Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА

ДОВІДНИК

 

СИНТАКСИС

 

Речення (THE SENTENCE)

 

Речення — інтонаційно оформлена група слів (або окреме слово), яка (яке) виражає закінчену думку:

She studies at the Pedagogical Institute.

Beautiful! Rain? Go on!

Речення у більшості випадків складається з головних (підмет, присудок) і другорядних (додаток, обставина, означення) членів речення.

Залежно від мети висловлювання речення поділяються на:

 

1) Розповідні (Declarative Sentences):

There are many long rivers in Ukraine.

 

2) Питальні (Interrogative Sentences):

Does your brother study at the university?

Do many scientists take part in atomic research work?

Have they seen the film “The Titanic ”?

Are you a student or a pupil?

Can Nadya speak French ?

 

3) Наказові (Imperative Sentences):

Don’t talk!

Stop laughing!

Come to the blackboard!

Open the windows during the interval, please!

Tell us all about the life and struggle of Indians for their democratic rights and freedoms, please.

 

4) Окличні (Exclamatory Sentences):

What fine weather we are having these days!

How beautifully he recites John Keats’ poems!

What interesting places we could see in Kyiv!

How pleasant it is to look at the stormy sea!

Залежно від структури речення поділяються на прості і складні.

 

Прості (Simple Sentences) можуть бути:

а) непоширені (tne Unextended Sentences), тобто такі, що мають тільки головні члени речення:

Petrenko is an engineer.

The children study.

It is raining.

б) поширені (Extended Sentences), тобто такі, що мають, крім головних членів речення, другорядні члени речення:

Ivanenko is a very good engineer.

The children study many subjects.

Spring has come earlier this year.

 

Складні речення (Composite Sentences) можуть бути складносурядними (Compound Sentences) і складнопідрядними(Complex Sentences):

а) складносурядні — це такі речення, в яких прості речення сполучаються між собою як рівноправні, незалежні одне від одного:

Now ту sister studies at an institute and I work at a plant.

I did not expect to see him again, but yesterday I saw him in our town.

б) складнопідрядні — це такі речення, в яких одне речення залежить від іншого і пояснює його:

I read many books when I had my holiday.

We did not know that the winter would be so cold.

The lecturer spoke so fast that we could not understand him well.

At the theatre I met some friends who also wanted to see that play.

 

TASKS

The sentence

 

1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.

1. Charles Dickens was born at Landport, Portsmouth. 2. She doesn’t work. 3. Do you like sport? 4. What dreadful weather it is! 5. She could not help laughing. 6. Where were you yesterday? At the theatre. 7. He is an engineer. 8. Flowers smell. 9. Spring! 10. How wonderful! 11. What a lovely day we are having! 12. Come to the blackboard! 13.You speak German, don’t you? 14. Stop talking! 15. Open the window, please! 16. Beautiful! 17. Do come to see me tomorrow! 18. Do you live in avillage? 19. Who lives in this room? 20. Ukrainian is my native language.

 

2. Point out one-member and two-member sentences. Say if they are extended or unextended. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. Ben closed his eyes to think clearly for a moment. (Aldridge). 2. “Two cups of coffee, please,’’...young Flynn timidly ordered. ...“What else do you want?”—“Jam turnover”, replied the child. (Coppard). 3.Why are you standing here? Because of the rain. 4. Freedom! Bells ringing out, flowers, kisses, wine. (Heym). 5. No! To have his admiration, his friendship, but not at that price. (Galsworthy). 6. She is a doctor. 7. Birds fly. 8. Frosty! 9. Is she at home? Naturally. She’s asleep. 10. What was she doing? Reading.

 

3. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.

Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by, “Is this Mrs. Scott’s house?” and the woman, smiling queerly, said, “It is, my lass”. Oh, to be away from this! She actually said, “Help me God!” as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in anything, one of those women’s shawls even! I’ll just leave thebasket and go, she decided. I shan’t even wait for it to be emptied.

Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom.

