Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА
Порядок слів в англійському реченні (WORD ORDER IN THE ENGLISH SENTENCE)
У стверджувальному реченні порядок слів такий: підмет, присудок, додаток, обставини. Такий порядок називають прямим. Обставини можуть стояти і на початку речення:
The reunification of the Ukraine with Russia was proclaimed in Pereyaslav (now Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky) in January 1654.
A book teaches us many good things.
Children like outdoor games.
У питальних реченнях порядок слів дещо змінюється. Допоміжні і модальні дієслова ставляться перед підметом. Для утворення питальної форми Present Indefinite і Past Indefinite вживається допоміжне дієслово to do (do, does, did):
Is she playing the piano now?
Will she play the piano tomorrow?
Can he speak English well?
May we go home now?
Does he read German books every evening?
Did they come home at three ?
Could you sleep well?
Запам’ятайте! Якщо в питальному реченні питальні слова who?, what?, which?, whose?, how much?, how many? є підметом або означенням до підмета, порядок слів залишається прямим, а в Present Indefinite і Past Indefinite допоміжне дієслово to do не вживається:
Who makes noise during the lesson?
Who came late for school today?
What troubles you most of all?
Whose children play in this garden ?
How many people saw this film on Sunday?
How much time has passed since he came here?
Which of you studies at this school?
Which of the plays is better?
У заперечних реченнях порядок слів прямий. Заперечна частка not ставиться після допоміжного або модального дієслова:
Не is not (isn’t) writing a letter now.
They cannot (can’t) come here at 4 p. m.
We shall not (shan’t) go there tomorrow.
He does not (doesn’t) play chess.
У непрямих запитаннях порядок слів прямий і допоміжне дієслово to do в Present Indefinite і Past Indefinite не вживається:
Can you tell me when Peter came home?
Tell me whose boy has broken the window.
The principal asked what pupils spoke English well.
ТИПИ ПІДРЯДНИХ РЕЧЕНЬ (TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES)
В англійській мові підрядні речення бувають кількох типів:
а) підметові (Subject Clauses):
Who saved his life remained unknown.
Why he did not come is still a mystery.
б) предикативні (Predicative Clauses):
“Motherland ” is what we call our country.
The question is whether Tom can swim across the river.
That is what I want to ask you.
в) означальні (Attributive Clauses):
The newspaper which you asked me to buy is on your table.
We saw a play which is devoted to the life of this great man.
The person who wanted to see you yesterday is waiting for you in your room.
г) обставинні (Adverbial Clauses).
Підрядні обставинні речення виконують функцію різних обставин головного речення і поділяються на підрядні речення:
— місця (Adverbial Clauses of Place):
We easily landed where we had to stay for a few days.
Go back where you were standing before and wait there, for my further instructions.
You will be welcome wherever you go.
We arrived where we had been told to.
— часу (Adverbial Clauses of Time):
As soon as I get a letter from you I shall write to you about my life here.
We shall have dinner when mother comes home.
I have never seen her since she left Lviv.
The textbook was returned to the library after it had been carefully studied.
— причини (Adverbial Clauses of Cause):
We had to carry our luggage because there were no porters at die station at that time.
Since you are busy now we shall come to see you next time.
He spoke quickly for he had no spare time.
As the day was fine we decided to go to the country.
— мети (Adverbial Clauses of Purpose):
The teacher dictated slowly so that the pupils could write everything correctly.
He drew a plan of the streets in order that his friend could find his house easily.
I sent him a telegram (so) that he might meet me at the station.
— способу дії (Adverbial Clauses of Manner):
He recited his lessons as well as he could.
You must study as your sister does. She is an excellent pupil.
She speaks so as if she were a stranger here.
We are talking now as we used to talk in our boyhood.
— умови (Adverbial Clauses of Condition):
We shall come to see you if the day is fine.
If you write your composition earlier you may go home before the bell rings.
They will not go there unless they are invited officially.
з) наслідку (Adverbial Clauses of Result):
The text was so simple that every pupil could read it and understand well without a dictionary.
The weather changed for the better so much that the plane could start in half an hour.
1. Point out subject clauses and the connectives they are introduced by.
1. That she hasn’t come is strange. 2. Whether my aunt visits us on Sunday is not known yet. 3. When we shall leave for Canada is uncertain. 4. How this happened is a question for me. 5. It is important that she should come in time. 6. It was necessary that the task should be done in an hour. 7. It is surprising that she thinks so.
8. Whatever he thought of her would not go beyond him. (Galsworthy).
9. What you ask is impossible. (Wilde).
10. “What we want is rest,” said Harris. (Jerome K.Jerome).
2. Point out predicative clauses; state by what connectives they are introduced.
1. It’s just what I wanted. 2. The trouble is that I have forgotten tosend her a telegram. 3. The question is whether she will agree to help us. 4. The weather is not what it was yesterday. 5. That is how he did it. 6. That is why I have come here. 7. It seems as if she doesn’t know his relatives.
