Матеріали для Нової української школи 1 клас - планування, розробки уроків, дидактичні та методичні матеріали, підручники та зошити

АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА - підготовка до ЗНО 2018
Навчальний посібник

SECTION II. READING AND VOCABULARY

Unit 12. THE ENVIRONMENT

1. Match the disaster

1 tsunami

A lava

2 wildfire

В river

3 tornado

C bum

4 flood

D shaking of the ground

5 volcano

E big wave

6 earthquake

F violent storm

2. Match the word on the left with its definition on the right.

1 humidity

A a powerful cyclonic storm that originates in the West Indian region of the Atlantic Ocean and that has heavy rains and winds exceeding seventy-three miles, or 119 kilometers, per hour.

2 barometer

В natural electricity produced in thunderstorm clouds and appearing as a bright flash or streak of light in the sky.

3 rain

C exposed to or warmed by sunlight, esp. during much of each day.

4 snow

D an instrument for measuring temperature, esp. a sealed glass tube with a calibrated scale on the outside and a column of liquid, usu. mercury, inside that rises or falls as the temperature changes.

5 forecast

E a meteorological instrument that measures atmospheric pressure, especially used to predict weather changes.

6 lightning

F a frozen form of precipitation that falls as ice crystals formed into flakes.

7 freezing

G water vapor in the atmosphere that condenses and falls from the sky to earth.

8 thermometer

H to predict (the weather).

9 sunny

I at or near the temperature at which water turns to ice.

3. Fill in the missing words.

aftershocks        avalanche        drought        earthquake        flood       landslide       tsunami

The soil is dry and there is no water. Crops don’t grow because it doesn’t rain for a long time. In some countries it lasts for months, in others for years. We call this a (1) ________. When it rains heavily for a long time, there is too much water in rivers and lakes. It overflows and everything is under water: fields, trees and houses. This kind of disaster is called a (2) ________. It can cause a lot of damage.

A (3) ________ can also destroy buildings. That happens when the soil on a slope or a river bank becomes too wet. Then it isn’t stable any more. The land slides down and takes everything with it.

Sometimes snow slides the same way, particularly in mountains. The (4) ________ can bury people. Then rescue teams try to find them and rescue them.

When the tectonic plates collide, the earth trembles. The shaking of the earth is called an (5) ________. It causes damage to buildings and people are panic-stricken.

After an earthquake, some smaller ones can follow. These (6) ________ can be quite frightening as well.

Another thing can follow an earthquake in places near the sea—a huge tidal wave, dangerous to buildings and people. Such a (7) ________ is most common in Asia.

