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SECTION I. GRAMMAR

Unit 10. PASSIVE VOICE (ПАСИВНИЙ СТАН)

Час

Tense

Вид

Aspect

Теперішній

Present

Минулий

Past

Майбутній

Future

Indefinite

(Simple)

am

is + 3

are

was + 3

were

shall + be + 3

will

am

is + asked

are

was + asked

were

shall + be asked

will

Continuous

(Progressive)

am

is + being + 3

are

was + being + 3

were

shall + be -ing

will

am

is + being asked

are

was

asked + being

were

shall + be asking

will

Perfect

have been + 3

has been

had been + 3

shall + have been 3

will

have been + asked

has been

had been asked

shall + have been asked

will

Нa прикладі дієслова ask (запитати).

1) Неозначений вид, стверджувальні речення (Simple aspect, affirmative sentences).

Однина

Особа

Теперішній

Минулий

Майбутній

Singular

Person

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

 

I

I am asked

I was asked

I shall/will be asked

 

Yon

You are asked

You were asked

You will be asked

 

He

He is asked

He was asked

He will be asked

 

She

She is asked

She was asked

She was asked

 

It

It is asked

It was asked

It was asked

Множина

We

We are asked

We were asked

We will be asked

Plural

Yon

You are asked

You were asked

You will be asked

 

They

They are asked

They were asked

They will be asked

2) Неозначений вид, заперечувальні речення (Simple aspect, negative sentences).

Однина

Singular

Особа

Person

Теперішній

Present Simple

Минулий

Past Simple

Майбутній

Future Simple

 

I

lam not asked

I was not asked

I shall/will not be asked

 

You

You are not asked

You were not asked

You will not be asked

 

He

He is not asked

He was not asked

He will not be asked

 

She

She is not asked

She was not asked

She was not asked

 

It

It is not asked

It was not asked

It was not asked

Множина

We

We are not asked

We were not asked

We will not be asked

Plural

You

You are not asked

You were not asked

You will not be asked

 

They

They are not asked

They were not asked

They will not be asked

3) Неозначений вид, питальні речення (Simple aspect, interrogative sentences).

Однина

Особа

Теперішній

Минулий

Майбутній

Singular

Person

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

 

I

Am I asked?

Was I asked?

Shall I be asked?

 

You

Are you asked?

Were you asked?

Will you be asked?

 

He

Is he asked?

Was he asked?

Will he be asked?

 

She

Is she asked?

Was she asked?

Will she be asked?

 

It

Is it asked?

Was it asked?

Will it be asked?

Plural

We

Are we asked?

Were we asked?

Will we be asked?

(множина)

You

Are you asked?

Were you asked?

Will you be asked?

 

They

Are they asked?

Were they asked?

Will they be asked?

4) Подовжений вид стверджувальні речення (Continuous aspect, affirmative sentences).

Однина

Особа

Теперішній подовжений

Минулий подовжений

Singular

Person

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

 

I

lam being asked

I was being asked

 

You

You are being asked

You were being asked

 

He

He is being asked

He was being asked

 

She

She is being asked

She was being asked

 

It

It is being asked

It was being asked

Plural

We

We are being asked

We were being asked

(множина)

You

You are being asked

You were being asked

 

They

They are being asked

They were being asked

5) Подовжений вид, заперечували! і речення (Continuous aspect, negative sentences).

Однина

Особа

Теперішній подовжений

Минулий подовжений

Singular

Person

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

 

I

lam not being asked

I was not being asked

 

You

You are not being asked

You were not being asked

 

He

He is not being asked

He was not being asked

 

She

She is not being asked

She was not being asked

 

It

It is not being asked

It was not being asked

Множина

He

We are not being asked

We were not being asked

Plural

You

You are not being asked

You were not being asked

 

They

They are not being asked

They were not being asked

6) Подовжений вид, питальні речення (Continuous aspect, interrogative sentences).

Однина

Особа

Person

Теперішній подовжений

Минулий подовжений

Singular

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

 

I

Am I being asked?

Was I being asked?

 

You

Are you being asked?

Were you being asked?

 

He

Is he being asked?

Was he being asked?

 

She

Is she being asked?

Was she being asked?

 

It

Is it being asked?

Was it being asked?

Plural

We

Are we being asked?

Were we being asked?

(множина)

You

Are you being asked?

Were you being asked?

 

They

Are they being asked?

Were they being asked?

7) Перфектний вид, стверджувальні речення (Perfect aspect, affirmative sentences).

