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SECTION II. READING AND VOCABULARY

Unit 2. HISTORY

1. Read the text and decide which of the monuments _________  

Monuments are objects or buildings that have been created to honour an important person or a historic event that happened. People have built monuments for thousands of years. In many cases they are symbols of ancient civilizations, like the pyramids of ancient Egypt or the Greek Parthenon. These monuments were so large that it took thousands of people to build them. During the past two hundred years monuments have become famous landmarks of cities. The Statue of Liberty in New York welcomed immigrants who came to the New World from Europe. The Eiffel Tower in Paris was built at the entrance of the 1889 World Fair. Planned cities have often been built around man-made structures. The Washington Monument was built before the planning and construction of the city started. Brazil’s new capital Brasilia was built around monumental structures. Over history big structures have been built for many other purposes. The Great Wall of China is the largest man-made object on Earth. It was built to keep invaders out of China. Political monuments have been built throughout history to show' the power of a country or its society. The statues of the Soviet Union’s founder, Lenin, are found all over Moscow and other Russian cities. East Germany built the Berlin Wall to keep its citizens from fleeing to the West. Columns have been used in history to build temples or hold the weight of ceilings. Some stand alone and have a statue of a famous person at the top, like Nelson’s Column at Trafalgar Square in London. Many cities have arches, spanned over streets, which show success in wars and conflicts. Among the most famous is the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Obelisks are four-sided pyramids that are very narrow and tall. Memorials are built to honor dead people, often soldiers that have been killed in a war, like the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. One of the most famous memorials is Mount Rushmore, in South Dakota It is a sculpture of the faces of famous presidents, carved into a mountain. One of the most recently built structures is the World Trade Centre Memorial at Ground Zero, which commemorates thousands of people who were killed during the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

A greeted people who came to the USA.

В w-as constructed before the city w-as created.

C is the biggest in size.

D have some objects on the top of them.

E is the newest.

2. Read the text and answer the questions.

A sphinx is an imaginary creature of old myths. The Egyptians, Greeks and other peoples of the Middle East had stories about such creatures. Sometimes a sphinx was used to guard sacred places. The Egyptian sphinxes had the head of a man and the body, feet and tail of a lion. Others had heads of rams or falcons. The Egyptians often made statutes of sphinxes to honour kings and queens. Paintings show-cd kings as lions who conquered their enemies and sphinxes became symbols of royal protection. Statues of sphinxes often lined roads that led to temples, like those near the great temple at Kamak. The Great Sphinx is the largest, oldest and the most famous sphinx statue. It lies in the desert near the Egyptian pyramids at Giza The monument is 73 metres long and 20 metres high. The face is 4 metres wide. The Great Sphinx was built about 4,500 years ago. The shape of the sphinx was carved out of big blocks of limestone, which was an important building material of that time. Historians believe that the sphinx’s face is a portrait of Khafre, a king of ancient Egypt. During the course of history, sand often buried the Great Sphinx up to its neck, but it was always cleared away. Through the years desert sand, wind and rain have worn away parts of the sculpture. Since the 1970s scientists have started to preserve it with special chemicals.

The ancient Greeks took their idea of the sphinx from the Egyptians. The Greek sphinx had the head of a woman, the body of a lion, a serpent tail and wings. The most famous Sphinx lived on a high rock outside Thebes. Legends tell us that she terrorized passers-by by asking them the answer to a riddle. What walks on four legs in the morning, on two at noon and on three at night? The sphinx killed everyone who could not answer the riddle correctly. When Oedipus passed on his way to Thebes, the Sphinx asked him the riddle. Oedipus gave the answer. The creature was a human, who crawls on all four legs as a baby, then walks on two legs and finally needs a cane when he is old. The Sphinx became mad, killed herself and Oedipus became the king of Thebes.

1 What were the statues used for? _______________________________

2 What ruined the Great Sphinx? _______________________________

3 What did the Sphinx ask for? _______________________________

3. Read the text and decide whether the statements are true, false or it was not stated in the text.

Julius Caesar — General, Statesman and Dictator of Ancient Rome

Julius Caesar was a Roman general and dictator who lived from 100 BC to 44 BC. He helped to make Rome a great empire. He was also a talented writer.

In 69 or 68 BC he became a quaestor, a high Roman officer, who controlled finances. Caesar soon moved up the Roman political ladder. He organized great games that made him popular with the public. He fought against and conquered many tribes of Western Europe and became a great soldier. To prove his power, Caesar continued to fight and win battles. After one victory in Asia, he sent back the message, “Veni, vidi, vici,” which means “1 came, 1 saw, I conquered.”

When Caesar returned to Rome he became the permanent head of the government and became even more honored and powerful. The Romans created statues of him and compared him to god.

Caesar also had many enemies. Some of them thought that power should not be in the hand of one person.

On March 15, 44 BC, 60 senators organized the murder of Caesar at a meeting of the Senate. Caesar’s friend Brutus was at the head of the conspiracy. Caesar first fought back but then Brutus killed him with his dagger. Rome’s greatest statesman and soldier left the world many things. Caesar founded the Julian calendar, which is now used in most parts of the world. The Roman month Quintilis, in which Caesar was bom, was renamed July in his honour.

1 He invaded a lot of countries.

a) True.   

b) False.  

c) Not stated.

2 After one victory in Western Europe, he sent back the message, “Veni, vidi, vici.”

a) True.   

b) False.  

c) Not stated.

3 Caesar studied public speaking on Rhodes, an island in the Mediterranean Sea.

a) True.   

b) False.  

c) Not stated.

4 Caesar was very powerful.

a) True.   

b) False.  

c) Not stated.

5 The Julian calendar was created by Caesar’s friend Brutus.

a) True.   

b) False.  

c) Not stated.

Виконайте тест

Під час робота над тестом не можна корнету вгнися будь-якими підручниками, посібниками, словниками тощо.

TEST

Read and complete the text below. For each of the empty spaces (1—12) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

When I was a student, I decided to (1) ______________ a house with a couple of good friends. We didn’t have any stuff of our own, so we tried to find a nice (2) ______________ house. We found an advertisement and decided to speak to the landlord.

The house was half a mile from the city center. It was in a (3) ______________ area and was quite (4) ______________. We had to pay 300$ per month. But as it turned out the whole place needed repairing. The bathroom taps were (5) ______________, radiators were (6) ______________, the sink was (7) ______________, and the bathroom ceiling needed fixing. Upstairs there were three bedrooms and a study. All the carpets were (8) ______________. The landlord said he couldn’t get off a horrible brown color. Downstairs there was a kitchen, a dining room and a spacious living-room. The kitchen was in a terrible mess, it looked like a bomb hit it But the landlord said that he would (9) ______________ the cooker and (10) ______________ all the empty bottles. When we wanted to switch on the light, we couldn’t, because the light bulb had (11) ______________. The garden was in a bit of a state too. The grass needed (12) ______________. Though it wasn’t the house of our dream we decided to move in the next day. The landlord was happy!

1

A rent

В borrow

C loan

D hire

2

A decorated

В equipped

C furnished

D fitted

3

A attractive

В pleasant

C attracting

D pleasing

4

A worthless

В poor

C priceless

D cheap

5

A running

В pouring

C flowing

D dripping

6

A leaking

В releasing

C watering

D fleeting

7

A stuck

В loaded

C set

D blocked

8

A stained

В destroyed

C broken

D smashed

9

A clear

В clean

C do

D make

10

A throw out

В pick out

C tidy up

D give up

11

A fired

В burnt

C gone

D heated

12

A scrubbing

В cutting

C sweeping

D fixing




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