Розв'язання вправ та завдань до підручника - Англійська мова 10 клас О.Д. Карп’юк 2010 рік - (рівень стандарту)
UNIT 8. DO YOU LIKE SPORTS?
1.E 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. B
Yes, I do. I play any games. My favorite game is football. My father taught me to play it.
Yes. I am. I am a football fan. Andrei Shevchenko is my favorite football player. I support Manchester United from England. Young boys dream of becoming football players. It is a prestigious kind of sport all over the world.
Fishing is a pleasant kind of sport, isn’t it? What qualities does it require? — Yes, it is. I think it is a pleasant kind of sport. It requires goods habits and deftness.
B. This and reading the sports pages in the paper arc my kinds of sport, (1)
D. For example, last year some of us went on a big holiday trip to Italy, which was great fun. Anyway, sport keeps you fit and healthy, doesn't it ? (2)
A. I know it’s only dream at the moment. But maybe it’ll come true. (3)
C. How can you stay fit. when your body is under pressure all the time? (4)
1. Mark’s favourite sport is football. (T)
2. Mark is an armchair sportsman. (T)
3. Billy is very interested in sports. (F)
4. Billy likes meeting his friends in pubs. (T)
5. Liz used to do lots of sports. (F)
6. Liz dreams to become a tennis*professional. (T)
7. Suzie always listens to cricket Commentaries on her radio. (F)
8. Suzie loves sport very much. (F)
a) the sport activities at your school or sports club If you want to keep fit you must go in for one kind of sport or another. Sport is an essential part of my daily life. Every morning all the year round I do my morning exercises. Almost every day I do some trains in it. In summer I go swimming or rowing. During my summer holidays I go on hikes. I usually spend my winter holidays in the country where I ski, skate or toboggan, I also go in for track-and-field (athletics) event. Different sports and games are popular with my classmates. All my friends go in for different kinds of sport, swimming, water polo, gymnastics, horse-racing, wrestling, boxing, ice hockey, speed skating, figure skating, football, basketball, volleyball, etc.. We have fine teams at our school and different kinds of competitions take place there. The boys of my school are crazy about football, they play football and the girls are football fans.
b) the general rules of volleyball.
Volleyball is one of the favorite games among both girls and boys. Here are some basic volleyball rules. Volleyball is a famous indoor ball game played in a court in which 2 teams, comprising six players each, play against each other. Volleyball is a highly recognized game and is also an Olympic sport. It has been played widely across the world.
The game is played in a rectangular court. One of the teams start with the serve and the basic idea is not to ground the ball during the process of the game. Whichever team gets to 25 points with a minimum point difference of two is declared the winner. There are certain prescribed rules for scoring points, rotation and violations during the game.
The game is played with a spherical ball made of synthetic and flexible leather whose inner segment is made of a rubber material. The court, is rectangular in shape, with dimensions of 18*9 m. The court is dived into two equal halves by the net, which is set vertically above the center line of the court.
A volley initially decides the; first server and whoever wins it begins the match by serving. The server can serve; the ball underhand or overhand while standing behind the end line until the serve is completed. The only limitation in a serve is such that the ball must go over the net to the other side and is allowed to graze or touch the net during the process. No player must attack a serve on the first touch and he can only hump it.
Each proper serve will result, in a point being scored by one of the two teams. Whichever team misses the ball or hits it out of the opponent’s court, have to give away a point to the opponent. Rally method of scoring is used here, by which the one who wins the opponent’s serve will earn a point and at the same time wins the next serve too. The team, which reaches the mark of 25 points and with a minimum advantage of 2 points adrift, will be declared the winner.
Whenever a side wins a point on serve, the six players on their side should make a clockwise rotation of their positions. This continues until one of the teams reach 25 points and win that current game. The failure of the players’ rotation shall lead to a foul.
During a volley, there can be a maximum of only three hits and no player should make two successive touches. When two players touch the ball at the same instance, it will be considered as a
single hit only They players are allowed to make a hit using any part of the body above the waist. The only goal is to hit the ball on or within the boundary line.