4. Choose the correct item.

1 Hurricane season ____ on June 1 and ____ on November 30.

A stops, moves

В begins, ends

C goes, walks

D circles, runs

2 A hurricane is a tropical storm with winds that ____ a constant speed of 74 miles per hour or more.

A won’t reach

В could reach

C have reached

D can’t reach

3 The dangers of a storm ____ torrential rains, high winds and storm surges.

A include

В includes

C including

D to include

4 The strongest hurricane recorded was the Florida Keys Storm of 1935. 500 people ____ during this Category 5 storm.

A has killed

В were killed

C not killed

D are killing

5 A Hurricane Watch ____ for a coastal area when there is a threat of hurricane conditions within 24-36 hours.

A was issued

В is issuing

C is issued

D isn’t issued

6 Category One storms ____ have some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage.

A will

В don’t

C shouldn’t

D never

7 Category Two hurricane winds ____ cause some roofing material, door, and window damage to buildings.

A should

В won’t

C may

D wouldn’t

8 Mobile homes ____ destroyed in Category Three hurricanes.

A have

В do

C must

D are

9 Category Four storms ____ massive evacuation of residential areas inland as far as 6 miles.

A requires

В requiring

C require

D to require

10 Category Five hurricanes ____ cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings.

A will

В didn’t

C won’t

D might

5. Complete the statement.

1 A violent and heavy snowstorm is called a ____     

2 When crops fail and livestock die through lack of water because of no rain there is a______________________ ____

3 The above situation could cause massive starvation through lack of food. This situation is called a _________________

4 When the land violently moves or shakes especially around fault lines it’s called an _______________________

5 When the above situation causes a huge body of seawater to move in towards the shore it is known as a ____     

6 A loud noise and sometimes huge force created by something like a bomb is known as an __________________

7 A violent wind that twists round and round and causes massive destruction is called a ____

8 A disease that spreads rapidly amongst a lot of people in the same area is called an ____________________

9 Something that makes the air, rivers, or seas dirty is known as ____

6. Choose the correct item.

1 If the weather forecast is fine, it’s going to be ____ weather.

A cold

В wet

C good

2 If the forecast is sleet, it’s going to be ____.

A cloudy and warm

В hot

C cold and wet

3 If the forecast is drizzle, there’s going to be ____.

A snow

В light rain

C sunshine

4 Hail is ____.

A light rain

В strong winds

C ice balls

5 Showers are ____.

A light winds

В the sound lightening makes

C light rain

6 Frost happens when it’s ____.

A windy

В cold

C hot

7 If the forecast is overcast, it’s going to be ____.

A cold

В cloudy

C sunny

8 If the weather is humid, the air is ____.

A cold and dry

В hot and dry

C hot and wet

9 Strong gusts refer to ____.

A snow

В rain

C wind

10 If the weather is snowy, it is ____.

A warm

В hot

C cold

7. Fill in the missing letters.

1 I don’t think you need to bring an umbrella. It’s only dr...zzling now.

2 A h...rricane is a dangerous tropical storm.

3 I stepped in a p...ddle and got my legs all wet.

4 Suns...reen will prevent you from getting a bum.

5 We had to stop playing baseball because we didn’t want to get slruck by lig...tning.

6 It was too fog...y for the pilot to land the plane.

7 When I looked at the t...emometer it said ten degrees.

8 Don’t be surprised if you get a light sho...er every afternoon on that island.

8. Read the text and do the tasks.

Hurricane Katrina

On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina hit the American coast near New Orleans. The storm had formed over the Caribbean Sea almost a week earlier. As it moved on towards the American coastline it grew more and more powerful. It became a Category 5 hurricane and the fourth largest storm that has ever been recorded in the Atlantic Ocean. Winds reached speeds of over 340 km an hour. Although the centre of the hurricane did not pass directly over New Orleans most of the city was flooded by the storm.

New Orleans is located in a really dangerous area. It lies above the Gulf of Mexico where many storms and hurricanes pass through. The Mississippi River also runs through the middle of the city. Because most of New Orleans lies below sea level, high banks of earth, called levees, were built around the city to protect it from flooding. Thousands of pumps have been installed to drain the water away.

Katrina brought along heavy rainfall and parts of the levee broke. About 80 % of the city was flooded. Shortly before the storm hit New Orleans about 20,000 people were able to escape to the Superdome, one of the town’s largest stadiums.

Most of the city’s population was evacuated, but about one hundred thousand had to stay behind, mostly poor people and blacks who had no cars and couldn’t get out. They were trapped in the floods for days without power and water.

In the days after the disaster chaos spread throughout New Orleans. People broke into shops and stole things they needed, like food and water. Violence increased and gun shots could be heard throughout the city. Many people were trapped on rooftops for days before they got any help.

The government and the city authorities were not very well prepared for such a disaster. There were no plans for getting people out of the city. President Bush waited for four days before he visited the region. Thousands of people died in one of the biggest catastrophes in American history.

A. Fill in the missing words.

authorities   broke   dangerous   disaster   drain   electricity   evacuated   flooded   heavy   history   hurricane

levees   Mississippi   population   poorer   protect   sighted   spread   storms   Superdome   violence   visited

Hurricane Katrina was one of the most powerful __________ that has ever been __________ in the Atlantic Ocean. A week after it had formed it hit New Orleans and __________ most of the city.

New Orleans lies in a __________ area because it is in the middle of __________ routes and the __________ river also flows through the city. In the past years __________ have been built to __________ the city from flooding and pumps were made to __________ the water away.

When Katrina hit New Orleans it brought along __________ rainfall and parts of the levee __________. Most of the city’s __________ was __________ and a few thousand were able to reach the __________. About a hundred thousand people, mostly __________ ones could not leave the city. They had no __________ and water for many days. Chaos __________ through most parts of the town and __________ went up.

The city __________ were not well-prepared for the __________. There were al-most no plans to get people out of the city. President Bush waited for four days before he __________ the area. Thousands of people died in one of the biggest catastrophes in American __________.

9. Bead the text and answer the questions.

BEWARE OF THE SUN

It’s becoming very dangerous to sit in the sun. If you have a fashionable sun tan, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have lots of outdoor activities — but it does mean that you re in greater danger of getting skin cancer and cataracts. The ozone layer, which protects us from the sun’s dangerous ultra-violet *rays, is progressively deteriorating. In February 1992 a scientific report said that people in Canada, Northern Europe and Russia were in serious danger.

In 1985, the news of destruction of the ozone layer in the South Pole alarmed people in the Southern Hemisphere. In Australia, there are now three times more cases of skin cancer than in the past. In New Zealand, teachers tell schoolchildren to wear hats and not to sit in the sun.

What causes the destruction of the ozone layer? Mostly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Aerosol sprays, refrigerators, air conditioners, as well as industrial *chemicals, send chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere.

