Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА
Умовні речення (CONDITIONAL SENTENCES)
У складнопідрядному реченні з підрядними умови підрядне речення виражає умову, від якої залежить дія головного речення. Підрядне умовне речення, як правило, приєднується до головного сполучником if.
В англійській мові є три основні типи підрядних умовних речень.
1) Підрядні умовні речення І типу виражають реальні, здійсненні умови щодо теперішнього або майбутнього часу.
У підрядних умовних реченнях І типу після сполучника if вживається Present Indefinite, а в головному реченні —Future Indefinite або наказовий спосіб:
If the weather is fine, we shall go to the forest. (Якщо погода буде гарною, ми підемо в ліс.)
If she comes, ask her to wait for me. (Якщо вона прийде, попроси її почекати на мене.)
Підрядні умовні речення, в яких після if вживається will (would), виражають ввічливе прохання:
I shall be very glad if you will answer my letter immediately. (Я буду дуже радий, якщо ти відповіси на мій лист одразу ж.)
2) Підрядні умовні речення II типу виражають малоймовірні, нереальні умови щодо теперішнього або майбутнього часу.
У підрядних реченнях II типу вживається Past Indefinite, авголовному — Future Indefinite-in-the Past:
If I had time today, I should go to the theatre. (Якби я мав час сьогодні, я пішов би в театр.)
If she knew English better, she would read English books in the original. (Якби вона знала англійську мову краще, вона читала б англійські книжки в оригіналі.)
Дієслово to be у підрядному умовному реченні II типу має форму were для всіх осіб однини й множини:
If I were you, I should study better. (Якби я був тобою, я вчився б краще.)
3) Підрядні речення III типу виражають нереальні умови щодо минулого часу.
У підрядних умовних реченнях III типу вживається Past Perfect, а в головному реченні — Future Perfect-in-the Past:
If I had seen him yesterday, I should have told you the news. (Якби я бачив тебе вчора, я розповів би тобі цю новину.)
If it hadn’t rained last Sunday, they would have gone to the forest. (Якби не йшов дощ минулої неділі, вони пішли б у ліс.)
У головному реченні замість допоміжних дієслів можуть вживатись модальні дієслова:
If she read more, she could speak English better. (II тип) (Якби вона читала більше, вона могла б говорити англійською мовою краще.)
If і had had time yesterday, I might have visited you. (III тип) (Якби я мав час учора, я зміг би відвідати тебе.)
1. Translate into Ukrainian.
1. If she has time, she will come to you. 2. If the weather is fine tomorrow, she will go for a walk to the park. 3. If we study well, we shall enter the Institute. 4. If you work hard, you will pass your examinations successfully. 5. If the rain stops, the girls will play in the yard. 6. I shall go to the library if I need a new interesting book to read.
2. Answer the questions.
1. What would you do if you got lost in the forest? 2. What will you say if your mother sees you playing in the yard late in the evening? 3. What would you have thought if you had seen your friend in a winter coat in such hot weather? 4. What would you have become if you had gone to a professional school?
3. Read the sentences and say if they show real or unreal conditions.
1. If it were winter, we should go skiing. 2. If you enter the Pedagogical Institute, you will become a teacher. 3. If she had had more knowledge, she would have had more chances to enter the university. 4. You might choose something interesting if you had better taste. 5. If you have a headache and your nose is running, I shall call a doctor.
4. Complete the sentences.
Model: He wouldn’t fail the exam if he ...
He wouldn’t fail the exam if he paid more attention to his lessons.
1. If you see Alec ... 2. If he had had more practical experience, the work ... 3.They would have prepared for the examination better if... 4. We should play the game in the open air if... 5. We want to meet tomorrow evening if... 6. I should be very glad if... 7. If you had gone to the stadium, ... 8. We should have organized the competition better if ... 9. The patient would have been better if... 10. If we leave right now, we ... .