8. “We are just as we were,” said Adrian, “friends.” (Galsworthy).
9. I had said the name ... It was as though I had taken a purge and rid myself of an intolerable pain. (Du Maurier).
3. Point out object clauses. Translate the sentences into Urainian.
1. And I saw that he was displeased. 2. The girls asked Ann if she wanted them to stay. 3. Father asked mother what she thought of fishing. 4. She began to understand why he had done it. 5. Who told your sister she could stay here so long? 6. She asked me what I thought of it. 7. He has just gone away saying that he will return soon. 8. I’m afraid that they won’t come. 9. We know they have returned from Australia. 10. She laughed at what I said. 11. My teacher asked me where I had spent my summer holidays.
4. Pick out attributive clauses; point out the words the clauses refer to. Translate into Ukrainian.
1. Baseball is a family for those who care about it ... (Angell).
2. A candle faintly burned in the window, to which the black ladder had often been raised for the sliding away of all that was most precious in this world to a striving wife and a brood of hungry babies; ... (Dickens).
3. The wind was blowing again, the rain was beating on the housetops, and the larger spaces through which he had strayed contracted to the four walls of his room. (Dickens).
4. With her woful eyes, so haggard and wild, so heavy and large, she looked all round the room, and
passed the corner where he slept in his chair. (Dickens).
5. She sat there a minute longer looking at the dead man, the third man who had threatened to cross
her path and separate her from the man she loved. (A. Christie).
6. The lady I mean is tall and fair with reddish gold hair ... (A. Christie).
7. It’s a miracle we’ve any of us survived, it seems to me. (S.K.Hocking).
8. She has an opportunity which is offered to very few of us. (Maugham).
9. That was the knife he had had no time to use. (Aldridge).
5. Complete the following sentences supplying attributive clauses.
1. He bought a collection of coins in the shop... 2. I’ll never forget the day... 3. I don’t know the girl... 4. A person ... must be very attentive. 5. The teacher ... will gladly help you.
6. Insert appositive clauses using the conjunctions that, whether or the adverbs how, why.
1. I don’t like the idea ...
2. Their proposal ... cannot be realized.
3. I’ve got rid of the horrible fear ...
4. The news ... cheered us greatly.
5. His illness was the reason ...
6. The question ... seemed very important.
7. He expressed his doubt ...
7. Define the kinds of adverbial clauses. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. As 1 was going to the theatre, I met a friend of mine. 2. The moment I saw him I understood that something was wrong. 3.1 like to spend my summer holidays where I can meet new friends and see new places. 4. You should study as your sister does. 5. She spoke as if she knew something else. 6. The young man played the violin so well that everybody admired him. 7. She went to the sea early so that she could see how the sun rises. 8. She told me her address so that I might be able to find her place easily. 9. The man is older than he looks. 10. Don’t change your mind whatever happens. 11. Though it was only seven o’clock, there were a lot of people in the street. 12. You may take my magazine so long as you don’t keep it too long. 13. He ran so fast that he managed to catch the train. 14. She walked quickly for she was in a hurry. 15. I’ll come to you next week because I have little time now. 16. Speak louder so that everybody may hear you well. 17. She gave me the key that I might open the door. 18. We were still talking when our teacher entered the hall. 19. He listened until I had finished. 20. They crossed the river where an old mill stood. 21. The little girl ran to where her mother was sitting and began to tell her something. 22. I only wish I could speak Spanish as well as you speak English. 23.1 had good opera-glasses so that I could see everything on the stage quite well. 24. It was just a little bit cold out-of-doors, though it was lovely and sunny. 25. If you go there tomorrow, you will see much interesting.
8. Insert the appropriate conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses of time.
1. Send me a telegram ... you come.
2. ... he said it he felt it was wrong.
3. It had happened ... the experiment was completed.
4. Make hay ... the sun is shining.
5. I’ll be glad to see ... you come.
6. ... had I knocked at the door ... it swung open.
7. Stay here ... you can.
8. ... the sky began to clear up, the air grew cooler.
9. ... had I opened the gate ... the dogs began to bark.
10. I was standing on the shore ... the ship was lost sight of.
9. Define the kinds of the clauses introduced by where and when. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
A. 1. Let us meet where we used to walk in summer.
2. I like the country place where we lived last year.
3. It is of importance where they will spend their vacation.
4. I wondered where they intended to go.
5. The question is where they are going to meet.
B. 1. Do you know the time when she will come?
2. Everybody was glad when he came at last.
3. I have no idea when she will return.
4. It’s very important when we must start.
5. The difficulty is when we shall be able to help you.
10. Complete the following sentences.
1. Don’t you know where ... 2. Where ... is of no importance. 3.1thappened where ... 4. The problem to settle is where ... 5. She doesn’t know where ... 6. No plant can grow where ... 7. The day when ... was the happiest in my life. 8. Nobody has an idea when ... 9.1’minterested to know when ... 10. When ... is not settled yet. 11 .Thehour when ... has not been changed. 12. Don’t you remember when ... ? 13. I shall never forget the moment when ... 14. Where ... isn’t known to a single person. 15. They are quite happy where ...