Однина

Singular

Особа

Person

Теперішній перфектний

Present Perfect

Минулий перфектний

Past Perfect

Майбутній перфектний

Future Perfect

 

I

I have been asked

I had been asked

I shall/will have been asked

 

You

You

You had been asked

You will have been asked

 

He

He has been asked

He had been asked

He will have been asked

 

She

She has been asked

She had been asked

She will have been asked

 

It

It has been asked

It had been asked

It will have been asked

Plural

We

We have been asked

We had been asked

We shall/will have been asked

(множина)

You

You have been asked

You had been asked

You will have been asked

 

They

They have been asked

They had been asked

They will have been asked

8) Перфектний вид, заперечували» речення (Perfect aspect, negative sentences).

Однина

Singular

Особа

Person

Теперішній нерфектний

Present Perfect

Минулий перфектний

Past Perfect

Майбутній перфектний

Future Perfect

 

I

I have not been asked

I had not been asked

I shall/will not have been asked

 

You

You have not been asked

You had not been asked

You will not have been asked

 

lie

He has not been asked

He had not been asked

He will not have been asked

 

She

She has not been asked

She had not been asked

She will not have been asked

 

It

It has not been asked

It had not been asked

It will not have been asked

Множина

Plural

We

We have not been asked

We had not been asked

We shall/will not have been asked

 

You

You have not been asked

You had not been asked

You will not have been asked

 

They

They have not been asked

They had not been asked

They will not have been asked

9) Перфектний вид, питальні речення (Perfect aspect, interrogative sentences).

Однина

Singular

Особа

Person

Теперішній перфектний

Present Perfect

Минулий перфектний

Past Perfect

Майбутній перфектний

Future Perfect

 

I

Have I been asked?

Had I been asked?

Shall I have been asked?

 

You

Have you been asked?

Had you been asked?

Will you have been asked?

 

He

Has he been asked?

Had he been asked?

Will he have been asked?

 

She

Has she been asked?

Had she been asked?

Will she have been asked?

 

It

Has it been asked?

Had it been asked?

Will it have been asked?

Множина

We

Have we been asked?

Had we been asked?

Will we have been asked?

Plural

You

Have you been asked?

Had you been asked?

Will you have been asked?

 

They

Have they been asked?

Had they been asked?

Will they have been asked?

Конструкції і дієсловом у пасивному стані

It is said that...— Кажуть, що...

It is said that Henry' is in love with Claire. — Кажуть, що Генрі закоханий у Клер.

Конструкція it + дієслово у пасивному стані + додаткове підрядне речення вживається у тому випадку, коли невідомо, хто саме повідомляє про подію, що трапилася. Такі конструкції вживаються, наприклад, у випусках новин:

U is thought that the company is planning a new advertising campaign. — Вважають, що компанія планує нову рекламну кампанію.

It was reported that the President had suffered a heart attack. — Доповідали, що президент зазнав серцевого нападу.

It has been agreed that changes to the scheme are necessary. — Було домовлено про те, що необхідні зміни до схеми.

У цій конструкції також вживаються дієслова: agree (домовлятися), allege (посилатися), announce (оголошувати), assure (запевняти), believe (вважати), consider (розглядати), decide (вирішувати), expect (очікувати), explain (очікувати), hope (сподіватися), know (знати), report (доповідати), say (говорити), suggest (пропонувати), suppose (вважати), think (думати, вважати), understand (розуміти)

Не is said to ...— Кажуть, що він...

В англійській мові також використовується конструкція підмет + дієслово у пасивному стані + to- infinitive.

Dynamo were expected to win. — Чекали, що “Динамо” виграє.

The company is thought to be planning a new advertising campaign. — Вважають, що компанія планує нову рекламну кампанію. (Хтось вважає, що вона планує нову рекламну кампанію.)

В цій конструкції вживаються дієслова: believe (вірити, вважати), expect (чекати), find (вважати), know (знати), report (доповідати), say (казати), think (думати, вважати), understand (розуміти).

Переклад дієслів у зворотах

“підмет + дієслово у пасивному етапі + to-infinitive"

to say

is said, was said

кажуть, казали

To know

is known, was known

відомо

to report

is reported, was reported

повідомляють, повідомили

to suppose

is supposed, was supposed

гадають, гадали

to expect

is expected, was expected

припускають, очікували

to consider

is considered, was considered

вважають, вважали

to assume

is assumed, was assumed

припускають, припускали

loth ink

is thought, was thought

думають, думали

to believe

is believed, was believed

вважають, вважали

1. Make the following interrogative and negative.

1. All pupils are supplied with textbooks. 2. America was discovered by Columbus. 3. The floor was painted last summer. 4. The shop will be closed at 8 o’clock. 5. The sick man is being operated on. 6. The room is being cleaned now. 7. This metro line was being built at that time. 8. This novel has been translated into Ukrainian. 9. A new cinema has been built in our town. 10. The tickets had been sold out by that time.

