таких суфіксів:

 

n

black

чорний

blacken

чорнити

 

weak

слабкий

weaken

послаблювати

 

strength

сила

strengthen

підсилювати(ся)

 

length

довжина

lengthen

подовжувати

-fy

simple

простий

simplify

спрощувати

 

intense

сильний

intensify

посилювати

-ize

national

національний

nationalize

націоналізувати

-ise

character

характер

characterize

характери зувати

 

collective

колектив

collectivis(z)e

колективізувати

 

Утворення прислівників

 

Найпоширенішим суфіксом у прислівниках є суфікс -lу:

 

practical

практичний

practically

практично

probable

ймовірний

probably

ймовірно

happy

щасливий

happily

щасливо

 

Найбільш уживані префікси

 

Префікси із заперечним значенням:

 

un-

equal

рівний

unequal

нерівний

 

grateful

вдячний

ungrateful

невдячний

 

important

значний

unimportant

незначний

in-

complete

повний

incomplete

неповний

 

attentive

уважний

inattentive

неуважний

 

active

активний

inactive

пасивний

dis-

to like

любити, подобатись

to dislike

не любити, не подобатись

 

to obey

слухатися

to disobey

не слухатись

 

ability

здатність

disability

неспроможністі

im-

possible

можливий

impossible

неможливий

mis-

to understand

розуміти

to misunerdstand

неправильно розуміти

 

Інші префікси:

 

re-

to write

писати

to rewrite

переписувати

 

to elect

вибирати

to re-elect

переобирати

pre-

historic

історичний

prehistoric

доісторичний

 

war

воєнний

pre-war

довоєнний

over-

to pay

платити

to overpay

переплачувати

 

to value

оцінювати

to overvalue

переоцінювати

 

Утворення слів зміною наголосу

 

Нові значення слів і приналежність до частин мови реалізуються за допомогою зміни наголосу:

 

Noun

Verb

conduct [’k ondəkt] поведінка

to conduct [kən'dΛkt] вести, керувати

export [‘eksp:t] вивіз

to export [eks'p:t] вивозити

conflict [‘knflikt] конфлікт

to conflict [kən’flikt] суперечити

perfect [‘pə:fiktl] досконалий

to perfect [pə'fektl] удосконалювати

present [preznt] подарунок

to present [pri’zent] дарувати

Але:

 

control [kən’troul] перевірка

to control [kən’troul] перевіряти

 

Утворення слів за допомогою конверсії

 

Спосіб конверсії в англійській мові дуже продуктивний:

 

work n

праця

work v

працювати

place n

місце

place v

вміщати, класти

aim n

мета, ціль

aim v

прагнути, цілити(ся)

change n

зміна

change v

змінювати

 

Утворення слів складанням слів або їхніх основ

 

Деякі слова утворюються складанням двох слів або їхніх основ в одне.

 

 

 

іменник + іменник:

bedroom

спальня

(bed ліжко + room кімната)

newspaper

газета

(news новини + paper папір)

schoolboy

школяр

(school школа + boy хлопець)

 

 

прикметник + іменник:

blackboard

класна дошка

(black чорний + board дошка)

highroad

магістраль

(high головний + road шлях)

Englishman

англієць

(English англійський + man людина, чоловік)

 

 

дієслово + іменник:

standpoint

точка зору, погляд

(to stand стояти + point точка

clasp-knife

складний ніж

(to clasp затискувати + knife ніж)

 

TASKS

 

1. Read the sentences, find the words with prefixes and guess their meaning.

1. I am afraid you misunderstood what I said. 2. He can displease everyone. 3. People always misspell her name. 4. He was happy to find an unused copy of the book in a second-hand book-shop. 5. The pupil had to recopy the exercise because he had made too many mistakes. 6. He was uninterested in the work he had to do. 7. It is incorrect to say that he had no talent. 8. It is absolutely unnecessary to come here again, you may phone, our number is 7-13-50.

 

2. Read the sentences, find the words with suffixes and guess their meaning.

1. It happened because of his carelessness. 2. Our journey was quite uneventful. 3. She wore a fashionable long evening dress with an open neck. 4. We found it very difficult to walk on the stony road and preferred to stay on the grass as much as possible. 5. The machine was modernized and worked very well. 6. One of our tasks is to electrify the whole country. 7. The production of our car industry can be seen in many countries. 8. The achievements of our scientists and engineers are well-known everywhere.

 

3. Read the words and mark the suffixes.

Inhabitant, entrance, nationality, appearance, electricity, difference, possibility, president, importance, difficulty, conference, solidarity, formality, correspondent, attendance, independence, ability, simplicity, servant, presence, productivity.

 

4. Read the words and say what suffixes or prefixes they have and what part of speech they are.

Friendship, attention, bravely, business, successful, television, incorrect, illness, re-enter, unusual, eighth, driver, examination, fifty, leader, reborn, nineteen, inconvenient, rejoin, fishy, government, fatherless, glassy, enjoyable.