Certain limitations are there in the game. The ball should not be carried or thrown using the palm while making a hit. At no instance can the net be touched and the central line shouldn’t be crossed too. Players are allowed to go outside the court to pick up a hit during the process of a volley.
These are the basic rules that one should follow while playing volleyball.
c) a track and field tournament.
Track and field is one of the oldest sports. Athletic contests .were often held in conjunction with religious festivals, as with the Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. For 11th centuries, starting in 776 BC, these affairs - for men only - were enormously popular events. During the Middle Ages organized track and field all but disappeared. The true development of track and field as a modern sport started in England during the 19th century. In 1896 the first modern Olympic Games were staged. Although initially of limited appeal, the Olympics captured the imagination of athletes and grew' steadily, making track and field an international sport for the first time. In 1913 the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) was formed by representatives from 16 countries. The IAAF was charged with establishing standard rules for the sport, approving world records, and ensuring that the amateur code was adhered to; it continues to carry out these duties today. The participation -of women in track and field is a relatively recent development. In 1921 representatives from six countries formed an athletic federation for women, which merged with the IAAF in 1936.
d) the gym you train in.
There are many opportunities to go in for sports in our school. Our school has a gym. a sports ground, a football field, a swimming pool, and other sports facilities. There are many different sports groups: table tennis, swimming, athletics, football, volleyball, wrestling, and rhythmic gymnastics. Many pupils of our school attend these sports groups. Our school encourage all our pupils - whatever their level or area of interest - to enjoy sport. Over the years our director has invested in our sporting facilities so that
our pupils have the very best opportunities to fulfil their sporting potential. Our modern gym, located next to the swimming pool and spacious playing fields, forms part of our excellent sports complex. The complex includes a fitness suite which can be used by both day girls and boarders. The gym is the place where students take part in enjoyable and varied FT lessons and after school activities.
e) the most important sports event at your school or city sports club during the last winter The most important sports events at my school are competitions of running, jumping and football. In Kharkiv there are football match between different Ukrainian football teams.
Vitally Klytchko is a star of boxing.
Oksana Baiul is the only one star of Ukrainian figure skating. Ruslan Ponomariov became the youngest world champion in chess history.
My sister plays chess.
Michael Jordan is a star of basketball.
My mother plays volleyball.
My father goes in for hunting. I go in for athletics.
In the 19 century, our countryman Ivan Poddubny was the strongest champion in athletics.
Ukrainian jumper Sergey Bubka broke 35 world records.
Got a world renowned Ukrainian gymnasts Irina Denugina and Larissa Latynina. Yana Klochkova goes in for swimming, she won four gold and one silver medal at the Olympics in swimming competitions.
Footballer Andriy Shevchenko played for Dynamo, the Ukrainian national team, and later for AC Milan and Chelsea.
A skater is someone who practices ice skating.
A swimmer goes in for swimming,
A boxer is someone who boxes, especially as a job.
A skier is someone who moves on skis for sport .
A wrestler is someone who takes part in wrestling.
A footballer goes in for football.
A speed skater is someone who takes part in ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates.
A fencer is someone who tights with a long thin sword as a sport.
A chess player is a person who plays chess.
A basketballer goes in for basketball.
A tennis player plays tennis.
An athlete goes in for athletics.
A goalkeeper is a player in a sports team whose job is to try to stop the ball going into the goal.
A draughtsman is someone whose job is to draw all the parts of a new building or machine that is being planned.
A cyclist is someone who rides a bicycle.
