Англійська мова. Універсальне видання - підготовка до ЗНО та ДПА

ПІДГОТОВКА ДО ЗНО

 

Складові частини тесту

 

Читання

 

Частина тесту «Читання» містить тестові завдання закритої форми: ви маєте обрати ОДНУ пра­вильну відповідь та позначити її в бланку А.

Згідно зі специфікацією тесту завдання вважається виконаним, якщо учасник обрав правильний варіант відповіді та позначив його в бланку А. Завдання вважається невиконаним у випадках, якщо:

·     позначено неправильний варіант відповіді;

·     позначено два або більше варіантів відповіді, навіть якщо серед них є правильний варіант;

·     не позначено жодного із варіантів відповіді.

Текст для читання повинен містити не більше ніж 50-500 слів. Джерела текстів — статті з англо­мовних газет та журналів, уривки з художньої літератури, листи, реклама, оголошення, посібники, звіти, путівники, Інтернет-публікації тощо.

 

ЗАГАЛЬНІ СТРАТЕГІЇ І ТАКТИКИ ЧИТАННЯ

 

Перед тестуванням:

·     Уважно ознайомтесь з інструкцією до завдань різних типів заздалегідь, щоб ви могли швидко проглянути інструкцію і знати, що треба робити.

·     Читайте якомога більше.

·     Відпрацьовуйте такі навички читання, як «здогадка про значення незнайомих слів», «розуміння слів-посилань(reference wordsв тексті» та швидке читання.

·     Читайте газетні статті або Інтернет-публікації англійською мовою та вчіться:

— розподіляти зміст на факти та думки;

— знаходити тематичні речення у параграфі;

— писати резюме тексту;

— формулювати заголовки до тексту або його частин;

— підкреслювати займенники та шукати слова, на які вони посилаються;

— підкреслювати незнайомі слова та здогадуватися про їхнє можливе значення;

— прочитавши перший параграф, передбачати, про що йтиметься далі.

·     Розширюйте свій словниковий запас. Наприклад, вивчайте по п’ять нових слів зі списку необхідної лексики щодня, випишіть їх на картки та перевіряйте себе час від часу.

·     Практика - це ваш ключ до успіху. Виконуйте якомога більше зразків тесту, щоб звикнути до різних типів завдань та інструкцій.

·     Читайте якомога більше: обирайте тексти з газет, книжок та Інтернет-джерел. Намагайтеся читати не менш ніж 6 сторінок тексту англійською мовою щоденно. Працюйте над навичками чи­тання та швидкістю.

·     Крім навички детального читання, ви маєте оволодіти навичками швидкого читання: пошукове читання (сканування) та ознайомлювальне читання.

·     Пошукове читання — це те, що ми робимо, коли шукаємо значення слова в енциклопедії. Ви знаєте, яку конкретно інформацію вам необхідно знайти, тому швидко проглядаєте сторінку, щоб знайти цю інформацію. Ця навичка використовується і в різних формах завдань. Ви швидко “скануєте” текст і знаходите відповідь.

·  Ознайомлювальне читання також припускає швидке читання тексту з метою пошуку загаль­ного змісту, не намагаючись зрозуміти деталі.

Ця навичка є частиною початкового читання тексту. Нею треба користуватися, виконуючи за­вдання з пошуку заголовків до параграфів та відповідаючи на питання, в якому параграфі міститься певна інформація, або якою є точка зору автора.

 

Під час тестування слушно діяти таким чином:

·     Швидко прогляньте спершу всю частину «Читання» до кінця.

·  Прогляньте тексти, приділяючи увагу:

— заголовкам;

— підзаголовкам;

— ілюстраціям;

— діаграмам;

— назвам;

— словам, які виділені курсивом чи жирним шрифтом.

·   Уважно прочитайте завдання та переконайтеся, що ви робите саме те, чого вимагає інструкція.

·       Починаючи роботу над текстом, по-перше, прочитайте запитання та запам’ятайте їх. Підкресліть у запитанні ключові слова: дати, імена, назви місць тощо. Це потрібно для того, щоб зорієнтуватися, яка інформація вам необхідна, перш ніж починати читати текст. Ці ключові слова стануть вам у на­годі, коли знайдете їх або їхні синоніми в тексті.

·     Прочитайте перший параграф, звіртеся з запитаннями та спробуйте відповісти на якесь із них. Зробіть те саме з наступними параграфами. Під час читання підкреслюйте ключові слова у тексті параграфа. Якщо ви побачили відповідь у тексті, позначте її одразу.

·   Відповідайте на запитання одне за одним за допомогою частин тексту, які ви підкреслили під час першого читання.

·   Пам’ятайте, що запитання до тексту наведено в такому ж самому порядку, як і подано інформацію в тексті. Тому, як правило, відповідь на перше питання міститься у параграфі 1, на дру­ге — у параграфі 2, і так далі. Це правило спрацьовує у формах завдання з вибором однієї правильної відповіді та на визначення правильності/неправильності твердження. Це може не спрацьовувати, коли ви виконуєте завдання на встановлення відповідності та у відповідях на питання «в якому параграфі йдеться про...?»: інформація для таких запитань може бути розкидана по всьому тексті.

·     Не витрачайте багато часу на одне запитання: якщо ви не маєте відповіді, рухайтесь далі. Ви завжди можете повернутися до цього запитання пізніше.

·   Знайшовши відповідь, позначте її поряд із текстом, щоб пізніше перенести її у бланк від­повідей. Не завжди варто відповідати на запитання один за одним: можна спочатку відповісти на найлегші запитання, а потім решту часу міркувати над більш складними.

·   Якщо ви на знаєте відповіді, не залишайте питання без відповіді: оберіть варіант навмання. Ніхто не буде карати вас за неправильну відповідь, а ви використаєте можливість вгадати правильно.

Розподіляючи час, залиште декілька хвилин, щоб ще раз перевірити обрані варіанти відповідей.

 

ФОРМИ ЗАВДАНЬ З ЧИТАННЯ

 

На вас очікують такі форми завдань:

— завдання на встановлення відповідності;

— завдання з вибором однієї правильної відповіді;

— завдання на визначення правильності/неправильності твердження;

— завдання на заповнення пропусків у тексті.

 

а) Завдання на встановлення відповідності

У завданнях такої форми ви маєте підібрати заголовки, ситуації, малюнки, запитання або твер­дження із запропонованих до текстів або частин тексту.

Зазвичай тексти позначені цифрами, а варіанти для встановлення відповідності — літерами, і за­вдання має на два варіанти відповідей більше, ніж потрібно.

Приклад:

Read the texts below. Match choices (A-E) to (1-2). There are two choices you do not need to use.

Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

 

WHY DO TEENS TAKE RISKS?

When teens drink or do other forbidden things, adults often say we aren’t thinking about the risks of unsafe behaviour. But a recent study shows that teens think things through far more than people realize. I wanted to know more, so I decided to interview Dr. Valerie Reyna, a Cornell University professor.

David Schmutzer

 

Interviewer: 0_________________

Dr. Valerie Reyna: The conventional wisdom has been that kids do these activities because they think they’re invulnerable and they’re going to live forever. The research has shown that’s not the case. In fact, teens think that they’re more vulnerable than adults think they are.

Teens actually take longer than adults to think about the risks and benefits of doing something dangerous. They even overestimate their risk. But then they decide the benefits — like peer acceptance — outweigh the risks. That’s why they engage in the risky behaviour.

 

Interviewer: 1_________________

Reyna: We used to think that you got to be an adult and you began to calculate risks more. But now the evidence suggests that you calculate less as you get older, and that’s why you don’t take risks.

The theory is that adults don’t need to go into the precise details and weigh them to make a decision. Instead, they base their decisions on their bottom-line “gist” of the situation.

 

Interviewer: 2______________

Reyna: There are certain situations that adults look at and they say, “Wow, we know how this situation is going to turn out before we hear the rest of the story.” For young people without experience, what happens can be a surprise.

For example, let’s say it’s prom night and some kids are renting a hotel room, there’s a lot of drinking going on, and there’s no adult supervision. Most adults won’t be surprised that there might be some behaviour problems in that situation: an adult immediately gets the gist. The bottom-line decision is that you don’t get into that situation. If you’re not in that situation, nothing bad will happen to you.

 

A What makes teens do risky things?

В How can public health officials help to inform teens?

C Why do some teens choose not to take risks?

D When do teens start making more adult decisions?

E What’s “bottom-line” decision-making?

 

Правильні відповіді: 0 — A; 1 — D; 2 — E

Непотрібні варіанти: В та C

Зразок позначення відповідей у бланку:

 

Як виконувати завдання на встановлення відповідності

 

·     Уважно прочитайте завдання-інструкцію.

·     Уважно прочитайте варіанти відповідей та підкресліть у кожному з них ключові слова.

·     Прогляньте наведені тексти та знайдіть, в якому з них йдеться про предмет запитання.

·     Тільки-но ви знайдете потрібний текст, прочитайте його уважно і підкресліть слова, які від­повідають варіанту, наведеному в завданні.

·     Пам’ятайте, що зазвичай слова у відповіді не будуть повторювати ті ж слова, що є у тексті. Тому шукайте синоніми, схожі вирази та перефразування.

·     Якщо завдання вимагає пошуку заголовка чи узагальнюючого запитання, швидко прочитайте текст або параграф і коротко сформулюйте його зміст своїми словами; потім продивіться список заголовків і знайдіть правильну відповідь. Переконайтеся, що заголовок чи питання узагальнюють увесь текст чи параграф, а не його частину.

·     Якщо завдання потребує заголовку для всього тексту, швидко прочитайте увесь текст, під­креслюючи головні ідеї, та сформулюйте свій заголовок тексту, після чого шукайте варіант відповіді у списку. Вам також стануть у нагоді загальні стратегії виконання тесту з читання.

 

б) Завдання з вибором однієї правильної відповіді

Кожне завдання має чотири варіанти відповіді, з яких лише один є правильним.

