Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА
Перехід прямої мови в непряму
1) Якщо в словах автора дієслово-присудок вжите у теперішньому або майбутньому часі, то при переході прямої мови в непряму зміщення часів не .відбувається.
She says, “І shall соте here tomorrow.
She says that she will come here tomorrow.
Не will say, “When did you go to Kyiv, friend?”
He will ask his friend when he went to Kyiv.
2) Якщо в словах автора дієслово-присудок вжите у минулому часі, то при перетворенні прямої мови в непряму проходить зміщення часів відповідно до такої схеми:
Час, якого вимагає час і ситуація
Час, який фактично вживається у підрядному реченні
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Indefinite-in-the Past
Одночасно із зміщенням часів змінюються деякі вказівні займенники, прислівники й інші слова, що показують час і місце виконання дії.
this → that
these → those
now → then
here → there
yesterday → the day before
today → that day
tomorrow → the next day
the day after tomorrow → two days later
the day before yesterday → two days before
ago → before
next → the next (the following)
last → the last (the previous)
Mary said, “What are you going to do tomorrow, Kate?”
Mary asked Kate what she was going to do the next day.
He said, “I shall come here next month ”.
He said that he would come there the next (the following) month.
He said, “I have been writing since 5 o ’clock ”.
He said that she had been writing since 5 o ’clock.
My friend said, “Don’t come to me this week”.
My friend asked not to come to him that week.
He said, “I met her yesterday
He said that he had met her the day before.
I said, “Do you prefer tea or coffee, mother?”
I asked my mother if she preferred tea or coffee.
Винятки, коли при переході прямої мови в непряму, зміщення часів не відбувається, описано у розділі “Узгодження часів".
1. Convert into indirect speech.
Model: The teacher said, “Where did you spend your time yesterday, Ann?”
The teacher asked Ann where she had spent her time the day before.
1. The mother said, “I’ll take you there tomorrow, son.”
2. Не said to me, “I’m going to the theatre tonight.”
