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SECTION I. GRAMMAR

Unit 9. CONJUNCTION (СПОЛУЧНИК)

Сурядні

Coordinating

Єднальні

Copulative

Протиставні

Adversative

Розділові

Partitive

and

і, та, а

but

але, а

either ... or

або... або чи ... чи

as well as

так само

while

у той час

or

або, чи

both ... and

як ... так і

still

як

   

neither ... nor

ані ... ані

yet

усе ж

   

not only... but also

не тільки ... але й

whereas

поза тим, тоді як

   

Підрядні

Subordinating

after

as

as ... as

as if (as though)

as long as

as soon as

because

before

for

if

in order that

після того як

у той час як; бо; як

так само ... як

якби, якщо б поки, до того часу

поки

як тільки

тому що, оскільки

перед тим як

оскільки, бо

якщо (б)

(для того) щоб

since

so that

than

though

that

till / until

unless

when

whether

while

оскільки; з того часу як

(для того) щоб; з тим, щоб

чим

хоча

що

до того часу поки ... не

якщо ... не

коли

чи

поки, у той час як

Непохідні

Simple

Похідні

Derivative

Складні

Compound

Складені

Composite

and

і, й, та

unless

якщо не

however

проте, однак; незважаючи на це (те)

as well as

також як

hut

але, а, однак, проте if

якщо

because

тому що

whereas

тоді як, беручи до уваги, оскільки

as long as

поки; до тих пір, поки

that

той, та, те

until

доти, поки

wherever

де б не; куди б не

both ... and

та... і

if

якщо

in case

у випадку

               

Сполучникові слова

Conjunctive Words

Відносні займенники

Relative Pronouns

that (який)

Here is the CD that I want to listen

Ось компакт-диск, який я хочу послухати

what (що)

I don't know what crashed

Не знаю, що розбилось

which (який)

The book which you take was the last

Книга, яку ви взяли була остання

who (хто, який)

I wonder who knows him

Цікаво, хто знає його

whose (чий, котрий)

They are speaking about the visitor whose photo you showed me yesterday

Вони розмовляли про відвідувача, чиє фото ти показу вав мені вчора

Прислівники

The Adverbs

how (як)

I know how you did it

Я знаю як ти зробив це

when (коли)

I know when you did it

Я знаю коли ти зробив це

where (де)

I know where you did it

Я знаю де ти зробив це

why (чому)

I know why you did it

Я знаю чому ти зробив це

1. A Fill in the coordinating conjunctions.

1 He couldn’t go home ___ he had no place to go.

2 I took a taxi ___ she drove home.

3 He didn’t want help ___ did he ask for it.

4 I wanted to go late ___ she wanted to go on time.

5 She cooked dinner ___ he took her out to a restaurant.

6 She owned a car ___ she didn’t know how to drive it.

7 She had to go, ___ she called a friend to drive her.

B: Pill in the subordinating con junctions and use it in a sentence.

1 I cook our breakfast ___ my mom is cleaning the house.

2 I will be happy ___ my brother smiles.

3 My cat meows ___ my dog barks.

4 I ran ___ my legs hurt.

5 I won the race ___ I practiced.

6 The sky became grey ___ I was walking the street.

7 She gets angry ___ I shouted on her.

2. Choose the right eon junction for each sentence.

1 We are going out to dinner  the concert.

A before                 

В while

C so that

2 My parents wanted to sit in front of the balcony, __________ they ordered their tickets two months ago.

A but  

В unless                 

C so

3 I think you shouldn't leave __________ you get an apology from your sister.

A though                

В until 

C when

4 Tim is very tall __________ Bill is very short.

A but  

В since

C before

5 He came early __________ he could talk to me privately.

A however              

В so that                

C although

6 __________ he is old, he is healthy.

A although             

В but  

C while

7 __________ they saw the policeman, they ran away as quickly as they could.

A so    

В but  

C as soon as

8 I'm worried. My brother has __________ telephones __________ e-mailed me yet.

A either...or            

В neither...nor        

C not only...but also

9 I'm not sure about his nationality. He's __________ Australian __________ New Zealander.

Aeither...or             

В neither...nor        

C both...and

10 __________ is he handsome and charming __________ quite intelligent

A either...or               

В not only...but also

C neither...nor

3. Combine the sentences using the conjunctions given. Make the necessary changes.

1 Catherine and Ben got married. They had to learn how to cook. (after) —_____________________________

____________________________________________________

2 Liz got angry. Her husband burnt her breakfast. (when) —

____________________________________________________

3 You can hear what I'm saying. You keep quiet. (if) —      

____________________________________________________

4 She won’t invite her classmates to her birthday patty. She knows them well. (until) —

____________________________________________________

5 The first exercise was easy. This one is very difficult. (but) —   

____________________________________________________

6 We were waiting in line for Van Gogh exhibition. We ate our hamburgers. (while) —

____________________________________________________

7 Her Siamese cat disappeared. She has been very sad. (since) —

____________________________________________________

8 I hate living in the city. I’m moving to country. (so) —    

____________________________________________________

9 We didn’t see anything important. We didn’t hear anything important (neither...nor) —

____________________________________________________

10 They waited for over an hour the show was well worth it. (although) —

____________________________________________________

11 I love her paintings. She uses bright colours. (because) —

____________________________________________________

12 My father loves gardening. My mother loves gardening. (both...and) —

____________________________________________________

TEST

Choose А, В, C or D to fill in the blanks in the sentences below.

1 __________ the snow fell down, huge snowdrifts formed at the sides of the road.

A As 

В Before        

C Although    

D As if

2 We were looking for a shade__________ the sun was shining too bright.

A so 

В so that       

C whether     

D as

3 Make a list of the books you need __________ you don’t waste time in the library.

A so 

В because

C that           

D so that

4 _________ Marcus knows no German, he wants to go to a German university.

A As 

В If  

C Even          

D Even though

5 Could you ask Peter __________ he is coming to the party or not?

A when

В if               

C whether     

D unless

6 I’ll be waiting for you in the café __________ you come.

A before        

В while

C as 

D till

7 Mike was looking at me in surprise __________ he had never seen me before.

A when

В though       

C as if  

D so

8 Troy had hardly seen Joanna __________ he fell in love with her.

A as 

В when         

C after          

D before

9 We argued about __________ to buy flowers or chocolates.

A if   

В therefore    

C whether     

D unless

10 __________ we tried, our attempts failed.

A Nevertheless    

В Despite

C Because          

D however

11 We decided to put off the trip __________ the weather was changing for the worse.

A because of       

В unless 

C because          

D due to

12 The day was so hot __________ the streets were almost empty.

A and     

В that     

C so       

D because






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