У цьому типі завдання ви можете знайти початок речення, яке вам потрібно завершити, обравши один з чотирьох наданих варіантів, або вам ставиться запитання і вам потрібно обрати найкращу відповідь на нього із чотирьох можливих варіантів. Вас можуть попросити знайти в тексті факти або чиюсь особисту думку. Цей тип завдання може перевіряти ваше загальне розуміння тексту чи змусить вас шукати специфічну інформацію у тексті. Це означає, що ви самі маєте вирішити, який вид читання застосовувати: пошукове чи ознайомлювальне.

Приклад:

Read the text below. For question (1) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answer on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.____________________________________

 

From The Sunday Times

 

KEEP CLICKING AND YOU’LL BE A SNAPPY THINKER

The net is making us good at quick decisions — but there is a cost

Brendan Montague and Helen Brooks

The internet is changing the way the human brain works, researchers have found. It is improving people’s ability to make snap decisions and filter large amounts of information — but at the cost of subtle skills such as picking up the nuances of facial expression.

Overall, a new study concludes, the brains of those tested were markedly more active when carrying out internet searches than when reading books.

However, the stimulation was concentrated in the areas that control decision-making and complex reasoning. Areas linked to abstract thinking and empathy showed virtually no increase in stimulation.

0 What approach was taken in the recent research to prove the influence of the internet on the human brain?

 

A The brains’ subtleties were tested.

В Abstract thinking was stimulated.

C Net-browsing was compared to reading.

D Some areas were simulated virtually.

 

1 According to the text, which of the following is true of the way the internet may improve the human brain?

A Our brains will be able to excel in subtle skills.

В Our brains will be able to take in a lot of information.

C Our brains will be able to respond fast to life options.

D Our brains will be able to do more complex tasks.

Правильні відповіді: 0 - C; 1 - C.

 

Як виконувати завдання з вибором однієї правильної відповіді

 

·       Уважно прочитайте завдання-інструкцію.

·       Швидко прочитайте усі запитання та варіанти відповідей:

— підкресліть ключові слова (ті, що дають вам найбільше інформації);

— намагайтесь визначити тему тексту, який ви будете читати, за допомогою слів, що використані у запитаннях;

— візьміть до уваги ілюстрації та діаграми, якщо вони супроводжують текст.

·       Поверніться до першого запитання та з’ясуйте: чи вам потрібна специфічна інформація чи запитання потребує загального розуміння всього тексту. Потім використайте пошукове чи ознайом­лювальне читання для вибору відповіді.

·       Прочитайте відповідну частину тексту дуже уважно та підкресліть у тексті слова, які містять відповідь на запитання.

·       Не залишайте жодного запитання без відповіді.

·       Уважно читайте запитання та вилучайте неправильні відповіді. Вам також стануть у нагод: загальні стратегії виконання тесту з читання на с. 330-331.

 

в) Завдання на заповнення пропусків у тексті

У завданнях такої форми пропонується доповнити абзаци/речення в тексті реченнями/частинами речень/словосполученнями/словами із поданих варіантів.

Приклад:

Read the text below. Choose from (A-E) the one which best fits each of (1-2). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

 

I FELT LIKE A STRANGER IN MY ADOPTED COUNTRY

I have been living in this country for ten years already. So 1 decided it was time to apply for citizenship. (0) . It was to check my language skills and knowledge of the U.K. I had to buy a special book to find out a vast spectrum of novelties, such as children’s pocket money, how Christmas is celebrated and the structure of the government and the Royal Family.

(1)________ . The road where the Learning Centre is (where you take the exam) has two parts, separated by a huge roundabout, and traps such as narrow one-way lanes. (2) ________ .

 

A I made an appointment to take the exam in Bristol.

В  It was tightly secured with shutters, its signs badly damaged and surrounded by litter.

C I got lost in the maze of back streets trying to get back to the beginning.

D Going to Bristol was quite an event for me.

E I was looking for someone to advise me about this procedure.

Правильні відповіді: 0 — A; 1 — D; 2 — C

Непотрібні варіанти: В та E

 

Як виконувати завдання на заповнення пропусків у тексті

 

·    Уважно прочитайте завдання-інструкцію.

·    На відміну від інших форм завдань, роботу над цим завданням треба  починати з читання тексту, тому що робота одразу над варіантами заповнення пропусків може вас легко спантеличити.

·   Швидко прочитайте весь текст, щоб сформувати уявлення про тему тексту та мати змогу передбачити, якої інформації бракує у кожному пропуску.

·   Швидко прочитайте варіанти відповідей, підкресліть у них ключові слова, спробуйте зрозуміти, якої інформації у них бракує. Аналізуйте граматичну форму та лексичні одиниці, які можуть передувати або випливати з варіанту відповіді.

·   Обираючи варіанти, шукайте зв’язки між фразою або реченням для заповнення пропуску та текстом одразу перед чи після пропуску. Приділяйте увагу структурним зв’язкам, наприклад, займенникам, які містять посилання на іменники, що їм передують, або трапляються в тексті після пропуску.

·   Не ігноруйте прислівників або фраз, що з’єднують ідеї, наведені перед пропуском. Наприклад, слова ‘however’ або‘but’ вказують, що їм передує протилежна думка.

·   Не забувайте про граматичну правильність речення: вислів, який ви обрали для заповнення пропуску, має не тільки за змістом, а й граматично відповідати структурі всього речення/тексту.

·   Регулярно повертайтесь до тих варіантів, які ви вже обрали як правильні. Коли вам важко знайти наступну відповідь на заповнення пропуску, це може означати, що ви вже неправильно використали цей варіант раніше. Залишайте досить часу, щоб ще раз перевірити свої відповіді.

·    Вам також стануть у нагоді загальні прийоми виконання тесту з читання.

 

ПРИЙОМИ ЕФЕКТИВНОГО ЧИТАННЯ

 

Швидке читання

1. Перше, що треба зробити, починаючи виконувати тест з читання, це відповісти на питання: «Якою є загальна тема тексту або текстів?» Це можна зробити, якщо читати текст «по діагоналі». Подивіться на текст у цілому, на його заголовок, підзаголовок, малюнки чи фотографії, якщо вони є, та спробуйте передбачити, який його зміст. Швидко прогляньте кожен параграф, зупиняючись тільки на перших реченнях кожного абзацу. Перше речення зазвичай відображає головну ідею та дає вам уявлення про зміст усього параграфа. Таке швидке читання дасть вам інформацію про текст та очікуваний зміст кожної його частини.

2. По-друге, кожне питання містить ключ-підказку, де шукати відповідь у тексті. Тому, з огляду на це, варто не безладно шукати відповідь по всьому тексту, а використати науковий підхід. Знайдіть ключові слова або ідеї в запитанні, які містять або натякають на правильну відповідь. Зазвичай це іменники, дієслова, числівники або словосполучення, які, вірогідно, будуть повторюватись у тексті. Визначивши ключові слова, швидко знайдіть їх у тексті. Правильна відповідь має бути десь поряд.

Приклад:

Why are people attracted to online education?

Ключові слова запитання — ‘why’ та ‘attracted’. Знайдіть в тексті місце, що містить ці або схожі слова, і шукайте там правильну відповідь.

Інколи ключові слова запитання не повторюються в тексті. В такому разі шукайте загальну ідею запитання.

Числівники дуже допомагають при швидкому читанні тексту, оскільки їх легко помітити. Слушно також простежити, чи немає в тексті хронології подій, яку відбивають дати.

3. Коли знайдено місце в тексті, де йдеться про головну тему запитання, зосередьтесь на варіан­тах відповіді. Інколи варіант дослівно повторює частину параграфа, близьку до правильної відповіді. Однак не дайте ввести себе в оману: це може бути «пастка», що відвертає вашу увагу від правильної відповіді та перевіряє, наскільки глибоке та точне ваше розуміння тексту. Правильна відповідь, швидше за все, перефразовує або резюмує відповідну частину тексту, а не повторює її дослівно.

Ті варіанти відповідей, які ви вважаєте правильними, треба дуже уважно прочитати, щоб бути впевненими, що вони справді відповідають на запитання. Відповідь може бути фактично правильною, але вона повинна ВІДПОВІДАТИ НА ПОСТАВЛЕНЕ ЗАПИТАННЯ. Крім того, два варіанти можуть обидва здаватися коректними, тому важливо визначитися, який з них є НАЙКРАЩОЮ відповіддю на запитання. І нарешті, правильним варіантом є той, що відповідає змістові тексту, а не вашим припущенням чи знанням.

Деякі питання не мають ключових слів.

Приклад:

What is the author’s main point?

В такому разі шукайте ключові слова у варіантах відповідей. Потім знайдіть, де йдеться про це в тексті. Використовуючи швидке читання, ви зможете зекономити час на читання.

Інколи важко знайти відповідне ключове слово в запитанні, тоді варто знайти ключові слова для пошуку у варіантах відповідей. Часто варіанти відповідей можна знайти в одному параграфі, що швидко звузить ваш вибір.

 

Фокус параграфа

Зосередьте увагу на першому реченні кожного параграфа, яке є найважливішим. Воно зазвичай містить головну тему параграфа. Якщо зрозумілий зміст першого речення, зрозумілий і зміст всього параграфа. Читаючи запитання, визначіть, у якому параграфі міститься відповідь. Параграфи містять коротку тему, тож відповідь, якщо вона там є, знайти легко. Тому намагайтеся запам’ятати зміст перших речень параграфів, коли одразу від запитання ви переходите до пошуку відповідей у тексті. Такий підхід заощаджує час на виконання завдання.

Головна ідея тексту, як правило, міститься у всіх його параграфах, тоді як головна ідея параграфа може цілковито відрізнятися від головної ідеї кожного наступного параграфа, головна ідея всього тексту так чи інакше впливає на зміст усіх параграфів.

Приклад:

What is the main idea of the passage?

Для кожного варіанту відповіді визначте, скільки абзаців включає запитання. Можна підрахувати, скільки речень відповідають кожному варіанту, але краще з’ясувати, скільки параграфів стосують­ся відповіді, котру ви обрали. Зазвичай неправильні варіанти відповіді — це головні ідеї окремих параграфів, а не всього тексту. Тому важливо обирати той варіант, про який йдеться у більшості параграфів тексту.