A gymnast is someone who is good at gymnastics and competes against other people in gymnastic competitions.
a court - squash / tennis / basketball court
a course - golf, race, sailing
a ring - boxing, wrestling
a stadium — football, baseball
a rink — ice-hockey, ice-skating, roller-skating
a track — cycling, running, jumping, or throwing the javelin
a slope — mountaineering, skiing
1. Argentina beat Germany 2:1 last Saturday.
2. Milan has won the match 3:0.
3. The Chicago Bulls lost 78:91 to Celtic.
4. Spain drew with Brazil 2:2.
1.B 3.I 5.A 7.H 9.F
2.D 4.C 6.E 8.J 10.G
1. A. Past Simple
2. D. Past Perfect Continuous
3. C. Past Perfect
4. B. Past Continuous
1. It had been raining: all day and the roads were very wet.
2. When did she choose to take a course in English?
3. Toni had been thinking about his answer during the lunch break.
4. Dan was an angry. He had been waiting for Linda and for two hours.
5. Students had opened their books and did the exercise.
6. The teacher was smiling as he was reading Kate’s essay.
7. It was easy for him to get lost because he hadn’t been in a big city before.
8. Tom was listening to the teacher while the others were taking notes.
1. I was reviewing grammar rules before the test when my computer started to blink..
2. She was upset, because she hadn’t managed to prepare for the test.
3. Were they nervous before a test yesterday?
4. John was reading an economic book, while Torn was looking through sonic magazines.
5. I do not remember exactly how long ago it was.
6. Roger didn’t give any explanation why he had been late school.
7. I felt very tired when I came home so I went straight to bed.
8. Mr.Pritt took his ease and left.
9. What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday morning?
10. I wanted to borrow that new book but she had already lent it to someone.
1. B. Future Continuous
2. A. Future Simple
3. C. be going to
1. I will be remembering this day for the rest of my life!
2. Are you going to Australia next Christmas?
3. I’m sure you will pass your exam successfully.
4. George says he is going to do this evening?
5. What are you going to do this evening?
6. You look tired. I’ll help you finish the paperwork.
7. Why don’t you go out and have some fun? You won’t always be young.
8. We have to go now. The last train will leave at 11:30 pm.
9. This time next week I will be flying across the Atlantic
10. I hope I will be earning my first million before I am thirty.
1. He will come if you ask him.
2. I wonder what I will be doing this time next year.
3. Look! I am painting this room blue and sitting room green.
4. All right. I will have a pound.
5. We aren’t going to climb and fish. There’s a lake on top and we will try to get some fish out of it.
0. If you leave your keys with the hall porter he will take the car round the garage.
7. I won’t show any films this time. The projector’s broken down.
8. When you next see me I will be wearing my new dress.
9. It is nearly autumn; soon the leaves will change colour.
10. Do you need your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it?
1. I know football, volleyball, basketball and many others.
2. Practically all kinds of sport are spectator and participant.
3. Football and volleyball are the most popular kinds of sport in Ukraine, American football, baseball and basketball are the most potter kinds of apart in the USA. Football and cricket are the most popular kinds of apart in England.
4. They tells about sport events all over the world.
5. The British like sport very much. They are fond of all kinds of sports. Many sports were invented in Great Britain and then spread throughout the world. The national British sports are: football, golf, cricket, tennis, racing, darts. Like everyone else the British adore football. Those who wanted to permit the players to carry the ball with their hands united to form rugby. In Great Britain and more often in the United States football is called soccer to distinguish the game from American football, the game that has much in common with rugby.
Soccer, played almost in all countries, remains one of the most popular games in Great Britain. Every year, each team in England plays in the Football Association competition. The two best teams play in the Cup Final at Wembley Stadium in London. It is one of the biggest sporting events of the year.
Another traditional British game is cricket. Unlike football cricket is not widely spread outside? the British Isles. (Ticket is a summer game, it is played in schools, colleges, universities. Cricket is a very long and a very slow game.
Tennis is also very popular in Britain. Every summer, in June, the biggest tournament in the world takes place at Wimbledon. This world centre of lawn tennis is located in a suburb of London. Millions of people watch the Wimbledon Championship on TV. Table tennis originated in England in 1880. But the British players are not lucky in table tennis international championships. Englishmen like all kinds of racing. Horseracing, motorcar racing, boat racing, dog racing, donkey racing are very popular in England. The most famous boat racing in England is between Oxford and Cambridge. Americans are interested in different sports and activities. The major American sports are ice hockey, baseball, American
football and basketball. The large choice of sports in America can be explained by the variety and size of the country, its different climates and the people's love of competitions of any type. Baseball is the most popular summer sport in America. But the first baseball games start, in warm, sunny regions like Florida and Arizona in winter. The first American baseball match was held in 1839 m New York. There is an opinion that baseball comes from a much older game, played in Europe for many years.