2. Change the following into the Passive Voice. Leave out the subject of action.

A. They grow wheat here. — Wheat is grown here.

1. The girls water the flowers every day. 2. They publish this magazine in Moscow. 3. We do not discuss such questions when we meet. 4. Somebody built this castle in the 16th century. 5. They did not show this film last week .6. They will not finish this work tomorrow. 7. We shall invite him. 8. The workers are repairing the roads. 9. They were showing the film from 7 till 8. 10. She has locked the door. 11. Someone has broken my pencil. 12. I have posted the letter. 13. They had written the composition before the bell rang. 14. The traveller made camp not far from the village.

B. The teacher gave him a pen. — He was given a pen.

1. They showed us the monuments of Lviv. 2. She offered me a cup of tea. 3. They promised her an interesting job. 4. They gave an actress a bunch of flowers. 5. He showed me the way to the station.6. They offered us two tickets.

C. Everyone looked at the girl. — The girl was looked at.

1. We sent for the doctor. 2. The children laughed at the little boy. 3. They look after the children. 4. The students listened to the professor. 5. People speak about this film very much .6. The boys made fun of him. 7. They speak to her.

D. He can repair the engine. — The engine can be repaired by him.

1. We can open the window. 2. He may invent this story. 3. The girl may loose her book. 4. The pupils could repeat these words. 5. They must forget this day.

3. Turn the following into Passive Voice without leaving out the subject of the action.

Popov invented the radio. — The radio was invented by Popov.

1. My sister teaches me English. 2. Peter drives the car. 3. Mary has lost her key. 4. Ivanov will meet the delegation. 5. The teacher has checked our dictations.6. Our music teacher was conducting the opera.

4. Make the following Active

Many mistakes were made by the pupils in the last dictation. — The pupils made many mistakes in the last dictation.

1. The story was written by a well-known writer. 2. The house will be built by the workers in 3 month. 3. At the zoo animals are fed twice a day. 4. The magazine has been read by all the pupils of our class. 5. We were frightened by a stranger. 6. This book was left (by somebody). 7. That present has been made by my brother. 8. She was shown the shortest way. 9. By the time the teacher came, the exercise had been done. 10. They went home after work had been finished.

5. Use correct form of the Passive Voice.

1. I’m not wearing my black shoes today. They (mend). 2. This copy (not read). The pages (not cut). 3. Why the car (not lock) or (put) into the garage? 4. He was taken to hospital this afternoon, and (operate on) tomorrow morning. 5. Thousands of new houses (build) every year. 6. When I saw (he car, it (drive) at over fifty miles an hour. 7. This room (not use) for ages. 8. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination.

Виконайте тест

Під час роботи над тестом не можна користуватися будь-якими підручниками, посібниками, словниками тощо.

TEST

Choose А, В, С or D to fill in the blanks in the sentences below.

1 You mustn’t blame me ________ what happened yesterday.

A for     

В of

C in       

D with

2 Obviously this food ________ at the nearest supermarket.

A buys  

В bought 

C was buying

D was bought

3 I don’t like ________ when I’m delivering a speech.

A to interrupt

B to be interrupting

C to be interrupted

D will be interrupted

4 The report ________ on the latest data.

A is based

B base

C is basing

D has based

5 I didn’t expect you to object ________ our plan.

A against     

B with

C on            

D to

6 I would be very grateful if you ________ me a favour.

A do            

B make

C will do       

D will make

7 No side effects ________ before.

A have been observed

B had been observed

C were observed

D were observing

8 This hypothesis is sure ________ by other scientists.

A to reject

B to be rejected

C to have rejected

D to be rejecting

9 When he finally arrived, he ________ by all his relatives and friends.

A was waiting      

B was being waited

C was waited for  

D was being waited for

10 The children were too lazy ________ doing the room in their mother’s absence.

A for         

B about

C with       

D to

11 I’ve got enough time ________ the shopping now.

A to do

B to make

C do

D make

12 The film ________ by the end of November.

A is shot

B was shot

C will be shot

D will have been shot









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