 

Усувайте варіанти

Деякі з запропонованих варіантів відповіді можна швидко відкинути. Однак, якщо ви інтуїтивно відкинете правильну відповідь, ваші шанси впадуть до 0%. Відкидайте неправильну відповідь лише за умови, якщо це ваша найліпша вмотивована здогадка. Тоді варто ризикнути.

Наприклад, відповідаючи на такі питання, як: “the text indicates all of the following EXCEPT...”, швидко перегляньте текст, шукаючи згадку з кожного варіанту. Якщо згадка існує, викресліть цей варіант зі списку. Якщо варіанти схожі між собою, їх також можна викреслити.

 

Контекстуальні підказки

Шукайте ключі-підказки в тексті. Відповідь може бути об’єктивно правильною, але не хибною з огляду на зміст тексту та поставлене запитання. Саме контекстуальні підказки допоможуть вам знайти відповідь, яка є найбільш правильною.

Намагайтеся зрозуміти контекст, в якому існує певний вислів. Якщо завдання запитує про те, «що має на увазі» автор, або яке значення має та чи інша фраза в тексті (the implied meaning of a state­ment made in the text), одразу шукайте цей вислів та читайте контекст, в якому ця фраза вживається.

Приклад:

What does Small mean predicting that people will be “more autistic in tendency”?

Шукайте в тексті слова, які пояснюють тенденцію змін (tendency) та якісну характеристику цих змін (more autistic).Правильна відповідь, імовірно, перефразує ці слова з тексту.

 

Факт чи думка

Проаналізуйте, про що йдеться у запитанні: про факт чи про особисту думку? Пам’ятайте, що ті варіанти, які висловлюють факти, зазвичай не містять двозначних невизначених слів. Наприклад, такі слова, як “ordinary” або“acceptable”, не є типовими для фактичних тверджень, тому що для різних людей їхнє сприйняття є різним. Однак, якщо всі варіанти містять такі невизначені слова, перевірте контекст запитання.

Факти можуть висловлюватися у формі висновків дослідження, та їм передують такі слова, як The scientists believed that ...”. Власні думки часто асоціюють зі словами “thought, believed, under­stood, or wished”.

 

Протилежності

Ті варіанти відповідей, які є прямими протилежностями, зазвичай виявляються правильними. Параграф має свою логіку розвитку теми. Завдання може попросити вас зробити висновок щодо цієї логіки та наводить два схожих варіанти як протилежності.

Приклад:

A) increasing the interest rate will lead to a decrease in housing starts

B) increasing the interest rate will lead to an increase in housing starts

 

В реальному тесті не так легко визначити такі протилежності. Нехай вас не введуть в оману протилежні слова. Треба знайти значення в тексті та переконатися, що ці варіанти є справжніми протилежностями з незначною різницею у фразуванні. Якщо ви впевнені, що ці варіанти є протилежними, уважно їх вивчіть, перш ніж зробити вибір.

 

Робіть передбачення

Коли ви прочитали текст та завдання, намагайтеся передбачити, якою може бути відповідь, перш ніж прочитаєте варіанти відповідей. Пам’ятайте, що більшість варіантів є неправильними і спеціально створені як відволікаючий прийом, тож тільки-но ви їх прочитаєте, вони впливатимуть на ваш розум, намагаючись відволікти вас від правильної відповіді. Тому відразу після швидкого читання тексту та завдань зробіть передбачення щодо імовірної правильної відповіді. Потім прочитайте варіанти від­повідей та з’ясуйте, чи є серед них такі, що відповідають вашим передбаченням. Якщо так, будьте певними, що це і є правильний вибір.

Звісно, ви можете перевірити усі варіанти відповідей, якщо є час, але у більшості випадків цей підхід спрацьовує.

 

Відповідайте на запитання

Очевидно, що треба обирати тільки ті варіанти відповідей, які відповідають на поставлене запитання. Але інколи тест пропонує вам чудові варіанти відповідей, що є неправильними. Не треба обирати відповідь тільки тому, що вона добре виглядає, або ви вважаєте, що це — правда. Відповідь ПОВИННА ВІДПОВІДАТИ НА ЗАПИТАННЯ. Коли ви обрали свою відповідь, поверніться до запитання, перевірте, чи правильно ви його зрозуміли та чи відповідає ваш вибір на запитання.

 

Використовуйте орієнтири

Прочитайте перший варіант відповіді та з’ясуйте, правильна вона чи ні. Якщо ні, перейдіть до наступного варіанту. Якщо він виглядає вірогідним, запам’ятайте його. Це не означає, що ви зробили остаточний вибір: просто ви обрали найкращий варіант, який поки що знайшли. Перейдіть до наступного варіанту, і якщо він гірший за попередні, ідіть далі до наступної відповіді. Якщо цей варіант кращий за попередні, запам’ятайте його як вірогідну відповідь.

Читаючи далі список відповідей, ви подумки відзначаєте той варіант, який здається вам правиль­ним. Це — ваш новий стандарт. З ним ви порівнюєте усі подальші варіанти відповідей. Цей вибір є правильним доти, доки ви не знайдете кращого варіанту. Переконавшись, що кращого варіанту немає, ще раз перевірте, чи ваш вибір відповідає на поставлене запитання.

 

Нова інформація

Правильні відповіді зазвичай містять інформацію, що є в тексті. Дуже рідко правильна відповідь містить нові дані. Це може статися тільки тоді, коли завдання просить вас інтерпретувати текст.

 

Ключові слова

Шукайте ті варіанти відповідей, які містять ті ж ключові слова, що і запитання.

 

Достовірна інформація

Не відкидайте жодну інформацію, що міститься у тексті, особливо тоді, коли текст короткий. Кожна деталь може бути потрібною для визначення правильної відповіді. Інформація в тексті не має за мету ввести вас в оману (на відміну від варіантів відповідей). Якщо текст містить дві теми, які здаються непов’язаними, також не варто їх ігнорувати. Мабуть, існує якийсь зв’язок між ними, інакше б їх не включили до тексту. Ваша мета — встановити цей зв’язок та чи стосується він пи­тання, на яке ви відповідаєте.

 

Розрахунок часу

Якщо текст для читання містить багато незнайомих термінів, пропустіть їх та рухайтесь далі: вам потрібне загальне розуміння тексту, а не його переклад.

Коли в тексті є частина, важка для розуміння, найімовірніше вона не дуже важлива і її можна пропустити. Витрачайте час на читання таких частин тексту, тільки коли ви впевнені, що вони важливі для відповіді на питання. Намагайтеся зрозуміти важкі фрази, тільки коли немає іншого виходу знайти правильну відповідь.

Визначте форму кожного питання. Зазвичай те, як воно сформульоване, може підказати вам, треба одразу шукати відповідь у тексті чи можна вжити логічні міркування. Визначте для себе, які питання є найбільш важкими для вас особисто, а які потребують менше часу, та дійте з викорис­танням відповідних стратегій.

 

ТЕХНІЧНІ ПРИЙОМИ ДЛЯ ВИДАЛЕННЯ НЕПРАВИЛЬНИХ ВІДПОВІДЕЙ

 

Сленг, або жаргон

Відповіді, які звучать нейтрально чи науково, значно кращі для вибору, ніж ті, що висловлені на жаргоні.

 

Екстремальні твердження

Уникайте відповідей, які проголошують дуже спірні, радикальні ідеї як незаперечний факт.

 

Схожі відповіді

Якщо дві відповіді є прямо протилежними, одна з них є правильною. Якщо три відповіді є схо­жими між собою, то четверту можна видалити.

Приклад:

A) Plan I or Plan II can be conducted at equal cost

B) Plan I would be less expensive than Plan II

C) Plan II would be less expensive than Plan I

D) Neither Plan I nor Plan II would be effective

Три перші відповіді є схожими, тому що стосуються ціни, тоді як четверта говорить про ефектив­ність і, очевидно, не є правильною.

 

Маркери

Коли завдання потребує зробити висновок, шукайте слова-«маркери», наприклад: likelymaycanwill often,sometimesetcoftenalmostmostlyusuallygenerallyrarelyАвтори завдань використовують такі слова, щоб забезпечити різні можливості. Часто відповідь є помилковою тільки тому, що не залишає місця для винятків. Уникайте варіантів, які містять ультимативні слова, такі як “exactly” та “always”.

Приклад:

Animals live longer in cold places than animals in warm places.

Цей варіант відповіді є помилковим, тому що існують винятки, коли у певному теплому кліматі тварини живуть довше, а ця відповідь не залишає жодної можливості для існування винятків. Правильна відповідь, як правило, містить маркери, які допускають існування виключень:

Приклад:

In severe cold, a polar bear cub is likely to survive longer than an adult polar bear.

Ця відповідь є правильною, тому що не тільки відповідає змісту параграфу, а й допускає винятки завдяки слову-маркеру “likely”, яке припускає випадки, коли дитинча білого ведмедя протримається в холоді не довше, ніж доросла тварина.

 

Питання щодо значення слів у тексті

Коли вас питають, в якому значенні вжито у тексті певне слово чи фразу, не намагайтесь згадати знайоме вам значення цього слова. Таке питання виникає саме тому, що це слово чи фраза мають в цьому тексті незвичайне контекстуальне значення. Зверніться до тексту та за допомогою контек­стуальних підказок визначіть правильну відповідь. Не треба одразу вдаватися до вибору популярного значення слова, яке вам давно знайоме.

 

Слова-організатори тексту

Пам’ятайте про слова, які організують логіку тексту та сигналізують про зміну напряму міркувань або думки. Ці слова — універсальні й містяться у текстах різної тематики. Найуживанішим з таких слів є слово but”. Ось приклади інших слів такого характеру: although, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, even though, while, in spite of, despite, regardless of.