Americans play most international sports, but they do not play football in the same way as the rest of the World. American football is a game that does not have much in common with soccer. Basketball was invented in the United States. A schoolteacher designed the rules for a game that his students could play indoors. Ice hockey is America’s favourite winter game. It is very fast. Other sports and activities attract millions of participants and spectators in the USA. These are swimming, tennis, marathons, bowling, crosscountry skiing, skating, and badminton, swimming, bicycle racing ami long-distance running. Now triathlon is one of the most popular sports in the USA.
To attract crowds of spectator - to make crowds of spectator interested in something.
To represent a city to take part, in a sports event for that city.
Two leagues of eight teams each - two teams
To determine the national champion - to officially decide the
national champion, to win, to become the national champion
To attend a game - to go to a game
American football is called soccer. It is slower than European one. In America football players play with an oval ball, but European ones play with a round ball. American football is played with feet and hands and European football is played with feet only.
1. Americans consider baseball their national sport.
2. Baseball dates back long before the Civil War.
3. Baseball is a professional sport and this means that the players receive salary.
4. World Series is a national competition where winners of each league play with each other.
5. Football is extremely popular and attracts crowds of spectators.
6. Due to huge stadiums people can attend college team games.
7. American football is called a rugby.
8. Football teams can be professional.
9. Football players can use their feet.
10. American footballers play with feet and hands.
1. A football match lasts for one and half hour.
2. There is one referee in a basketball match.
2. There are six players in a volleyball team.
4. The World Athletics Championships hold one time in a year.
5. Marathon is 42,195 km long.
6. There are five holes in a golf course.
1. I go in for football.
2. I support Manchester United from England.
3. Football and volleyball are the most popular kinds of sport in Ukraine. American football, baseball and basketball are the most popular kinds of sport in the USA. Football and cricket are the roost popular kinds of sport in England.
4. Football, volleyball, basketball can be played all the year round.
5. I prefer skiing, skating in winter and swimming in summer.
6. We go in for sports and play game. We don’t play in sport.
7. Football, volleyball, basketball, hockey can be as sports as game.
8. I think that in our country football takes the first place in public interest.
9. Football and cricket are the great national sport in England
10. Andrei Shevchenko is the greatest footballer. Vitally and Vladimir Klichku are outstanding boxers, Libya Podkopaeva is famous Ukrainian gymnast.
11. The first Olympic Games were held in Ancient Greece. The last Olympic Gaines were held in 2010 in Canada.
12. They support their favourite team or a sportsman.
13. Bobsleighs likes tobogganing.
14. No, I don’t play as draughts as chess.
15. No, I don’t attend hockey matches.
16. No, we don't have champions in all kind of sports.
17. People play cricket in summer.
18. In Britain football is the most popular kind of sport. That’s why there aren’t any reasons for smaller popularity of football in Britain.
19. Cricket is slower than football.
1. If I were you. I’d— a), c)
2. Have you considered,..? b)
3. Why don’t you..? a), c)
4. 1 think you should... a), c)
5. Have you thought about...? b)? d)
6. You might enjoy... b), d)
Volleyball rules are hard to keep up with because they often change, but here is a brief overview of the sport. To put it in simple terms, volleyball is a team sport in which goal is to keep the ball alive while it is on your side of the net, but to kill the rally by putting the ball down on your opponent’s side of the net.
You can score points in the game of volleyball in one of two ways:
1. Putting the ball on the floor in-bounds on your opponent’s side of the net.
2. An error (forced or unforced) by your opponent which renders them unable to return the ball over the net and in-bounds on your side in their allotted three contacts.
The sport of volleyball is one of the most malleable sports around because it is played in many variations and on many different surfaces. Add to that the frequent rule changes, and it is increasingly difficult to keep track of it all. But here is a brief overview.