 

5. Read the words and say what suffixes or prefixes they have and what part of speech they are.

Leadership, exclamation, feeling, hurtful, healthy, treatment, keeper, dependable, inclusion, needless, sickness, re-examine, prescription, youthful, re-export, supposition, unhurt, millionth, examiner, unnecessary.

 

6. Read the sentences, find the words with suffixes and guess their meaning.

1. You can always find time for your correspondence. 2. I think we shall need your assistance to do this work in time. 3. Nobody in the big hall noticed her absence from the concert. 4. I can get seats in the stalls or in the circle; let me know if you have any preference.

 

7. Read the words and give their meaning.

Book-shop, shop-girl, airship, statesman, clock-face, cowboy, chairman, dance-music, clubman, daylight, forget-me-not, coffee-cup, market-day, dressmaker, far-seeing, good-looking, Frenchman, half-moon, party- man, table-spoon, watch-pocket, table-leg.

 

8. Read the words and give their meaning.

Dinner-time, egg-cup, to overwork, drinking-water, fireman, half-price, home-made, life-boat, horse- doctor, hat-box, paper money, snow-white, motor-boat, rain-water, newsboy, season ticket, ski jump, sunrise, over-happy, night work, sea captain, railwayman, meeting-place, well-known, white-hot.

 

9. Read the words and mark the suffixes and prefixes.

Requirement, enthusiastically, recall, preparation, personal, independent, physicist, examination, agronomist, educational, operator, professional, economist, agricultural, construction, satisfaction, exactly, communication, practically, satisfy.

 

10. Read the words and guess their meaning.

Considerable, additionally, argument, militarism, lucky, dissatisfy, wideness, reconsider, talentless, tasteful, naturalist, experimentation, directorship, unimportance, materialistic, luckless, exactness, reproduce, nobleness, tasty.

 

11. Read the words and mark the suffixes.

A. To separate, to educate, to mechanize, to illustrate, to specialize, to graduate, to modernize.

B. Decoration, organization, discrimination, nationalization, liberation, education, illumination, demonstration, population, electrification.

 

12. Read the words and guess their meaning.

Symbolize, invitation, satirist, realism, classify, civilization, criticize, conservatism, liberalism, physicist, criticism.

 

13. Read the words, say what suffixes and prefixes they have and what part of speech they are.

Organization, lightness, youthful, buyer, unchangeable, reform, movement, soloist, discussion, eventful, carelessness, championship, fishy, ninety, enjoyment, painless, fourth, speechless, humanism, certainly.

 

14. Read these words and say what part of speech they are.

Readiness, formation, dutiful, reformism, reorganization, operator, friendliness, government, soulless, unused, steppe, useful, patriotically, botanist, photographer, unbreakable, unlikely, unnecessarily, controllable.

 

15. Read sentences, find out the words with suffixes and prefixes and guess their meaning.

1. She has always been inactive in her studies. 2. This metal is famous for its lightness. 3. Some people find this book unreadable. 4. He made all his mistakes because of his carelessness. 5. When 1 spoke to him, he gave a glassy look and had a fishy expression on his face. 6. Can you simplify this problem for me? 7. He showed that he was uninterested in his work. 8. The weather there is so changeable that you never know what to put on when you go out.

 

16. Read the words and pick out the suffixes.

Humorous, collective, straighten, mountainous, blacken, famous, effective, worsen, victorious, comparative, thicken, negative.

 

17. Read the words and mark the suffixes and prefixes.

Historical, political, continental, economic, electric, dramatic; to misspell, disinterested, to misplace, to misunderstand, to displace, to mislay, to misinform.

 

18. Read the words and guess their meaning.

To disbelieve, to disjoin, misdoing, to misname, to dislike, to misread, disorder, to displease, to disuse, to mis-spend, to mislead, to discover, to miscount.

 

19. Read the unknown words, say what part of speech they are and give their meaning.

Operator, unimportance, harmoniously, specialist, majority, unemployment, nationality, representative, accordance, initiative, disadvantage, strengthen, preference, misinterpret, independent, re-consider.

 

20. Define what part of speech are the words in bold type.

1. I’m sure you’ll have an enjoyable holiday in Kyiv. 2. During the peaceful years, the Ukrainian people built many towns, factories, works and plants. 3. I like to watch the thousands of lights of the city in the darkness of the night. 4. The weather in this part of the country is changeable, now it is raining, now the sun is shining. 5. We are thankful for all you have done to show us the sights of the old city. 6. It is advisable to go sightseeing with somebody who knows the history of the place. 7. A map is a useful thing in London for a new-comer. 8.Theopera house in Odessa is a beautiful building. 9. She sang a part in the new opera. 10. A number of ballet-dancers went to France to dance on the stage of the Paris opera house. 11. She can dance only modern dances. 12. The music was played by a very good dance orchestra. 13. We shall meet at the entrance to the orchestra stalls. 14. Shows at the theatre start at 7.30. 15. Let me show you the way to the cloak-room.