 

Уникайте «фактичних пасток»

Як тільки ви визначили в якому параграфі йдеться про запитання, сфокусуйте на ньому свою увагу. Але будьте уважними, щоб не обрати відповідь, яка фактично є вірною щодо змісту параграфу, але не відповідає на запитання. Ви маєте знайти відповідь на поставлене запитання, навіть коли воно стосується невеликої деталі з параграфу. Не втрачайте фокус пошуку, коли натрапите на варіант відповіді, що стосується інших деталей змісту параграфу. Завжди перевіряйте, чи обраний вами варіант дійсно відповідає на питання, а не є просто правильним твердженням.

 


Тестові завдання з читання: практикум

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 1

 

Read the text below. Match choices (A-H) to (1-5). There are two choices you do not need to use.

Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.__________________________________________

AGAINST SCHOOL DRESS CODES

From LoveToKnow Teens

If you are against school dress codes, you are not the only one. Many students hate the restrictions administrators place on them every year. Learn ways you can deal with these clothing attire guidelines in this article.

A________________

You may not care why school officials created some of the dress codes, but understanding why they exist may help you feel a little better about them. One of the biggest reasons for these guidelines on clothing attire is to make sure everyone comes to school dressed appropriately as to not offend other students. If there were no rules, some students would wear t-shirts with controversial messages or not wear much clothing at all. Keeping students focused on their classes, rather than what the person next to them is wearing, is one of the biggest reasons for dress codes.

1____________________________

Unfortunately, the fight against dress codes is difficult. Many times it can be hard to sway administrators to make changes to their policy. However, you can try some things that could help you gain some leeway as far as your clothing goes.

2____________________________

Become familiar with all of the rules. You may find some of them are outdated and could use an update. This will also help your case when you start talking to administrators.

3_______________________ ____

Set up a meeting with your principal to discuss exactly what you believe is unfair about the policy. Ask him or her for suggestions on how you can have certain guidelines changed.

4____________________________

If other students agree with you, enlist their help in your campaign in having the policy changed. Write a short introduction about what changes you would like to see on a piece of paper and then have other students sign it.

5 _____________________________

If there are board meetings you can attend, make a point to go with a parent. Making yourself known by people that create the rules will help you gain some advantage.

 

A Understand School Dress Codes В Become Involved

C Read Policy

D Start a Petition

E Update the Rules

F Have a crack at it

G Start Picketing

H Communicate with Administrators

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 2

 

Read the text below. For (1-5) choose T if the statement is true according to the text, F if it is false. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

FIREFIGHTER SPEAKS AFTER 10 YEARS OF BEING MUTE & BRAIN DAMAGED

By CAROLYN THOMPSON, Associated Press

ORCHARD PARK, N.Y. — Nearly 9 1/2 years after a firefighter was left brain-damaged and mostly mute during a 1995 roof collapse, he did something that shocked his family and doctors: He asked for his wife. Staff members of the nursing home where Donald Herbert has lived for more than seven years raced to get Linda Herbert on the telephone.

It was the first of many conversations the patient had with his wife, four sons and other family and friends Saturday during a 14-hour stretch, Herbert’s uncle Simon Manka said. “How long have I been away?” Herbert asked. “We told him almost 10 years,” the uncle said. “He thought it was only three months.”

Herbert, who will turn 44 Saturday, was fighting a house fire Dec. 29, 1995, when the roof collapsed, burying him under debris. After going without air for several minutes, Herbert was comatose for 2 1/2 months and has undergone therapy ever since.

News accounts in the days and years after his injury describe Herbert as blind and with little, if any, memory. Video shows him receiving physical therapy but apparently unable to communicate and with little awareness of his surroundings.

Manka declined Monday to discuss his nephew’s current condition, or whether the apparent progress was continuing this week. The family was seeking privacy while doctors evaluated Herbert, he said. “He’s resting comfortably,” the uncle said.

As word of Herbert’s progress spread, a steady stream of visitors arrived at the Father Baker Manor nursing home in this Buffalo suburb. “He stayed up ‘til early morning talking with his boys and catching up on what they’ve been doing over the last several years,” firefighter Anthony Liberatore told WIVB-TV, Herbert’s sons were 14, 13, 11 and 3 when he was injured.

Staff members at the nursing facility recognized the change in Herbert, Manka said, when they heard him speaking and “making specific requests.” “The word of the day was 'amazing,’” he said.

Dr. Rose Lynn Sherr of New York University Medical Center said when patients recover from brain injuries, they usually do so within two or three years. “It’s almost unheard of after 10 years,” she said, “but sometimes things do happen and people suddenly improve and we don’t understand why.”

Manka said visitors let Herbert set the pace of the conversations and did not bring up the fire in which he was injured. “The extent and duration of his recovery is not known at this time,” Manka said. “However we can tell you he did recognize several family members and friends and did call them by name.”

There have been a few other widely publicized examples of brain-damage patients showing sudden improvement after a number of years. In 2003, an Arkansas man, Terry Wallis, returned to consciousness 19 years after he was injured in a car accident, stunning his mother by saying “Mom” and then asking for a Pepsi. His brain function remained limited, his family said months later.

Tennessee police officer Gary Dockery, who was brain damaged in a 1988 shooting, began speaking to his family one day in 1996, telling jokes and recounting annual winter camping trips. But after 18 hours, he never repeated the unbridled conversation of that day, though he remained more alert than he had been. He died the following year of a blood clot on his lung.

http://www.mswm.org/amazing_pets_stories/humans/humansamazingliumans.storiesan)azinghumans.index.htm

0 Donald Herbert spoke with Linda Herbert just after a roof collapsed in 1995.

1 Donald Herbert was unconscious during almost 10 years in the hospital.

2 Herbert was in his mid thirties when he got injured by the collapsed roof.

3 There was evidence that Herbert could not talk, see and remember what had happened to him.

4 Father Baker is one of Herbert’s visitors who spread the word about his progress.

5 Though amazed, the doctors know some reasons to explain improvement of his condition.

6 Herbert’s uncle gave the Associated Press journalist some facts of his nephew’s recovery.

7 Herbert’s story is quite rare, but it is not a single case of a patient’s coming to oneself after a long period in a coma.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 3

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-5) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answer on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

From The Sunday Times

October 26, 2008

KEEP CLICKING AND YOU’LL BE A SNAPPY THINKER

The net is making us good at quick decisions - but there is a cost

Brendan Montague and Helen Brooks

The internet is changing the way the human brain works, researchers have found. It is improving people’s ability to make snap decisions and filter large amounts of information — but at the cost of subtle skills such as picking up the nuances of facial expression.

Overall, a new study concludes, the brains of those tested were markedly more active when carrying out internet searches than when reading books.

However, the stimulation was concentrated in the areas that control decision-making and complex reasoning. Areas linked to abstract thinking and empathy showed virtually no increase in stimulation.

Gary Small, director of the memory and ageing research centre at the University of California, Los Angeles, who carried out the research, said that, while computers have marked benefits in stimulating the brain, their use needed to be moderated.

There was a possibility, he argued, that the saturation use of digital technology could lead to long-term evolutionary change.

“Young people are growing up immersed in this technology and their brains are more malleable, more plastic and changing than with older brains,” said Small.

“The next generation, as [Charles] Darwin suggests, will adapt to this environment. Those who become really good at technology will have a survival advantage — they will have a higher level of economic success and their progeny will be better off.”

Small is to publish his findings in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. He has set out his arguments in more depth in a new book, iBrain.

His claims reignite the debate about the effects of technology on the brain. Some scientists have blamed computer games for the growth of attention deficit disorder among children.

Small scanned the brains of 24 volunteers. He found that browsing websites stimulated the frontal, temporal and cingulate areas of the brain, which control complex reasoning. Older users and those who had not previously tried the internet all showed similar effects.

Baroness Greenfield, director of the Royal Institution and author of ID: The Quest for Identity in the 21st Century, said: “The hypothesis in iBrain is that natural selection will weed out people with brains that are more emotional or more capable of abstract thought and that we will be left with people who are more autistic in tendency. I would agree.”

However, Igor Aleksander, emeritus professor of neural systems engineering at Imperial College London, said: “It may be that by using the internet you stimulate different parts of the brain. However, it would be difficult to show this could not be achieved through other situations.”

0 What approach was taken in the recent research to prove the influence of the internet on the human brain?

A The brains’ subtleties were tested.

В Abstract thinking was stimulated.

C Net-browsing was compared to reading.

D Some areas were simulated virtually.

1 According to the text, which of the following is true of the way the internet may improve the human brain?

A Our brains will be able to excel in subtle skills.

В  Our brains will be able to take in a lot of information.

C Our brains will be able to respond fast to life options.

D Our brains will be able to do more complex tasks.

Why does Gary Small believe that the use of computers should be moderated?

A Not all areas of our brain react similarly on the internet activity.

В The intensive use of computers may have far-reaching effects.

C The evolution of digital technology may take a long time to occur.

D The next generation will change faster than the people today.

3 Why does the author mention the fact that some scientists have blamed computer games for the growth of attention deficit disorder among children?

A To show that he condemns the use of computer games by kids.

В To prove that there is no consensus among the researchers.

C To illustrate the findings of Gary Small in the brain stimulation.

D To debate with the belief that technology gives a survival advantage.

4 What does Small mean predicting that people will be “more autistic in tendency” (line 29)?

A People will avoid social interaction.

В  People will be focused on emotions.

C People will have deficit of attention.

D People will tend to abstract thinking.

5 What is the opinion of Igor Alexander on the conclusions made by Small?

A He is skeptical about them.

В He takes them for granted.

C He disagrees with them.

D He is tentative about them.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 4

 

Read the text below. For (1-5) choose T if the statement is true according to the text, F if it is false.

Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

FUNDRAISING FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD

School Events Raising $$

By Lacey Dionne

Thousands of students participate at school in events and projects that fundraise to help the less-fortunate in the developing world. From national UNICEF-sponsored programmes to projects put on by a single individual, young Canadians are working to make a difference in the lives of millions of poor, sick or abused men, women and children. Here is one young Canadian’s experience with a 30-Hour Famine school fundraiser...