You can play volleyball in teams with anywhere between two and six players. Indoor volleyball is usually played with six players on each team Beach volleyball is often played with two players. Four person volleyball is often seen in grass tournaments and on the beach.
You can play on hardwood, grass, sand or asphalt. You can use rally or side-out scoring. You can play one game or the best of three or best of five sets. You can play to 15, 25, 30 or whatever number of points you so desire.
Play begins with one team serving the ball to the other. Each time the ball crosses over the net, a team gets three contacts before they must send the ball back to the opponent’s side. Ideally, the three contacts will be a pass, set and hit, but it can be three passes or any other combination of contacts as long as they are legal contacts.
The rally (or volley) continues until the ball hits the ground or one of the rules is broken.
You cannot touch the net while making a play on the ball, step on the back line while serving (foot fault), contact the ball more than three times on a side, lift or push the ball, play the ball over the net outside of the antennas, contact the ball twice in a row.
The first team to score the agreed upon number of points wins the game. You must win by at least two points. The teams switch sides, the next game starts with a score of 0-0 and play starts again. In a best-of-five match, the team who wans three sets wins the match.
USE YOUR ENGLISH
1. An ice. is frozen water.
2. The referee is a person who acts as a judge in football.
3. A skating-rink is the place people skate on.
4. A court is the sports ground on which tennis is played.
5. A figure skater is the person who dances on the ice.
1. In field hockey players use a stick to hit the ball into the goal.
2. The winner is the team which scored more goals than their opponents.
3. Athletes from all round the world are going to compete for the championship.
4. Millions of people watch the Olympic Games on TV.
5. I know .a good sports centre where we can play tennis for free.
1. Ireland beat England yesterday. England had won 1:0 in the first half but Ireland scored two goals in the second half.
2. It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat, and didn’t have an umbrella
3. I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in twenty years.
4.1 was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car was broken down
Mountaineering is the sport of climbing mountains. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists of three areas: rock-craft, snow craft and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow or ice. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety. Rowing is the sport or activity of making a boat move through water with oars. It is a sport in which athletes race against each other in boats, on rivers, on lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water. The sport can be both recreational, focusing on learning the techniques required, and competitive where physical size and overall fitness plays a large role.
Yachting is sailing, travelling, or racing in a yacht. These days, yacht racing and dinghy racing are common participant sports around the developed world, particularly where favorable wind conditions and access to reasonably sized bodies of water are available. Dinghy races are conducted on sheltered water on smaller craft with crews of between one and three people. The common arrangement for racing boats is the sloop, a boat with one mast. Some dinghies have only one triangular sail, but most have two configured as a sloop; some dinghies and almost all larger racing boats carry a spinnaker, a large, bulging sail designed for sailing with the wind’. Most races are conducted between vessels of identical design (’one design’ racing). In these races, with identical equipment the sailors best able to make use of the ambient conditions win.
The game of football is a game played by two teams of eleven players who try to kick a round ball into the other team’s. Football refers to a number of sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a hall with the foot to score a goal. The most popular of these sports worldwide is association football, more commonly known as just ’football’ or soccer’.
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck Into the opponent’s goal using a hockey stick. Ice hockey is played on a large Hat
area of ice. using a three inch (76.2 mm) diameter vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. This puck is often frozen before high- level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice. The game is contested between two teams of skaters. The game is played all over North America, Europe and in many other countries around the world to varying extent.
Tennis is a sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber bed, covered with felt over a net into the opponent’s court. The rules of tennis have not changed much since the 1890 s. A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point challenge system, which allows a player to challenge the line (or chair) umpire’s call of a point. Players have unlimited opportunity a challenge but ease three incorrect challenges are made in a set, they cannot challenge again until the next set. If the set goes to a tie break, players are given one additional opportunity to challenge the call Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock (also known as a shuttle, bird, or birds) with their racquet so that it. passes over the net and lands in their opponents’ half of the court. Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. A rally ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor. The shuttlecock (or shuttle) is a feathered projectile whose unique aerodynamic properties cause it to fly differently from the balls used in most racquet sports: in particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly than a ball. Shuttlecocks have a much higher top speed, when compared to other racquet sports. Because shuttlecock flight is affected by wind, competitive badminton is played indoors. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreational activity, often as a garden or beach game.