5. Translate into Ukrainian.
1. If I went to London, I should visit the British museum. 2. If you see your aunt give her my best wishes. 3. Take your umbrella if it rains. 4. If she went to the concert of modern music, she would enjoy it very much. 5. We might visit the exhibition if it weren’t so late. 6. We shouldn’t have caught the train if we had left the house ten minutes later. 7. The patient would be better if he took the medicine the doctor had prescribed. 8. If my mother is shopping, she will be back in an hour or so. 9. If my sister comes earlier than we, she will prepare dinner. 10. If it rained these days, the harvest of potatoes would be better. 11. If the weather is rainy tomorrow, we shall stay at home. 12. If it didn’t rain in autumn, I should see some more places of interest. 13. She wouldn’t have forgotten to take her exercise-book if she had put it into her bag yesterday. 14. I should be very happy if you could get tickets for a performance of the Variety Theatre.
6. Finish the following sentences.
I shall go shopping if ...
We shall spend two days in the country if...
He will show you his stamps if ...
I shall introduce you to my friends if...
You will enjoy the concert if ...
We shall go sightseeing if ...
I should buy books on sports if ...
My friend would ring me up if ...
He would stay longer if ...
My mother would not leave the door open if...
They would not come so late if...
I should meet you at the station if ...
I should have bought something different if...
We should have organized an exhibition if...
I shouldn’t have had meat for dinner if ...
I should have got up earlier if ...
He would have taken a bus if ...
I should have brought my friends to the stadium if ...
If you devote all your time to studying foreign languages ...
If I were you ...
If he had taken the medicine ...
If you see him ...
If you told me about it earlier ...
If I had trained more ...
7. Answer the following questions as in the examples below.
1. If the weather is fine on Saturday, will you go down to the country?
— Yes, I’ll go down to the country if the weather is fine on Saturday.
2. If it rains this afternoon, will you go up to town?
— No, I won’t (shan’t) go up to town if it rains this afternoon.
1. As soon as you finish this book, will you read another one? 2. Will you have dinner as soon as you come home from school? 3. If it snows tomorrow, will you go skiing? 4. If you have time, will you come over and see us tonight? 5. If it is pretty warm tomorrow, will you wear your overcoat? 6. As soon as the classes are over, will you go to the lab? 7. When the term is over in June, will you go to a rest camp? 8. When the term is over in June, will you stay in town? 9. When the classes are over today, will you go to the pictures? 10. As soon as the bell goes, will you go to the canteen? 11. When the bell goes, will you stay in the classroom? 12. If it rains heavily tomorrow, will you go for a walk? 13. If the weather is nasty this afternoon, will you stay in? 14.As soon as you finish this book, will you give it to me to read? 15. When you are through with your assignment today, will you have agame of chess with your friend? 16. When you leave school, will you go up to the University?
8. Translate into Ukrainian.
1. If you were in my place, Betteredge, tell me in one word, what would you do? (Collins).
2. “Go,” he said, “would you be very disappointed if we didn’t get one of these houses?” (Carter).
3. The tray was kept from tumbling down by a bible; and the tray, if it had tumbled down, would have smashed a quantity of cups and saucers and a tea-pot that were grouped around the book. (Dickens).
4. If I were a masterless and stray dog, I know that you would not turn me from your heart to-night... (Bronte).
5. She thought of her father. And clearly she realized that even if he had said it was wrong she wouldn’t have believed it. Lanny’s not like the others. He’s different. (Abrahams).
6. “I won’t have him here,” she was saying to Jack Burton now, “and I’ll tell him so to his face if you bring him”... (Aldridge).
7. I should love you if they sent you to jail for twenty years. (Carter).
8. If you had looked at me you would have loved me, and the mystery of love is greater than the mystery of death. (Wilde).
9. And if I were in your place I should dislike her; I should resist her, if she struck me with that rod, I should get it from her hand; I should break it under her nose. (Bronte).
10. If only it hadn’t been for poor Aunt Ann, he would have taken her to the theatre. (Galsworthy).