One of the best memories I have from high school was participating in a WorldVision 30-Hour Famine fundraiser. I attended high school in a small village in New Brunswick named Plaster Rock. It’s one of those towns where everyone knows everyone. So something like the 30-Hour Famine is going to draw a lot of attention in a small village like that. And did it ever. Some parents were mad because they didn’t want their children to go that long without food so they weren’t even allowed to participate.

I vividly remember how much fun we had. After handing in our sponsor sheets with the donations that had been pledged by our family, neighbours and friends, we had a meeting in the school lobby to officially start “the fast”. Everyone who wasn’t participating was eating around us just to rub it in our faces. But we didn’t care. We knew it was all for a good cause.

That night there was a Much Music video dance at the high school and everyone doing the famine went because we weren’t allowed to leave the school property. Time flew by because everyone was so busy dancing and having a good time socializing with each other. It was a typical party. The boys got into fights and tried to show off for the girls by hitting each other. Girls were breaking up with their boyfriends and hooking up with other guys. It’s funny how cranky some people get when they have empty stomachs. But it was also a great way to get to know people better and to make new friendships with others sharing the experience.

After the dance, the student council had arranged for us to watch movies in the lecture theatre all night. My group of friends lay on the gymnastic mats on the floor and watched sappy chick flicks. And playing hide and seek in an old, dark school was fun too. No one seemed to care they were going without food until 3 a.m. came around.

When you’re on the famine, you are only allowed to drink juice and water. But nothing with a lot of nutritious value. Nobody seemed to mind they had gone all day without food.

The next morning everyone woke up to screaming and hollering. The boys had decided to throw cold water on us. How typical is that. The rest of the 30 hours was spent watching movies and running around the school. Everyone by this point was super hungry but we didn’t care. We had too much fun doing the Famine to care. Just as everyone was getting ready to leave, student council brought in party pizzas.

Everyone ran to the pizzas which of course lasted about five minutes. The famine was labeled a huge success and everyone had lots to talk about at school that Monday morning.

http://www.fazeteen.com/reallife/aidsinafrica/fundraiser.htm

 

0 Fundraising initiatives can be put forward by anyone who wants to help the less- fortunate people.

1 Everyone in the town approved of the pupils’ staying without food as it was all for a good cause.

2 The participants of the event had donated some cash to the developing world before they officially started the famine.

3 Being committed to the idea, those who were on the famine were not tempted by those who were eating around them.

4 When at a dance party, the kids on the famine were eccentric yet open to enjoyment and new experience.

5 Despite staying without food for 30 hours, the high school pupils did not mind doing the famine longer.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 5

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-5) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answer on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

PRACTICE SAFE CHATTING ON THE NET!

By Waleed Ahmed

In this world of the online communities and other adventures to discover, it is natural for all the kids to be interested in getting on the bandwagon. It is but natural for them to be interested in knowing about what goes on in the World Wide Web. But for those who are at the tender age of below their teens, it is important to be cautious before they get going! Kids of the under 12 age should be discovering this interesting internet world of online communities and international chatting under parental guidance and instructions.

It is a learning experience for sure to be chatting with old friends and making new ones. But some times you may fall in the wrong trap. You may fall in the hands of bad guys or perverts who are not there for some healthy chatting but for other mean purposes. So what is it that, you kids should do to make sure you are in a safe environment and having some healthy fun while chatting with friends.

Tell your parents whatever you are doing online. This is very important and will help in your parents guiding you to the good chatting sites.

Chat with kids your age and not adults. Make sure that you do not give away too much information to the other kids. Discuss the information to be given away before hand with your parents.

Try and chat about educational things like science projects, interactive learning etc. you could also chat about the culture of your friend if he/she is from another country.

Keep a look out and if suspicious about anything then inform your parents instantly.

Never make any other contact except for on the net. Do not give away phone numbers etc without your parents verifying the other child’s credentials.

Never receive any obscene videos or pictures from others and if they try to entice you in to these things, inform your parents and stop chatting with them.

Chat only from your computer and never from your phone etc.

Never make chatting a habit. It should be a healthy hobby that should transpire in to a learning experience for you.

Chat within limits set by your parents. Don’t lie to them and chat beyond the time constraints set by them.

So make safe and healthy chatting a part of your chatting routine and you will see that you enjoy it. Overdoing anything is bad!

 

0 What is the author’s main point?

A Kids should be wary of chatting online.

В  Kids should ask parents for advice.

C Kids should follow certain rules online.

D Kids should have skills to chat online.

1 In stating that kids are “interested in getting on the bandwagon” (line 2), the author means that ______.

A They want to join the online community.

В They want to discover travel opportunities.

C They want to experience an adventure trip.

D They want to know what goes on in the world.

2 According to the text, which of the following is true of chatting on the net?

A Chatting online is healthy and fun.

В Chatting can lead kids into danger.

C Chatting online is safe for kids.

D Chatting online is harmful for kids.

3 What does the author advise to kids who are going to chat?

A Provide clear information about yourself.

В Verify your chat partner’s credentials.

C Meet your online contacts personally.

D Discuss your online activities with parents.

4 What does the author mean saying that overdoing anything is bad (last line)?

A Too much chatting can be bad to kids.

В Too much enjoyment can be bad to kids.

C Too much supervision can be bad for kids.

D Too much information can be bad for kids.

5 The text supports which of the following conclusions?

A Chatting online should be restricted for kids under 12.

В  Chatting online should become kids’ daily routine.

C Chatting online should bring enjoyment not harm.

D Chatting online should become an international hobby.


ЗАВДАННЯ 6

 

Read the text below. For (1-5) choose T if the statement is true according to the text, F if it is false. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

MEET ERIN CROCKER, RACE CAR DRIVER

By Susan Brody

Erin Crocker first got behind the wheel of a car at the age of six. Even though it was a go-cart, it was still a motorized vehicle! The following year, she started racing quarter-midgets—cars scaled down to one-quarter the size of midget race cars—and she hasn’t taken her foot off the accelerator since.

Erin, 27, became only the 11th female driver to compete in the NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) Busch Series, considered the “minor leagues” to the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of professional competition and home to the Daytona 500. The Wilbraham, Mass, native also races in the NASCAR Truck Series, which features pickup trucks. Currently, Erin is one of two women racing in NASCAR where speeds can reach 190 M.P.H. and races are won by milliseconds. But being a pioneer isn’t new to Erin; she has been competing in the male-dominated sport of racing since she was seven. “My father was into cars and had my older brothers involved in racing,” she said. “I loved sports and always wanted to be outside, so I just sort of got involved too.”

Get involved she did. After graduating from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with an engineering degree in 2003, Erin became the first woman to qualify for the Knoxville Nationals (driving a 410 sprint car) and was named the 2003 Knoxville Nationals Rookie of the Year. Most recently, she has become the first woman to join the Evernham Motorsports driver development program which positions her to ascend to the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. “I’m living my dream right now,” Erin said. “I worked really hard to get here, but this opportunity (with Evernham) is the greatest.”

While Erin was growing up, cars weren’t the only things that kept her busy. Between races, she found time to play on her high school soccer, tennis and lacrosse varsity teams as well as be a member of the ski team.

For girls interested in racing, Erin only offers words of encouragement. “There are a lot of opportunities for women in the sport right now. Many companies are hoping they can be on board when the first woman wins a race.” (In NASCAR, racers need the help of corporate sponsors to pay for their cars, equipment, crew, etc.)

While Erin’s got her eye on the future, she’s also focused on the here and now. “I want to get to the next level, which is obviously the Sprint Cup Series, but as of now, I am definitely living my dream and there really aren’t too many people who can say that.”

 

0 Erin started her racing experience with driving a kart.

1 She took to racing because the men in her family were keen on cars.

2 Currently it is not unusual that women compete with men in racing.

3 Racing was the only sport she enjoyed and went in for.

4 The companies would rather sponsor a woman race car driver than a man.

5 She is doing a hard job but she is absolutely happy with it.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 7

 

Read the text below. Match choices (A-G) to (1-4). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

COOKING TECHNIQUES: Cutting up a Mango

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Cut off exposed cubes.

В Scoop out a round hole from mango with a rounded measuring spoon.

C Hold one half, peel side down, in your cupped hand or place on a cutting board.

D Slice off both sides close to the seed to create two halves.

E Bend mango backward until the center pops up.

F Cut a large rectangular chunk of mango like this.

G Score pulp in a crosshatch pattern, down to, but not through the peel (repeat with other half).

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 8

 

 

Read the text below. For (1-5) choose T if the statement is true according to the text, F if it is false. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

THE TORTURE KING Control (ouch) of the Mind (ouch)

By Karen Coyle

Tim Cridland, also known as Zamora The Torture King or The Human Pincushion, made his debut years ago with Jim Rose’s Circus Sideshow and has since appeared on Ripley’s Believe it or Not and Real TV. He is a man of many strange talents.

 

At a young age, Cridland became extremely interested in sideshows and the unusual stunts performed at them. Through books he learned about snake charmers and sword swallowers and he decided it was something he wanted to pursue.

“It was an ongoing interest of mine that kept growing bigger and bigger,” he said. Tim’s first side show accomplishment was fire eating. That was a feat he mastered at the young age of 15.

“I thought that was pretty cool,” said Cridland, “I thought that was something I’d like to see. But nobody was doing it, especially in the small town I lived in.” So he decided to learn the ropes himself. It was a slow process that took many years of studying mediation rituals and self-hypnosis to become the torture guru he is today.

“I’ve been doing fire eating the longest,” he says. “Then putting the skewers just through the skin on the fore arms, then it just went up from there.”

Zamora’s signature act is piercing his flesh with meat skewers. At the show I attended in Toronto, one skewer went through the arm and another went in his mouth, under his tongue and out the bottom of his chin. According to The Torture King, this act has made several people faint, including members of other sideshows. At different shows he pierces different parts of his body, although his arms and face seem to be the most common. For the Guinness Book of Records, he had 106 pins in his body at once. “I could have done twice as many,” he claims, “but it wasn’t really for the record, it was just an excuse to do fun stuff on TV.”