Laura said, “Are you Mrs. Scott?” But to her horror the woman answered, “Walk in, please, miss,” and she was shut in the passage. “No,” said Laura, “I don’t want to come in. I only want to leave this basket.” The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. “Step this way, please, miss,” she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her,

 

4. Translate the following compound sentences.

1. He wanted to say something, but changed his mind and kept silent. 2. She came home early, but her brother remained to the end of the concert. 3. The sun was shining brightly, the wind was not blowing. 4. I’ll tell you about this country or my elder sister will do it. 5. I never take the medicine and my friend doesn’t take it either. 6. My aunt never goes to football matches while my uncle goes to the stadium every Sunday. 7. I am going to hear this concert, so is my sister. 8. Bananas don’t grow in the North, neither do pine-apples. 9. You never make spelling mistakes, and my friend never does it either. 10. She spoke in a low voice otherwise the patient could be disturbed. 11. That day the sea was stormy, and the people didn’t bathe. 12. You must study well, otherwise your teachers would think you are lazy. 13. The mother was sleeping, while the father was working in the yard. 14. They were close friends, so their conversation was easy and happy. 15. Either you believe me or I can’t help you. 16. She became a prominent actress whereas her brother worked at the family farm. 17. I wasn’t hungry, yet I asked for some food.

 

Kinds of questions

 

1. Define the types of questions.

1. Do you spend your free time in the open air? 2. She often visits you at home, doesn’t she? 3. Is English spoken by many people in theworld? 4. Are you a student or a worker? 5. Won’t you sit down? 6.1s the poem “The Cloud” written by Shelley or by Byron? 7. Do you really keep adiary? 8. There is a kitchen-garden behind this house, isn’t there? 9. Who gave you this magazine? 10. Where is the copy-book?

 

2. Make up sentences of different types (declarative, imperative, exclamatory, all kinds of interrogative sentences) using the given words.

1. the, did, the, or, Anglo-Saxons, win, the, of, battle, Hastings, Normans?

2. weather, how, the, beautiful, is, calm, in, sea!

3. sea, far, London, from, is, the?

4. of, have, the, map, a, at, look, England.

5. be seen, England’s, the, may, cliffs, mainland, white, from.

6. is, a, landscape, this, picturesque, what!

7. survives, the, in, Celt, language, of, some, Scotland, parts, and, Ireland.

 

3. Ask questions to which the parts of the sentences or the whole of the sentences given in bold type are the answers.

1. The guide met the tourists at the station.

2. They’ll have been learning English and German for five months by the first of August.

3. There is a gigantic electric power station not far from our place.

4. The first settlers in Britain belonged to the Celtic tribes.

5. Man has fished from earliest times.

6. Windsor is a typically English town.

7. It is impossible to live anywhere in Britain far from the sea.

8. There are numerous kinds of strange seaweeds in the sea.

9. In the neighbourhood of London many excursions can be held.

 

4. Change the following declarative sentences into disjunctive questions.

Model: He is very fond of reading.

He is very fond of reading, isn’t he?

1. There was never any talk about it. 2. She bought a new hat. 3.They live not far from my house. 4. I gave her a nice present yesterday. 5. He couldn’t recollect your address. 6. They weren’t interested in it. 7. This photo was taken long ago.

 

5. Change imperatives into more polite requests by adding ’’will (you)“ or ’’shall (we)“.

Model: Wait a minute! Wait a minute, will you?

Let’s do it at once! Let’s do it at once, shall we?

1. Shut the window! 2. Let’s buy this nice dress! 3. Drop these letters in the nearest pillar-box! 4. Let’s have a break! 5. Help me with my work! 6. Stop talking! 7. Put the bag on the shelf!

 

6. Define the type of question.

1. What is the meaning of that? She is going to live in the house, isn’t she? (Galsworthy).

2. Is literature less human than the architecture and sculpture of Egypt? (London).

3. You have Mr. Eden’s address, haven’t you, Mr. Ends? (London).

4. Were you talking about the house? I haven’t seen it yet, you know. Shall we all go on Sunday? (Galsworthy).

5. How will you carry the bill into effect? Can you commit a whole country to their own prisons? (Byron).

6. “Is Mrs. Varden at home?” said Mr. Chester. (Dreiser).

7. “Would you permit me to whisper in your ear, one half a second?” (Dreiser).

8. “But if this fellow tries to escape?” (A. Christie).

9. “They (the jewels) are not yours, are they?” returned Raeburn. (Stevenson).






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