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Цілі: перевірити рівень умінь учнів з аудіювання.


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The first frozen dessert is credited to Emperor Nero of Rome. It was a mixture of snow (which he sent his slaves into the mountains to retrieve) and nectar, fruit pulp and honey. Another theory is Marco Polo, 13th cen­tury bard and adventurer, brought with him to Europe from the Far East recipes for water ices... said to be used in Asia for thousands of years.

In 1700 Governor Bladen of Maryland served ice cream to his guests.

The first ice cream parlor in America, opened in New York City in 1776.

Dolly Madison created a sensation when she served ice cream as a des­sert in the White House at the second inaugural ball in 1812.

Italo Marchiony sold his homemade ice cream from a pushcart on Wall Street. He reduced his overhead caused by customers breaking or wander­ing off with his serving glasses by baking edible waffle cups with sloping sides and a flat bottom. He patented his idea in 1903.

Others link the ice cream cone’s invention to the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis. An ice ream vendor there reportedly didn’t have enough dishes to keep up with demand, so he teamed up with a waffle vendor who rolled his product into «cornucopias».

Invention of the ice cream soda is usually attributed to Robert M. Green, who operated a soda water concession in Philadelphia. Green, who sold a mix of carbonated water, cream, and syrup, apparently ran out of cream and substituted ice cream, hoping his customers wouldn’t notice. But they did and daily sales receipts climbed from $6 to $600.

During the stuffy Victorian period, drinking soda water was consi­dered improper, so some towns banned its sale on Sundays. An enterprising druggist in Evanston, IN, reportedly concocted a legal Sunday alternative containing ice cream and syrup, but no soda. To show respect for the Sab­bath, he later changed the spelling to «sundae».

In 1843, New England housewife Nancy Johnson invented the hand- cranked ice cream churn. She patented her invention but lacked the re­sources to make and market the churn herself. Mrs. Johnson sold the patent for $200 to a Philadelphia kitchen wholesaler who, by 1847, made enough freezers to satisfy the high demand. From 1847 to 1877, more than 70 im­provements to ice cream churns were patented.

The first commercial ice cream plant was established in Baltimore in 1851 by Jacob Fussell.

In 1983, Cookies ’N Cream, made with real Oreo cookies, became an instant hit, climbing to number five on the list of best-selling ice cream fla­vors. It also holds the distinction of being the fastest growing new flavor in the history of the ice cream industry.

In 1991, another flavor phenomenon was created — Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough ice cream, which combines the best part of the Chocolate Chip cookie — the raw dough — with creamy vanilla ice cream and semi-sweet chocolate chips.





The ice cream churn was invented




Cookies ’N Cream ice cream became very popular




Ice cream as a dessert was served in the White House




The World’s Fair started selling ice cream cones




The first ice cream parlor opened in America




Ice cream in waffle cups was patented


Key: 1 e; 2 c; 3 a; 4 f; 5 d; 6 b.

Listen to the interview and do the task.


That’s the fun and frightful profession that makes Josiah George of Boston wake up each day looking forward to nightfall with a touch of sinister glee, es­pecially during the Halloween season. George is one of a troupe of talented, cos­tumed performers that take tourists on a unique excursion of Boston locales and dark streets. They are guides on Boston’s Ghosts and Gravestones tour, which unveils some of the city’s Colonial secrets with a delightfully eerie witch’s brew of scary fun and macabre history, mixed with a dash of dark humor.

Josiah — who goes by the stage name in character of Lucious Branch, a gravedigger from Colonial times — shared his thoughts on what makes his job a fun-filled scream each night.

Q: How did you become involved in this unique job?

A: I answered a posting for a cold audition in 2005 and did a reading of Edgar Allan Poe’s ’Tell Tale Heart.’ The performance manager at the time was a Poe fan, and it was a no-brainer for him to hire me. Since then, for me and my co-workers, this is more than just a job. As a theatrical performer, you learn there aren’t too many jobs where the group becomes a cohesive, continuing troupe that stays together year after year. It’s great to come back to the same group of people each season.

Q: How does this company of performers work to put on several per­formances each night over a season?

A: We have 14 actors and a manager. Once we pass the audition, we’re given a script with all the basic historic material, which is told in a narra­tive sense. What’s great about this gig is that you’re able to develop your own unique character from the original script. I tell the macabre stories from my character’s perspective.

Q: What do you enjoy most about this job of frightening folks?

A: One of the best parts of my job is being a true storyteller. I get to pass these old stories about Boston’s past from generation to generation. It’s almost like telling scary stories around a campfire and creating a scary, macabre mood for the listeners. What’s particularly enjoyable for me are the people I get to work with and the people who enjoy the tour.

Q: What’s the greatest challenge you face?

A: I think it’s painting the right atmosphere for each group amid some­times difficult distractions. The tour is conducted, in part, inside a moving ve­hicle, with street noises and people hollering and more. The guide needs to work off the reactions of the audience. Some of the reactions are, well, to die for.

We’ve dealt with all kinds of unexpected distractions, from people fainting on the tour for any number of reasons; but they’re always happy and have fun. Once, we had a group of drag queens spontaneously join in our tour as we were walking. I suspect some of the paying customers weren’t sure if they were part of the show. But, that’s the unexpected fun of this tour. There’s always surprise.

As much as Josiah loves his moonlighting job as a theatrical gravedigger, he hasn’t given up on his daytime job and equally enjoyable passion. By night, he may be bringing thrills and chills to Boston’s tourists; however, by day Josiah is the Equity stage manager for the Stoneham Theater outside of Boston.

► True or false

1) Josiah George is a professional actor.

2) People take this tour because they love being frightened.

3) Josiah George has this job during the year.

4) Josiah George was admitted to the troupe after audition.

5) Josiah George performs his parts strictly according to scripts.

6) Only the narrator creates the right atmosphere.

Key: 1F; 2T; 3F; 4T; 5F; 6F.

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