Because of his extensive studies and years of practice, Cridland is fully in tune with his body. He knows exactly where to put the skewers when piercing himself to produce the least amount of blood possible. Through self-hypnosis he has also learned to ignore the pain.

“There is nothing abnormal about me physically,” said The Torture King. “Everything I’ve done, I’ve trained myself to do. I’d say what I’m doing is demonstrating some kind of extreme examples of what you can do with your mind and combining that with your body. You could take the same techniques I use to overcome pain and use them in your own life to inspire you to persevere against the pains in life we all have to deal with.”

 

0 Tim Cridland started developing his strange talent from practicing snake charming and sword swallowing.

1 Tim Cridland took classes from an experienced sideshow guru.

2 The audience is usually shocked watching Tim Cridland pierce himself.

3 Tim Cridland believes he hasn’t reached the limit of his talents.

4 He explains his extraordinary skills with training mind and body.

5 He shows how he overcomes pain to inspire other people to try repeating his tricks.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 9

 

Read the text below. Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each of (1-5). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

I FELT LIKE A STRANGER IN MY ADOPTED COUNTRY

DOROTHY GLEES ON, Trowbridge, Wilts

I have lived in this country for ten years already. So I decided it was time to apply for citizenship. (0) It was to check my language skills and knowledge of the U.K. I had to buy a special book to find out a vast spectrum of novelties, such as children’s pocket money, how Christmas is celebrated and the structure of the government and the Royal Family.

(1) __________________. The road where the Learning Centre is (where you take the exam) has two parts, separated by a huge roundabout, and traps such as narrow one-way lanes. (2) _____________________.

I — blonde, white, of Eastern European origin and looks - was under the keen gaze of groups of men of various ethnic origins and ages occupying pavements. (3) _________________. I could feel the tension — I was an intruder, looking for something.

Close to tears, I finally found the place. (4) _______________________. There was no trace of life within.

I wanted very much to prove I can speak English well and had absorbed the book. (5) ____________________. Dispirited, I gave up.

We’re al! concerned about the wellbeing of everybody: looking, thinking, cooking and praying differently. Why doesn’t it work the other way?

I’ll look for another test centre — or give up the whole idea.

 

A I made an appointment to take the exam in Bristol.

В It was tightly secured with shutters, its signs badly damaged and surrounded by litter.

C I got lost in the maze of back streets trying to get back to the beginning.

D Going to Bristol was quite an event for me.

E They were looking at me, talking about me, waiting for me to reappear.

F I was looking for someone to advise me about this procedure.

G It was so crowded and noisy as if it were a food market.

H Yet it was a horrible experience of danger and fear.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 10

 

Read the text below. Match choices -I) to (1-6). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

0 VICKY, CANADA

Many times I have helped other fellow students to cheat from my examination paper and at the end when I saw that they had a good mark, I was very happy, even if you call it cheating! I have also cheated from my friend’s paper. Nothing can be done! Students are clever enough to find new ways to overcome the obstacles that [others] are trying to impose upon them.

1 KAYSSIE, CANADA

The people who say cheating is good sometimes are the ones who know that it is never good. They are just trying to justify themselves so that they do not feel guilty. There are a lot of cheaters out there and they are making it hard for other people to do well. If you don’t cheat you are making life easier for the other non-cheaters. I mean if only one person in your class cheated, they probably wouldn’t do so well.

2 GABRIELA, BRAZIL

I think that cheating is not a big problem, but it can harm your future! Because “once a cheater, always a cheater” and then you learn nothing. You will have difficulty in the examination test... Consequently, you don’t go to a university! So the best thing to do is to study hard!

3 WILLOW ROSENBERG, U.S.A.

I was doing my English test, when my friend asked me to exchange the tests. It was my first time cheating, so we tried, but we made a huge mistake. He took the first page of the test and I took the second. When the teacher turned to see what was going on, he saw each of us holding one page of the test. We both went to the principal’s office and got a zero. Yeah, I learned with my mistakes...

4 MICHAELA, U.S.A.

I think that cheating is bad, but truthfully everyone has tried it in some shape or form in their life.

I personally have and sometimes I am not successful, but most the times I am. Cheating is wrong: if you feel you have to hide and be secretive about something, it is wrong. This does not stop people from cheating. Some people make a job cheating people out of money and other things.

5 NOBERTO, U.S.A.

Well, I don’t think that the teachers should even care of a boy or girl who cheats on a test. They are just hurting themselves. But I do not think it is right for a teacher to say she has seen someone cheating because they have happened to talk. Some teachers just need to sit and get off our backs.

6 WALLART, U.S.A.

I think that cheating is common in schools and very understandable. This is because teachers give too much work and a lot of hard tests that force you into cheating. Therefore I think that teachers should STOP giving so much work and tests. Cheating is cool with me. I also think that teachers and people who work at school are bad at catching cheaters and that cheating is completely necessary at this current time. :) CHEAT ON!

 

This student mentions that

A it is no use fighting against cheating.

В cheating at school may lead a person to fraud in future.

C a student can be expelled from the university for cheating.

D cheating is unfair for those who have prepared for a test.

E a student should cheat only when it is completely necessary.

F teachers should not keep an eye on students during the test.

G cheating may catch up with a student by his getting caught.

H s/he is proud of being able to outwit teachers on the exam.

I cheating on a test can spoil students’ career opportunities.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 11

 

Read the following text. For (1-7) choose T if the statement is true according to the text, F if it is false. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

By Sally Deneen

You may notice that whenever you’re at work your eyes get watery, your nose or throat get irritated, your skin becomes dry or itchy. You start to get a headache. Fatigue sets in. It’s hard to concentrate. Colleagues complain of similar symptoms. Yet, an odd thing happens: soon after you leave the building you feel relief.

All are indicators of “sick building syndrome” (SBS). That’s a scary-sounding, catch-all term, which simply describes situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that seem linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Complaints may come from workers in one specific room or zone, or they may come from employees throughout a building. One report cited by EPA says up to 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may prompt excessive complaints related to lousy indoor air quality.

“Sick building syndrome probably originated as a result of the oil embargoes that began in the mid- 1970s,” reports the journal Archives of Environmental Health. Buildings erected after that increasingly were built “tight” - with windows that couldn’t open, for instance - to conserve energy. An unexpected consequence: Fungi became trapped indoors, along with chemicals released from cleaning products, ozone from photocopiers, pesticides sprayed by the exterminator, fumes from new carpets, and secondhand cigarette smoke drifting indoors from the ventilation system.

Often, according to the EPA, problems trace to a building being operated or maintained in a manner that is inconsistent with its original design or operating procedures. Sometimes indoor air problems trace to poor building design or occupant activities.

There’s some thought that no one really knows why people get sick; maybe it isn’t the air, but some other reason, like maybe sitting too long in front of a computer (“visual display unit” or “VDU”). One study found increased sick-building symptoms when working at a VDU at least seven hours a day; other studies found an effect after fewer hours, according to the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

To figure out what’s going on, building managers can conduct a walk-through survey to look for obvious issues such as poor cleaning, water damage or overcrowding, then may distribute a questionnaire to employees to get a sense of the extent of the problem.

Solutions can be wide-ranging, including storing paint only in well-ventilated areas and letting new carpets off-gas their airborne pollutants before anyone goes inside the building.

 

0 The term “sick building syndrome ” has been accurately defined.

1 Only people who permanently stay in certain parts of the building suffer from SBS.

2 No exact causes of SBS have been determined so far.

3 Using low-power technologies in construction blocked fresh air inflow to the building.

4 The architects anticipated the problems with the air indoors.

5 SBS cannot be exclusively explained by the mistakes of the building’s designers.

6 Indoor air problem is the only reason found to cause sick-building symptoms.

7 Workers’ opinions may help understand this problem.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 12

 

Read the texts below. Match choices (A-H) to (1-5). There are two choices you do not need to use.

Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

WHY DO TEENS TAKE RISKS?

When teens drink or do other forbidden things, adults often say we aren’t thinking about the risks of unsafe behaviour. But a recent study shows that teens think things through far more than people realize. I wanted to know more, so I decided to interview Dr. Valerie Reyna, a Cornell University professor.

David Schmutzer

Interviewer: 0 ________A____________

Dr. Valerie Reyna: The conventional wisdom has been that kids do these activities because they think they’re invulnerable and they’re going to live forever. The research has shown that’s not the case. In fact, teens think that they’re more vulnerable than adults think they are.

Teens actually take longer than adults to think about the risks and benefits of doing something dangerous They even overestimate their risk. But then they decide the benefits — like peer acceptance — outweigh the risks. That’s why they engage in the risky behaviour.

Interviewer: 1________________

Reyna: We used to think that you got to be an adult and you began to calculate risks more. But now the evidence suggests that you calculate less as you get older, and that’s why you don’t take risks.

The theory is that adults don’t need to go into the precise details and weigh them to make a decision. Instead, they base their decisions on their bottom-line “gist” of the situation.

Interviewer: 2______________

Reyna: There are certain situations that adults look at and they say, “Wow, we know how this situation is going to turn out before we hear the rest of the story.” For young people without experience, what happens can be a surprise.

For example, let’s say it’s prom night and some kids are renting a hotel room, there’s a lot of drinking going on, and there’s no adult supervision. Most adults won’t be surprised that there might be some behaviour problems in that situation: an adult immediately gets the gist. The bottom-line decision is that you don’t get into that situation. If you’re not in that situation, nothing bad will happen to you.

Interviewer: 3________________

Reyna: There are teens who are thrill seekers and others who are more risk-averse and that continues into adulthood. Some teens appear to mature faster, which means they’re getting the “gist” sooner.

Why do some teens get the gist sooner than others? We don’t know, but as you get more experience, you learn more about risky behaviour and your thinking changes. Also, parents are often cited as the most important role models in a child’s life.

Interviewer: 4________________

Reyna: Believe it or not, but teens overestimate the risk of risky behaviours. The teens surveyed didn’t think they were immortal. In fact, some had a very fatalistic attitude [meaning they think they are powerless to change the future].