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score paints by throwing or ’shooting’ a hall through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Basketball is one of die most popular and widely viewed sports in the world. A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 45.7 cm in diameter
and 3.05m high mounted to a backboard. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play. A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the hoop than the three point line, and three points if the player is ’outside’ the three-point line. The team with more points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a point. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or passing it to a the and mate. It is a violation (travelling) to walk with the ball, carry it, or to double dribble (to hold the ball and then resume dribbling).
Volleyball is an Olympic team sport, in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team’s court under organized rules. The complete rules are extensive. Rut simply, play proceeds as follows a player on one of the teams begins by serving the ball (tossing or releasing it and then hitting it with a or arm), from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, and into the receiving team’s court. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. They may touch the ball as many as three times. Typically, the first two touches are to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it. from being grounded in their court.
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-chequered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight by eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in ’check’ and there is no way to remove or defend it from attack oil the next move.
Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other .using their fists for competition. Boxing is typically supervised by a referee engaged in during series of one-to three-minute intervals called rounds, and boxers generally of similar weight. There are four ways to win; if the opponent is knocked out and unable to get up before the referee counts to ten seconds if the apparent is deemed too injured to continue if an opponent is disqualified for breaking a rule, or if there is no stoppage of the fight before an agreed number of rounds, a winner is determined either by the referee’s decision or by judges’ scorecards.
Wrestling is a martial art that uses grappling type techniques such as clinch throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modem styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to- hand combat systems.
Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games. Three types of weapon are used in Olympic fencing. Foil is a. light thrusting weapon that targets the torso, including the back, but not the arms. Hits are scored only with the tip; hits with the side of the blade do not count. Only a single hit can be scored by either fencer at one time. If both fencers hit at the same time, the referee uses the rules of ’right of way’ to determine which fencer gels the point.
Sabre is a light cutting and thrusting weapon that targets the entire body above the waist, except for the hands. The sabre is primarily used to slash, so hits with the side of the blade as well as the tip are valid, ’Right of way’ applies — only one fencer can score at a time.
Callisthenics is a form of dynamic exercise consisting of a variety of simple, often rhythmical movements, generally using minimal equipment or apparatus. They are intended to increase body strength and flexibility with movements such as bending, jumping, swinging, twisting or kicking, using only one’s body weight for resistance. They are usually conducted in concert with stretches. Callisthenics when performed vigorously and with variety can benefit both muscular and cardiovascular fitness, in addition to improving psychomotor skills such as balance agility and coordination’.
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level (senior), and at local, national, and international competitions. The International Skating Union (regulates international figure skating judging and competitions. Figure skating is an official event in the Winter Olympic Games. In languages other than English and Russian, figure skating is usually referred to by a name that translates as artistic skating.
Skiing is a recreational activity using skis as equipment for travelling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding. Skiing can be grouped into two general categories. The older of the two disciplines originated in Scandinavia and uses free, heel bindings that attach at the toes of the skier’s boots but not at the heels- Types of Nordic skiing include cross-country, ski jumping and Telemarked. Alpine skiing (more often railed downhill skiing), originated in the European Alps, and is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier’s boot.
Tee skating is moving on ice by using ice skates. It can done for a variety of reasons, including leisure, travelling, and various sports. Ice skating occurs both on specially prepared indoor and outdoor tracks, as well as on naturally occurring bodies of frozen water such as Jakes and rivers, Ice skating works because the metal blade at. the bottom of the skate shoe can glide with very little friction over the surface of the ice. However, slightly leaning the blade over and digging one of its edges into the ice (’rock over and bite’) gives skaters the ability to increase friction and control their movement at will. In addition, by choosing to move along curved paths while leaning their bodies radially and flexing their knees skaters can use gravity to control and increase their momentum. They can also create momentum by pushing the blade against the curved track which it cuts into the ice.
Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below.