3. I said, “She may send me a telegram when she arrives there.”
4. I said, “Does your friend live in London, Ann?”
5. She said to me, “Are you living in a hotel?”
6. The mother says to her daughter, “I’ve prepared a nice present for you.”
7. The father says, “How did you sleep, son?”
8. She said to me, “I haven’t seen you for ages.”
9. The man says, “I was born in 1969.”
10. The little girl said, “I’ll go to the circus tomorrow.”
11. Borys said, “We are going to come here this month again.”
12. Kateryna said, “I lived in this town two years ago.”
13. The boy said, “Shall we go to the river tomorrow, friends?”
14. She said, “I can give you my new bag, Tania.”
15. He said, “What colour is your new suit, Petro?”
16. I said, “Did anybody meet you at the station, Ania?”
17. The mother said, “Open the window, daughter.”
18. The man said, “When will the exhibition be opened again?”
19. She said, “I was in Canada two years ago.”
20. The teacher says, “Open the copy-books and put down today’s date, children.”
21. Petro says, “Where did you spend these holidays, Mykola?”
2. Convert into indirect speech.
1. The old man said, “It’s going to rain.”
2. The mother said, “The children are picking berries in the wood. ”
3. The pupil on duty said, “What are you looking for, Ann? ”
4. The mother said to her son, “Is the telephone ringing? ”
5. Borys asked his friend, “Who is running along the street? ”
6. The teacher asked, “What are you going to be, Victor? ”
7. Jane said to William, “Will you be free tomorrow? ”
8. The passenger said to the pilot, “Can we fly to Lviv in this weather?”
9. Jack said to his friends, “I shan’t be able to go hiking this time.”
10. James said to the boy, “You may go and play with your brother on the bank of the river. ”
11. Walter said to his wife, “We must hurry up, the train is about to start. ”
12. The boys said to the woman, “What can we do to help you? ”
13. Alice said, “The acting and the scenery are splendid. ”
14. Peter said, “Are there any tickets at the box-office? ”
15. Ann said to her friend, “What is on at the cinema today? ”
16. Father asked me, “What time do the shows start? ”
17. Alec said to the woman, “Give me two dress-circle tickets, please.”
18. The mother said, “We have good seats in the third row. ”
19. Kateryna said, “It is almost impossible to see the director in his office. ”
20. Ann asked her brother, “What institute are you going to enter?”
21. Richard asked the Parkers, “What are you planning to have next Saturday? ”
22. Henry says to his mother, “Come and spend a week with us. ”
23. Mary said to her husband, “What is on at our cinema tonight? ”
24. The guests said, “We had a wonderful time. ”
25. Tony said, “They have taken their seats in the box. ”
26. Rose asked her friend, “How did you enjoy the performance? ”
27. The actor said, “Our opera house was opened in 1962. ”
28. Lena wrote to Mary, “I want to tell you about the concert which we gave in our school a week ago. ”
29. David said to Ralph, “Was the performance good? ”
30. The girl said to her friend, “We first met in 2000 when we were in Yalta. ”
31. Bernard says, “I was glad to see you here so early. ”
32. Thomas said to Eliza, “Have you had a nice time in the country?”
33. Francis said to his wife, “What has happened? ”
34. Alfred said to Joan, “I did not promise to send you a telegram.”
3. Convert into direct speech.
Model: He said he was very fond of travelling.
He said, “I am very fond of travelling.”
She asked me to bring some books from the room.
She said, “Bring some books from the room, please.”
1. She said she was surprised I had not been training since morning. 2. He asked me what kind of sport I went in for. 3. They asked me to tell them who was playing tennis on the court. 4. I wondered when my friend had been at the concert last. 5. I asked her if she liked the new opera she had heard the day before. 6. The teacher asked Kate why she had been absent at the lessons the previous week. 7. The man wanted to know where the town museum was situated. 8. She asked me what mark I had got in English. 9. The director wanted to find out who had broken the window-glass. 10. I asked the trainer to tell me if he thought I could take part in the match. 11. He said he was looking forward to visiting the place where the great English poet Shakespeare had spent his early life. 12. She assured me she would be able to help me. 13. Heinformed me that it would be possible to get the tickets. 14. He warned me against my coming, as he would be developing his film at that time. 15. She said that she was going to come there the following week. 16. He wanted to know if I liked those beautiful white flowers. 17. The teacher asked me to open the window. 18. He asked me to speak more distinctly.
4. Convert into indirect speech.
On entering the old lady’s room he said, “1 hope I haven’t interrupted your work!”
— “Of course not. Sit down, please. Have a cup of tea?”
— “Thanks, I’ve had my tea.”
She said, “I haven’t seen you for ages. How is your wife?”
— “She is all right now,” he answered. “Don’t you want to come and see our baby? My wife says she is a darling.”
— “Don’t you think so?”
— “Of course, I do. But I think I’ll love her more when she grows up,” he added.
The old lady smiled. “That’s a tender father!”
5. Convert into indirect speech.
1. “Is Mr. Davidson better this morning?” she asked. (Maugham).
2. “Don’t you think we ought to make Mr. Horn turn her out of here?” asked Mrs. Davidson. (Maugham).
3. “Does anybody ever come here?” Davy asked him. (Aldridge).
4. “Did you find something to drink?” he asked Davy. (Aldridge).
5. “Tell me, Lilly,” he said in a friendly tone, “do you still go to school?” (Joyce).
6. “Why have you a piece of pencil in your ear?” he asked. (Lawrence).
7. I said to Vigot, “What hours are you interested in ?” (Greene).
8. “How old is your father?” Miss Hei asked with gluttony. (Greene).
9. “What is Giles going to wear tonight?” I asked, “or is it a dead secret?” (Du Maurier).
10. “How long will it take me to paint my face?” asked Giles. (Du Maurier).
11. “Ask Miss Thompson when it would be convenient for me to see her,” he said. (Maugham).
12. “I’ll come down when I am ready,” I called. “... Don’t wait for me. Tell Maxim he can’t come in.” (Du Maurier).