What’s the first thing public health officials do when they’re trying to educate teens? They tell teens what the risks are because they want to inform them. It’s very well intentioned, but it could backfire. In fact, if you tell a teen the risk is X and it turns out it’s lower than they thought it was, you could make them more likely to engage in risky behaviour.

Interviewer: 5__________________

Reyna: Examine your values carefully and think about how your everyday life connects to those values. Instead of thinking of values as an abstraction, think about how you would apply them to your encounters with people in concrete situations.

 

A What makes teens do risky things?

В How can public health officials help to inform teens?

C What surprised you in your research?

D What’s your advice to teens?

E When do teens start making more adult decisions?

F Why do some teens choose not to take risks?

G What’s “bottom-line” decision-making?

H What are the benefits for teens to engage in the risky behaviour?


 

ЗАВДАННЯ 13

 

Read the texts below. Match choices (A-H) to (1-5). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

TIME MANAGEMENT TIPS

From Grace Fleming

0) ________A____________

Good time management skills can help students increase their grades and improve their overall school work performance. By learning to complete assignments on time every time, students will have a better classroom experience. Discover which tips are right for you.

1)_________________________________

Do you find yourself rushing to complete your homework assignment at the last moment? The root of this common problem may be time management. This easy exercise will help you identify the tasks or habits that take time away from your studies and help you develop more healthy homework habits.

2)_________________________________

“The assignment is due when? Tomorrow?”

Somehow, that assignment due date just slipped right up on us without our noticing.

That is why organizational skills are so important to school performance. Who can afford to score a big fat “0” on a paper just because we got lazy and didn’t pay attention to the due date?

3)_________________________________

If you have a Yahoo! account or another email system, you can use the free calendar feature to organ­ize your homework. You will be able to enter each assignment as you receive it, make notes, and receive reminders as each due date approaches.

4)_________________________________

Procrastination is like a little white lie we tell ourselves. We think we’ll feel better if we do something fun, like watch a TV show, instead of studying or reading. But when we give in to the urge we always feel worse in the long run, not better.

5)_________________________________

If you’re like many students, you sometimes have trouble getting started on a project, because the end result seems so far away and impossible to reach. Sometimes when you start out with an idea and a blank sheet of paper and look into the future, all you see is lots and lots of unfinished research, reading, planning, and work. Next time try starting at the end and looking backward!

 

A Use Time for Better Results

В Send Yourself Reminders

C Use a Personal Organizer

D Avoid Delaying Assignments

E Use a Task Diary

F Attend to Unfinished Tasks

G Try Backward Planning

Y Develop Healthy Habits

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 14

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-12) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

THE GAMING INDUSTRY

The game industry of the modem age is (0) ___A___. Nearly every young child and teenager in all developed countries (1) __________ a gaming console of some description. I remember my first ever “game” was one of the classic Game Boy’s, by Nintendo. I treasured that (2) __________________________________ of technology for a long time... until the Game Boy colour (3) __________ at least.

So what is it about the games nowadays that (4) __________ everyone so easily? Is it the sheer size of the games, the graphical value of them, or is it just the fact that they’re (5) __________ to play? I, for one, only ever buy a game which satisfies all of those (6) __________. Imagine having a huge game that’s not fun to play on? Imagine having a fun game, which has (7) __________ embedded from level one onwards? Imagine a game that looks (8) __________ in the show windows, but is (9) __________ awful when you get it back home?

The gaming industry is divided into many sections. You can have (10) __________ from a Role-Playing Game (RPG) to a First-Person Shooter (FPS). (11) __________ of the modern era can vary from being offline to being a massively multiplayer (12) __________ game, which hosts of thousands real-life people around the globe. You’re only young once. Enjoy it while you can.

 

0

A

awful

В

exceeding

C

tremendous

D

intensive

1

A

owns

В

belongs

C

presents

D

imagines

2

A

part

В

section

C

side

D

piece

3

A

published

В

sold

C

came out

D

found

4

A

treasures

В

embeds

C

hooks

D

enjoys

5

A

enjoy

В

fun

C

happy

D

glad

6

A

ideas

В

criteria

C

needs

D

sets

7

A

levels

В

criteria

C

features

D

glitches

8

A

pleased

В

developed

C

fantastic

D

happy

9

A

actually

В

essentially

C

substantially

D

easily

10

A

nothing

В

everything

C

any

D

others

11

A

Games

В

Players

C

Consoles

D

Industries

12

A

real

В

practical

C

online

D

offline

 

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 15

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-12) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

THE $20 LESSON

A well (0) ___B____ speaker started off his seminar by holding up a $20 bill. In the room of 200, he asked, “Who would like this $20 bill?” Hands started (1) __________.

He said, “I am going to give this $20 to one of you but first, let me do this.” He proceeded to crumple the bill up. He then asked, “Who (2) __________ wants it?” Still the hands were up in the air. Well, he replied, “What if I do this?” And he (3) __________ it on the ground and started to grind it into the floor with his shoe. He picked it up, now crumpled and dirty. “Now who still wants it?” Still the hands went into the (4) __________.

“My friends, you have all (5) __________ a very valuable lesson. No (6) __________ what I did to the money, you still wanted it because it did not decrease in (7) __________. It was still (8) __________ $20.

Many times in our lives, we are dropped, crumpled, and ground into the dirt by the (9) __________ we make and the circumstances that come our (10) __________. We feel as though we are (11) __________. But no matter what has happened or what will happen, you will never lose your value: dirty or clean, crumpled or finely creased, you are still priceless to those who love you. The worth of our lives comes not in what we do or who we know, but by WHO WE ARE. You are (12) __________ — Don’t ever forget it.” Count Your Blessings, not your problems.

 

0

A

said

В

known

C

important

D

interesting

1

A

going on

В

going down

C

going up

D

going with

2

A

still

В

already

C

just

D

often

3

A

fell

В

dropped

C

felt

D

went down

4

A

space

В

sky

C

ground

D

air

5

A

studied

В

taught

C

learned

D

wanted

6

A

matter

В

issue

C

affair

D

stuff

7

A

worth

В

value

C

price

D

wealth

8

A

cost

В

value

C

charged

D

worth

9

A

solutions

В

measures

C

decisions

D

results

10

A

way

В

manner

C

path

D

road

11

A

worthy

В

valuable

C

depressed

D

worthless

12

A

specific

В

especial

C

odd

D

special

 

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 16

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-5) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answer on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

From The Times

March 25, 2009

RUDEST NAMES FROM THE MIDDLE AGES ARE DYING FROM EMBARRASSMENT

Valentine Low

They are some of the oldest surnames in the land, passed down from generation to generation for hundreds of years. But over the past century or so, they have gone into a catastrophic decline.

Is it migration? Death? Disease? Some socio-demographic calamity that has befallen these families? Perhaps not. A list of the names reveals that their fall in popularity may have a more prosaic cause.

Cock, Daft, Death, Smellie, not to mention Gotobed, Shufflebottom and Jelly: they are all surnames that would have caused their owners considerable embarrassment over the years. A new analysis of British surnames reveals how names with rude overtones have seen the sharpest decline over the past 120 years as their owners have changed them to something more innocuous.

The analysis, which was conducted by Professor Richard Webber, visiting professor of geography at King’s College London, with Experian, the information services company, and Geowise, a provider of geographical analysis software, also reveals fascinating details about patterns of migration.

The fastest-growing surname in Britain is Zhang, which has grown from 123 in 1996 to 5,804 in 2008. It is followed by four other Chinese names — Wang, Yang, Huang and Lin; only after that do a couple of African names get a look in, Moyo and Dube.

Some things have not changed, however. In 1881 the most popular surnames were, in order, Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Davies, Wilson, Evans and Thomas; those top nine names are still in the exactly the same order of popularity today.

Where people live has also remained remarkably constant — for hundreds of years. People whose names end in -thorpe, -ing or -by are more likely to have descended from invaders such as the Vikings, Danes or Angles, according to Professor Webber, and are still to be found concentrated on the east coast of Britain. “You are six times more likely to have a neighbour whose name ends in -thorpe or -by if you live in Hull than if you live in Plymouth,” he said.

 

According to the paragraph, the oldest surnames in Britain have gone into a decline because of ____________.

A intensive migration

В demographic mishap

C prosaic diseases

D awkward associations

1 The word “innocuous” in the text is closest in meaning to ___________.

A inoffensive

В safe

C innocent

D prosaic

2 According to the paragraph, which of the following is true of Professor Webber’s research?

A It forecast the decline of the most popular names in Britain.

В It focused on the origin and history of the British surnames.

C It was a joint project done by researchers and businesses.

D It studied the impact of foreign surnames on the local ones.

3 The author mentions some Chinese and African names in paragraph 5 in order to illustrate that _________.

A immigration to Britain has increased

В relocation influences the names’ popularity

C immigrants influenced British surnames

D Chinese names dominate over African ones

4 The author mentions top nine British names in paragraph 6 in order to prove that ___________.

A their analysis has revealed fascinating details

В their list remains remarkably constant

C their order of popularity today remains the same

D their number is not growing currently

5 Among the factors that influence the register of the surnames used in this country the author discusses all of the following except ___________.

A Migratior

В Location

C Origin

D Tradition


 

ЗАВДАННЯ 17

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-6) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answer on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

RUNNING FREE

Barefoot Training

By Mike Ryan

In the world of running shoes, the trend has been toward more cushion, more support, more comfort. But, to a small group of running coaches and foot specialists, modern athletic shoes are doing to feet what plush living room sofas and TV remotes have been doing to people: making them lazy, physically underdeveloped and more prone to injuries.

A few years ago when Nike was looking for the next big advance in running shoe design, they asked some of the world’s most respected track and field coaches for advice. A common response must have made their heads spin a little: We don’t need any more shoe, we need less shoe, in fact, maybe we need no shoe. Give us the bare human foot.

Legendary Stanford track coach Vin Lananna said, “I believe that athletes that have been training barefoot run faster and have fewer injuries. It’s just common sense.” Vin regularly put his athletes through their paces barefoot on the grass of the university’s practice golf course. Other coaches agree, and point to the foot/ ankle strength and resistance to injury seen in African and Caribbean runners who have grown up playing and running barefoot much of the time.