In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimeters). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces porcelain or frost rail track on the inurn, plastic on the landing hill.
a rhetorical question
Computer games are gaining more and more popularity nowadays. Some people claim that teenagers get a lot of benefits playing them. But other people argue that young people should spend their free time going in for sport. Let's look upon this problem objectively and try to understand it.
To begin with, computer games develop memory, because when you play it you try to remember all details. Moreover, it develops logical thinking, language and basic computer skills. Apart from that, you can make virtual friends. So it is another way of communication. And if you like each other, you can meet in the future and become close friends. In addition, playing computer games is a good way of entertainment.
To start with, computer games have a harmful effect on health. First of all, you can spoil your eye sight. Besides, you sit in the same place and don’t move so you can gain weight. Another point to be made is that a lot of games have aggressive moments and this makes teenagers cruel and causes violent behavior. Furthermore, young people spend too much time on this and it can ruin relationships with people.
To sum up, I would like to stress that the problem has as many strong points as weak points. As for me, I prefer to spend my free time with my parents and friends. Besides, I enjoy going in for sports more than playing computer games.
The family is very important as a unit in our society. Nothing else but family can be an emotional center of people’s life, can be a transmitter of culture and raising children. Every mother feels great affection for her children and tries to bring them up in a proper way. Understanding between the members of the family and consideration for others are very important in
family relationship. Tenderness, warm-heartedness and respect must always be present in the family to make it friendly. A lot of activities help members of the family to be on friendly terms discussing all the family plans together, going on trips hikes together, visiting museums, theaters, exhibitions and exchanging opinions about them, sharing the same joys and sorrows. If you think of the others in the family you show your love and attention in everyday life, you can hurt them if you are selfish, not sincere and rude. It is very important to visit relatives on holidays, on birthdays, on anniversaries and develop close relationship. We feel more affection. for our relatives when we are parted from them. The proverb says, «Absence makes the heart grow fonder». When the family is friendly, everybody has the warmed feelings of returning home where dear relatives are waiting for them. There are different opinions on how children should be treated if they disobey their parents, break the rules, do forbidden things, don’t keep their words or promises. Some people think that parents should be patient, kind and understanding. The rules and children’s behaviors are discussed in such families. But others believe that children ought always to obey the parents and if they won’t they should be punished. From my point of view, such principles won't do a lot of good. Fear and punishment will lead to selfishness, cruelty and lies. But «love and kindness will save the world». We are the family of two. I live with my mother.
We don’t have such problems as misunderstanding between the members of the family. I think that it is due to the age of my parents and their character.
We live in the fascinating and challenging world of science. It is a world that more and more over the ages, and especially in the 20th century has come to affect so much of our lives. It is involved with the way we travel, the homes we live in and the clothes we wear, how we become ill and how medicine can make us better, and has given us fantastic means of communicating and exploring.
The list of the inventations is rather long. We are on lookers of great scientific achievements such as television and a computer. We can’t imagine our life without a notebook or a radio. Modern technology has spread almost all over the world. It has become really indispensible in our busy activity.
Firstly, machinery makes our life easier. For example, with
the help of a computer we can find the information which is necessary without a waste of time. I do not mean books and other sources are useless, I just want to say that using the Internet is quicker. At the same time, books are less likely to provide us with unauthentic material.
Secondly, modern technology gives us a wide range of amusements. Those are both listening to music and watching entertaining programmes, both playing computer games and a possibility of communication with people even at a great distance away from each other.
From the other hand, this innovation can also have a negative influence on people. First of all, it is a lack of mobility. For instance, instead of getting to work on foot, the majority prefer to use public transport or their own car. Therefore, getting into the way of dealing with technology we forget about our health. Hut motion activity strengthens the immune system and intensifies a resistive capacity of our organism to stress.
Apart from that, an application of modern contrivances in place of development intellection may lead to mental degradation. Many teenagers would rather make even the easiest computing on a calculator than count in their head.
To conclude, we should use modern technology within reasonable limits. Then it will benefit us not doing any harm.