Governments are now trying very hard to forbid CFCs, but it will be expensive and difficult to do so. After the first ozone alarm in the Southern Hemisphere, ecologists all over the world asked governments to take strict measures immediately. Some governments did, but not soon enough. Other countries believe that they have other problems which are more important. Now stricter measures are going to be taken, but already a lot of damage has been done.

QUESTIONS

1 What is dangerous to the skin?

A the ozone layer

В the atmosphere

C ultra-violet rays

2 CFCs are caused by...

A governments

В ecologists

C aerosol sprays and industries

3 Australia...

A is taking measures

В refuses to sell aerosol sprays

C is not concerned by this problem

10. Read the text and sequence the sentences in the correct order.

Earthquake Science

When the earth shook here on March 26th 2000, it helped geologists to figure out how the earth around Seattle would shake during the real thing less than a year later.

When Seattle’s Kingdome was demolished with explosives, more than 200 seismic recorders caught every rattle and roll.

Tom Brocher of the U.S. Geological Survey says: «You can see the red waves travelling away from the Kingdome.»

The areas that shook the worst then also shook the worst when the 6 point eight (on the Richter scale) Nisqually earthquake hit.

«We shouldn’t be surprised to see damage at Boeing field and at the port of Seattle where we did see damage, because in both of those areas the ground shook longer and harder than other parts of Seattle.»

It’s what’s known as a slab quake (located) 36 miles below the surface where the Juan de Fuca plate slab is diving underneath the North American plate. Geologists believe the plate bent, causing it to crack, sending shock waves to the surface.

Tom Brocher says, «As soon as we knew it was a deep earthquake — that it was this type of earthquake — we immediately put out the word that we should expect very few aftershocks.»

There were only 4. In San Francisco’s Loma Prieta earthquake here in 1989 which was closer to the surface, there were 120 aftershocks. The fact that «deep-focus» earthquakes have fewer aftershocks still puzzles geologists.

Brocher says, «What we can tell people is you’re not going to have these (aftershocks). What we can’t tell them why. And that’s a research issue.»

Geologists say the Nisqually quake originated from almost the same spot as the 1949 quake there, and had the same damage patterns. There were fewer landslides this year because of the lack of min.

Over the next year and half, researchers want to set off explosives at the surface near Seattle. Aimed at the slab 37 miles below. The waves will then bounce off the slab and reflect back to the surface giving information about where the plate is and how it’s moving.

So, before the earth moves again, geologists will have an idea which places might be destined to shake the hardest.

Note: Each number on the Richter scale represents movement 10 times larger than the previous number.

B. Sequence the sentences.

__________Scientists will study to reflected shockwaves from the Juan de Fuca plate.

__________A shallow earthquake occurs in Loma Prieta, California.

__________The Kingdome is demolished with explosives.

__________Scientists place seismic recorders all around to Seattle to record the falling stadium.

__________Scientists will place explosives in the ground near Seattle.

__________Scientists study the blast from the Kingdome.

Виконайте тест

Під час роботи над тестом не можна користуватися будь-якими підручниками, посібниками, словниками тощо.

TEST

Read and complete the text below. For each of the empty spaces (1—12) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

WEATHER

The popular view of the British weather is that it rains all the time. This is not true and Britain gets no more rain in a(n) (1) __________ year than several other European countries. In some summers the country goes for weeks with nothing more than a shower. Perhaps the (2) __________ characteristic of Britain’s weather is that it is hard to (3) __________. This is probably why people regularly listen to weather (4) __________ on radio and television. However, the weathermen are sometimes wrong. The British are not used to extremes. In summer the temperature rarely goes higher than 30 °С (86 °F). In winter the south and west are fairly mild. The east and north get much colder, with hard frosts and snow. A cold snap (period of very cold weather) or heavy falls of snow can (5) __________ transport to a halt.

When two Englishmen meet their first (6) __________ is of the weather, and this is still true. The weather is a safe, polite and (7) __________ topic of conversation. Most British people would (8) __________ that bright sunny weather, not too hot and with enough rain to (9) __________ their gardens, is good. Bad weather usually (10) __________ dull days with a lot of cloud and rain or, in winter, fog or snow. The British tend to (11) __________ the worst as far as the weather is (12) __________ and it is part of national folklore that summer bank holidays will be wet. It may be pouring with rain, teeming down, bucketing, or even just drizzling or spitting, but it will be wet.

1

A extreme

В average

C ordinary

D medium

2

A necessary

В main

C capital

D absolute

3

A predict

В see

C know

D discuss

4

A forecasts

В show's

C programs

D broadcasts

5

A carry

В bring

C fetch

D produce

6

A fact

В report

C story

D talk

7

A impersonal

В private

C intimate

D impudent

8

A judge

В hesitate

C agree

D refuse

9

A water

В pour

C rain

D drizzle

10

A presents

В causes

C means

D proposes

11

A wait

В expect

C believe

D hope

12

A concerned

В spoken

C involved

D regarded









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