So, the research and development team at Nike set out to make a shoe that acted like it wasn’t there; one that trained and worked the foot as nature intended. What’s the point, you may ask? Why not just train in your bare feet? Well, that’s fine if you have a finely groomed golf course to run on, but most athletes train in the street, in the gym, on the track, or out on the trails. This still calls for a shoe that not only offers protection from glass and pebbles, but also from the strike of the foot on hard bruising surfaces.

The first step was to measure exactly what happened to the bare foot when it ran: what the contact areas were between the foot and the ground, how the ankle and toes moved. Once they collected the data, the next step was to create a shoe that could reproduce the natural foot movement. The design team, led by Toby Hatfield and Eric Evar, struggled through innumerable concepts and finally came up with an entirely new kind of shoe. Deep slices in the sole, virtually no ankle support and room for the toes to spread out and move; all head-turning designs. Then it was off to testing again, to make sure the shoe really imitated barefoot running. There was a lot of “back to the drawing board” fine tuning but eventually the Nike Free was created and ready for real-world testing.

Earlier this year, in Germany at the University of Cologne the results of a season-long research study of university track athletes showed enhanced performance and speed by training in the Nike Free shoes. One key point is that Nike Free is a “training shoe,” and Nike Free and barefoot training are tools to make you stronger.

 

0 The author compares sneakers with plush sofas and TV remotes to argue that modern athletic shoes may ____________.

A bring harmful comfort

В support athlete’s feet

C cushion any blows

D protect against injuries

1 How did Nike designers’ react to the experts’ advice?

A They were enthusiastic.

В  They were confused.

C They were skeptical.

D They were set against.

According to Vin Lananna, which of the following explains the need for a shoe that could reproduce the barefoot movement?

A Training barefoot is just common sense.

В It was a request by the design team at Nike.

C The traditional sneakers design was on the way out.

D Training barefoot improves runners’ stamina.

3 Why cannot modern athletes just train in bare feet?

A They don’t see the point.

В They are used to shoes.

C They may get injured.

D They haven’t thought of it.

4 The word ‘head-turning’ (designs) in the text is closest in meaning to ___________________.____________________________

A attractive

В sophisticated

C breakthrough

D incredible

5 By mentioning “back to the drawing board” fme tuning” the author means that the Nike designers __________________.

A used the drawings of the previous models

В had to start the procedures all over again

C made a lot of drawings before fme tuning

D tested their new concept back and forth

6 According to the text which of the following is true of the Nike Free model?

A It needs a finely-groomed track.

В It lacks real-world testing.

C It relieves stress from trainings.

D It boosts training efficiency.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 18

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-12) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

THE CATCHER IN THE RYE

by J. D. Salinger

The (0) ____in this book are so believable, you’ll think the author has been crawling around in your mind. Haven’t you read or heard something and thought: “That’s exactly how I feel, but I just couldn’t put it into (1) ________ ?” That idea keeps coming to mind as you read. This guy in the book (2) ________ in, but doesn’t (3) ________ fit in. He conforms on the outside — most of the time — but resists conformity on the inside and resents the people he (4) ________ to get along (5) ________.

Everybody’s pushing and he wants to (6) ________ back, but doesn’t openly — most of the time. Society says: “Get in step. Stay in (7) ________.” And he does — most of the time.

“But I’m not like the rest,” he thinks. Or is he? He can’t (8) ________ out who he is or what he wants to become.

The story may not (9) ________ you at first. Keep going! It’s worth the (10) ________.

You think nobody ever felt the way you do about growing (11) ________? Reading this will (12) ________ your mind.

http://www.aboutteens.org/BookReviews/book6.htm

 

0

A

characters

В

persons

C

members

D

participants •

1

A

practice

В

reality

C

words

D

ideas

2

A

adjusts

В

fits

C

comes

D

gets

3

A

hardly

B

rarely

C

factually

D

really

4

A

has

B

is

C

must

D

is about

5

A

with

B

off

C

at

D

for

6

A

move

B

get

C

push

D

be

7

A

love

B

touch

C

time

D

line

8

A

get

B

count

C

figure

D

miss

9

A

take

B

grab

C

seize

D

clutch

10

A

effort

B

text

C

mind

D

book

11

A

off

B

away

C

on

D

up

12

A

amend

B

alter

C

change

D

vary

 

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 19

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-12) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

BIKERS ON CITY STREETS DEMONSTRATE CARELESSNESS

Yixin Huang, Staff Writer

Cities all over America are currently expanding their budgets in order to improve city sidewalks. These sidewalks provide a safe path for pedestrians and bikers (0) ____ However, even when we pay extra taxes to the government in (1) ________ to provide a safer environment for people by enlarging sidewalks, many still staunchly refuse to take (2) ________ of this new improvement. Bikers still roam in the (3) ________ of the street, directly blocking cars and (4) ________. Such insolent acts not only degrade the well-being of our societies, but also renders much of our tax money (5) ________.

(6) ________ to say, it is only obvious that sidewalks are for non-motored modes of transportation, whereas the streets are for cars and other motored vehicles. This idea incorporates safety and efficiency because traffic is much faster without bikers (7) ________ the pathways of cars, and drivers don’t have to worry about poten­ tially dangerous incidents. Many accidents can’t be avoided when there are so many operational vehicles in the U.S, and thus, drivers should not have to be burdened with nervousness about circumventing accidents that can be (8) ________ only if bikers started using sidewalks.

Indeed, many are cognizant of this fact, including some (9) ________ themselves. When questioned about why they don’t use sidewalks, one biker said, “I don’t really know, everyone else is doing it...” Such capri­cious actions based only upon (10) ________ endanger many people. Many opposing options have also stated that the sidewalks are unsmooth and thus bicycles cannot achieve optimal speed. However, this only fuels an expectation for a change in their views because it is indecent to jeopardize human (11) ________ just to be able to (12) ________ a higher speed on a bicycle.

 

0

A

same

В

alike

C

similar

D

likely

1

A

kind

В

sort

C

order

D

plan

2

A

advantage

В

gain

C

part

D

help

3

A

average

В

heart

C

middle

D

medium

4

A

way

В

travel

C

passage

D

traffic

5

A

valuable

В

useful

C

priceless

D

useless

6

A

Never

В

So

C

Needless

D

Frankly

7

A

speeding

В

blocking

C

roaming

D

starting

8

A

avoided

В

evaded

C

saved

D

happened

9

A

bikers

В

drivers

C

people

D

officials

10

A

option

В

knowledge

C

fancy

D

impulse

11

A

skills

В

wishes

C

ideas

D

lives

12

A

enlarge

В

perceive

C

endanger

D

achieve

 

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 20

 

Read the text below. For questions (1-5) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answer on the separate answer sheet. An example (0) has been done for you.

THE GREAT STRUGGLE...

Just about everything is challenging at first. We are challenged when we decide we want to play a new game or sport, write, type, etc. Then someone mentions this art thing and you know from experience that it’s not the easiest thing in the world. Hey, we’ve all been there. It’s very common to give up trying because you think you messed up or you have run out of ideas.

No one can truly say they are the best — not just in drawing but in anything else — but it should be good to know that you’re not the only one and there is someone out there that wants to try and help. This is where I come in. These are just ideas from a beginner, but they helped me a lot.

Try to have others comment on your work. Don’t just ask how it looks, but try to ask what they like and what they don’t like. Yeah, some may lie and others may even be cruel and critical. But you aren’t going to improve unless you know what you need to improve on.

Here’s a great tip from the Totoro Sensei... get a big sketch book (about 11x14 or smaller if you want. Just something you can carry around). In it, you can quickly draw different things for practice and write down any ideas you have. It can be a good place to work out any problems, projects, or thoughts.

Try doing sketches (quick drawings); whatever looks interesting (and not too difficult for your level) will work. Remember, it doesn’t have to be perfect. It doesn’t have to be anime either — just do a shoe or a plant or something. Remember, you are just becoming familiar with new shapes and ways of doing things. Every sketch helps you a little bit more, you’ll become faster and your visual memory will be better.

In addition to that, just try drawing whatever comes to mind. Draw a face and just see where it goes from there, they can actually look pretty good in the end. Do you have any old anime or gaming magazines lying around? Draw characters from advertisements and games. Try the internet, there are tons of anime sites with pictures you may be looking for. Don’t limit yourself to one series. It’s way too easy to just draw a bunch of Pokemon or Ranma characters and have troubles with others. Hey, part of anime is developing your own style anyway.

Know that not everyone is going to see all of your drawings; it’s not important that the pages you sketch on are clean and organized. All that really matters is that you learn and improve on whatever it is you draw. Realistically, no one is really going to get good over-night. There are so many techniques and media out there. It’s all about developing your own style and not just copying everyone else.

 

0 What is the author’s purpose?

A To share his ideas on improving artistic skills.

В To give tips for beginners on working out problems.

C To persuade a reader to practice doing sketches.

D To teach a reader how to develop one’s own style.

The author discusses challenging things in paragraph 1 in order to ________.

A argue that every new activity is challenging

В prove that they are commonly messed up

C maintain that they are worth trying anyway

D show that art is one of common challenges

2 The author advises “to have others comment on your work” because this is a way ____________.

A to change their attitude to your drawings

В to know what exactly should be corrected

C to get your work evaluated objectively

D to learn their attitude to your art works

3 Discussing the value of doing sketches the author mentions all of the following except: _________.

A it makes your drawings perfect

В it improves your speed of drawing

C it improves your visual memory

D it makes you familiar with new shapes

4 Why does the author mention Pokemon and Ranma in paragraph ...?

A To give an example of the anime characters to be drawn.

В To argue that you should draw various anime characters.

C To assert that drawing these characters may not be difficult.

D To claim that anime characters require special drawing style.

5 The last paragraph of the text supports which of the following conclusions?

A No one is really going to become good overnight.

В There are tons of resources to help you improve.

C Developing your own style takes time and efforts.

D Copying others will make your drawings perfect.






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