11. Complete the sentences supplying the principal clause in each of them.
1. Young as she is ...
2. As they were going to the cinema ...
3. As a lot of people have a liking for this health resort ...
4. ... as you usually do.
5. As the rain was hard ...
6. Early as it was ...
7. ... as he asked me.
12. Supply adverbial clauses of time, manner, cause, comparison, concession or an attributive clause introduced by as.
1. He held the oars ... 2. ... the sailing-boat was moving rather slowly. 3. ... the passengers began to wave their hands greeting their friends. 4. He likes tennis almost as much ... 5. ... he could not move the boat against the current. 6. To steer a canoe you must have such an oar ...
13. Complete the following sentences so that they should contain a subordinate clause introduced by that (so that). Give similar examples of your own.
a) Subject clause
It is necessary that ...
It is obligatory that ...
It is of great importance that ...
b) Object clause
I hear that ...
I know for sure that ...
Everybody knows that ...
c) Attributive relative clause
Of all his novels I like the one that ...
Where is the cat that ...
d) Appositive attributive clause
He expressed the hope that ...
I don’t like the idea that ...
e) Adverbial clause of purpose
She did it that ...
Let them know about it that ...
f) Adverbial clause of degree
It was so oppressively hot that ...
The truth was so awful that ...
g) Adverbial clause of result
There has been a heavy7 fall of snow, so that ...
She sat behind me, so that ...
14. Complete the following sentences supplying adverbial clauses of;
1. Their house stands where ... 2. Fetch it from where ... 3. I’d like to speak with you wherever ...
1. I haven’t seen her since ... 2. I’ll do it while ... 3. Send me a telegram as soon as ... 4. I’ll let you know when ... 5. You can sit here as long as ... 6. They went on cleaning the flat until ... 7.The moment ... they rushed upstairs.
1. I can’t go there because ... 2. Since ... I’ll not speak about it. 3. As ... it is difficult to find him at home. 4. Seeing that ... she rang him up. 5. She is very suspicious for fear that ....
1. We left the house early in the morning in order that ... . 2. Put your warm scarf lest ... . 3. Wrap it up that ... . 4. Tell her all the truth so that ....
1. If ... I shall come here once more. 2. She will certainly be there at 3 o’clock provided ... . 3. What will you tell her supposing .... 4. You won’t have my book unless .... 5. I promise you to do it on condition ....
1. Though ... the patient felt better. 2. Whoever ... you must see her again. 3.Tired as ... she continued her work.
g) result or degree
1. The air was so fresh that.... 2. The rain was so hard that.... 3.The water overflowed the banks, so that... .
1. She looked tired as if ... . 2. It was not so cold as ... . 3. The flower was so beautiful as ... . 4. She remembered every corner in her house as though ... .
15. Point out the adverbial clauses of condition and concession; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced.
1. I am devoted to Maxim ... though we always bicker like cat and dog when we meet. (Du Maurier).
2. Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. (Joyce).
3. What happens to the fifth wheel doesn’t matter so long as the car runs. (Galsworthy).
4. Although she said nothing I felt guilty... (Du Maurier).
5. You gave her the wounds she died of. There is the truth for your comfort, however you like it. (Dickens).
6. And he followed her out of the door, whatever his feelings might be. (Lawrence).
7. I could work faster if your irons were only hotter. (London).
8. She was not looking at him, but she seemed to be listening, as though perhaps she was impressed not so much by what he was saying as by the simple, anxious tone of his voice. (Bates).
16. Point out adverbial clauses of cause and purpose; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced.
1. Then I told her to hush, and not stir, for fear she should make him angry. (Bronte).
2. I called him Frank because Maxim did. (Du Maurier).
3. Ї informed myself of the hour at which she left of an evening, in order that our visit might be timed accordingly. (Dickens).
4. He felt tightened up inside himself, tense and yet unsteady because he liked her. (Bates).
5. And you will find that it is scarcely less of a shock for you because you saw what you expected to see. (Murdoch).
6. As I had no taste for this particular discussion, and also wanted to get off the subject of my dear brother, I said, “What will you be doing on Christmas Day?” (Murdoch).
17. Complete the following sentences.
1. The more rain falls, the better ...
2. The longer one lives, the more ...
3. The brighter the sun shines, the better ...
4. The longer you wait, the slower ...
5. The harder one works, the better ...
6. The more you know about him, the less ...
7. The more questions a child asks, the more ...
18. Define the kinds of clauses introduced by since and while.
1. While he was speaking, Joseph returned bearing a basin of milk-porridge, and placed it before Linton. (Bronte).
2. He had a glass eye, which remained stationary while the other eye looked at Reinhardt. (Heym).
3. While he was standing there, a telegram was brought him. (Galsworthy).
4. There was a moment’s pause while he introduced her, and then they were off. (Dreiser).
5. I wanted to see you, since you wanted to see me. (Murdoch).