 

21. Read the sentences, pick out the words with suffixes and give their Ukrainian equivalents.

1. The girl changed very much for the better in the healthful air of the seaside. 2. My brother came home so late that he went to bed supperless. 3. When will you be able to make practical use of your English? 4. Scotland is a very hilly country. 5. The weather has been very changeable this week. 6. His father is a builder, he has built a lot of houses. 7. After the University he got work as a historian at the library. 8. Musical comedies are popular with many theatre-goers. 9. “Can you help me?” said the boy looking at his friend hopefully. 10. They spoke about the greatness of their task.

 

22. Form as many words as you can using the suffixes -ful, -less, -ment, -ness, -(a)tion.

Care, youth, to prescribe, ill, voice, to examine, to treat, heart, to organize, pain, spoon, to celebrate.

 

23. Copy out the words and underline the suffixes and prefixes.

Leadership, healthy, carelessness, to recopy, unnecessary, immediately, voiceless, youthful, treatment, heartless, illness, painful, keeper, operation, to re-examine, dependable.

 

24. Read the words and say what suffixes or prefixes they have and what part of speech they are.

Friendship, attention, bravely, business, successful, television, incorrect, illness, re-enter, unusual, eighth,

driver, examination, fifty, leader, reborn, nineteen, inconvenient, rejoin, fishy, government, fatherless, glassy, enjoyable.

 

25. Read the words and say what suffixes or prefixes they have and what part of speech they are.

Leadership, exclamation, feeling, hurtful, healthy, treatment, keeper, dependable, inclusion, needless, sickness, re-examine, prescription, re-export, supposition, unhurt, millionth, examiner, unnecessary.

 

26. Read the words and say what part of speech they are.

Action, settlement, deeply, considerable, direction, un-English, firmness, valuable, speechless, reappear, skinny, really, hunter, lovely, joyful, position, advancement, softness, hateful, unfruitful, sandy, shapeless, controller, reconsider, condition.

 

27. Read the words and say what elements they consist of.

Airport, booking-office, camp-fire, to get up, goal-keeper, country-side, highland, half-time, sportsman, Scotland, sightseeing, well-known, totake off, time-table, cattle-farm, to go in for, hall-stand, pen-friend, forty-three, workshop, football, looking-glass, hair-brush, bathroom.

 

28. Read these words and say what part of speech they are.

Readiness, formation, dutiful, reformism, reorganization, operator, friendliness, government, soulless, unused, steeply, useful, patriotically, botanist, photographer, unbreakable, unlikely, finalist, unnecessarily, controllable.

 

29. State what part of speech the words in bold type belong to.

1. Light moves quickest of all. My room is large and light. To light a cigarette one must have a match. 2. They are as like as two peas. My new coat cost me something like 180 hryvnias. Did you ever see the like of that? Children don’t like to go to bed early. 3. The earth is round. The doctor begins his round early in the morning. The pebbles of the sea are rounded by the water. Go straight, don’t look round! I should like to travel round the world. 4. One can’t iron the linen with a cold iron. Iron goods are made at iron-works. 5. Paper is used for writing. The ceiling must be whitewashed and the walls papered. 6. Whom did you address? What’s his address? 7. Our students work much. She is greatly interested in her scientific work. 8. We buy pens and pencils atthe stationer’s shop. One must be an experienced writer to pen such an important letter well.

 

30. Define the part of speech the boldfaced words belong to.

1. The only thing is to cut the knot for good. (Galsworthy)

2. I have only just come. I have not seen him yet. (Shaw)

3. Carrie said nothing, but bent over her work. (Dreiser)

4. It seemed to him that life was hollow, and existence but a burden. (Twain)

5. You never talk anything but nonsense. (Wilde)

6. Look round this room. (Dickens)

7. They were only five at a round table, and it was very pleasant indeed. (Dickens)

8. I have just returned from my round of medical visits... (Collins)

9. At that moment the woman at the fire turned round. (Mansfield)

10. Columbus intended to round Africa and thus find a waterway to India.

11. He steeled himself with that phrase, and tiptoed on; but the next door was harder to pass. (Galsworthy)

12. His tone was different from that of his friends. (Snow)

13. The startling discovery so terrified her that she could hardly repress a sound. (Hardy)

14. He ate all that was placed before him... (Dickens)

15. Once we got inside the dressing-room, Jack lay down and shut his eyes. (Hemingway)

16. And life, unfortunately, is something that you can lead but once. (Maugham)

17. For your suggestion alone I could have you court-martialed. (Heym)

18. He could not go on living here alone. (Galsworthy)









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