Young people often want to reject conventional style of life, to differ from others. The idea not to be one of the crowd but the odd one out, sometimes even the leader of the pack, is quite attracting. The problem is how to realize the idea. The simplest way is to do something that shocks- the people around you. That’s how youth cults such as hippies, punks, rollers, rappers, etc. appear.
Some young people become members of youth cults just because they have nothing more to show off but their crazy looks. This way they manage to have attention of the others attracted. Others have rich and influential parents who are too strict to them or don’t spend enough time with their kids. So they want to do something parents won’t like. Some children consider participation in youth cults just a form of entertainment.
Members of youth cults have different values and behave in their own special way. Ravers will never listen to rock music - it isn’t their style. Rollers won’t buy bikes, and punks have tattoos made on their bodies and reject conventional dresses.
In general youth cults have a tendency of disappearing after a definite period of life. Only those, which develop, remain.
I think that if members of youth cults really get what they want and do not make harm to others, they might continue being themselves. But I’m not sure, that such people become truly different from the others. They remain ’one of the crowd’, but of another crowd of rappers, bikers, etc.. If one really wants to become a man of distinction, he should do much more, than just look ’cool’.
1. the first (main, chief)
2. in addition to that
3. the next (second, last, main chief)
5. first (on the one hand)
6. second (on the other hand, because, that’s why)
7. besides, on the other hand
9. moreover, finally (at last, in the end)
10. In conclusion (in general)
Sport is comprises hard work and competition. It’s a sphere where men and women want to surpass themselves. People all over the world play sport games, but of course some people like one game and some like others. For example, many people like to watch boxing while many other don’t. Sport makes our bodies strong, quickens reaction. In sport there are no social or racial differences. Sport teaches us how to lose as well as to win. Many people do sports on their personal initiative. All the necessary facilities are provided for them: gyms, football fields, skating rinks, swimming pools etc. Sport is paid much attention to in educational establishments. Everyday thousands of people do
sports, watch sports programmes on TV and read sports news. As for me, I was always fond of figure skating, because it is more a dance than a competition. Unfortunately I can’t participate in it I’m not strong enough, besides I wouldn't say that it is a cheap and absolutely safe kind of sports. At present I hardly do sports. The only game I occasionally play is basketball. But I’m sure, if you want to keep fit. you should go in for sports, because sport makes people strong, healthy and optimistic.
CHECK YOUR SKILLS
Last night, Germany beat Spain 3:2 in their World Cup qualifying match. At half-time, the Germans won 2:0. But Spain scored two goals in the second half and it looked, as if they were going to draw 2:2. But in the final minute Germany match thanks to a penalty taken by their captain. Tins was the second match against Germany that Spain lost Spain’s goalkeeper who had fallen ill before.
1. We were late. When we arrived everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the garden having coffee.
2. I ran to t he station bur the six o’clock train had left. The station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.
3. They were driving to the airport when t hey suddenly remembered that they hadn’t turned off the central heating,
4. The match had already started when we turned on the TV. Scotland was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.
1. The most popular game in Ukraine is football (soccer).
2. The lion’s share of success in football belongs to the club ’Dynamo’ Kyiv that started its history in 1924.
3. It was Oksana Bauil who won the first gold medal in figure- skating.
4. The gold fish of Ukraine is Yana Klochkova. The gymnast Valery Honcharov and champions in calisthenics Lilia Podkopaeva and Kateryna Serebftaiiska showed their fantastic results in world championships and Olympic Athens.
5. Vasyl Virastiuk holds the title of the Strongest Man on Earth.
6. The achievements of the legendary Klychko brothers have made them an example of courage and the will to win.
7. In wrestling Elbrus Tadeiev won the highest awards at the Olympiad in Athens.
8. The Olympic victories of Ukrainian athletes are 400 trophies, including 180 gold medal.
9. Ukraine ranks with the world’s 20 leading Olympic countries.
1. C. the sports hall
2. E. the fitness training room
3. F. the tennis courts
4. D. general activity rooms
5. A. the bowls hall
6. G. the solarium room
7. H the cafeteria
8. B. the sportsman’s bar