UNIT 6. IS THE EARTH IN DANGER?
WHAT DISASTERS ARE EXPECTED?
Цілі: вдосконалювати навички читання, аудіювання й усного мовлення; розвивати мовну здогадку й мовленнєву реакцію учнів; виховувати зацікавленість у розширенні своїх знань.
1) What are some short-term problems people might have after a disaster?
2) What are some long-term problems people might have after a disaster?
3) What are some health problems that might arise after a disaster?
2. Writing and speaking
► Work in groups.
Summarize your knowledge as for disasters, discuss different kinds of disasters in your groups and complete the information in the chart. Then report what properties are peculiar to each type.
For example: Earthquake is created by the Earth that is harmful to people, plants, and animals.
Read the text. Match choices (A-G) to (1-6). There is one extra choice.
CLIMATE SCIENTISTS ARE PREDICTING EXTREME WEATHER
Climate scientists are predicting that during the 21st Century «global warming» will cause a worldwide increase in «extreme weather». Because of global warming, they say, there will be more heavy rain and more severe droughts.
Global warming will bring more heavy rain because, with a warmer atmosphere, there (1) ___. Evaporation occurs when water molecules escape from an area of liquid water and turns into a gas called «water vapor». The warmer the weather, the more quickly the molecules on the surface of the water move around and the more likely they are to escape into the air.
As the warm air near the Earth’s surface rises up to higher levels of the atmosphere, it carries water vapor with it. As the air rises, it cools, and this cooling eventually causes the water vapor to «condense». Tiny «droplets» of liquid water collect around the dust particles that (2) ___. The clouds we see in the sky are made up of millions of these droplets. If the air is very moist, the droplets will grow until they become «raindrops» about 0.5 millimeters in diameter. These raindrops are too heavy to remain suspended in the air and, so they fall toward the Earth as rain.
Because heat causes evaporation to happen more quickly, as the atmosphere warms, it will contain more and more water vapor; in other words, it will be more «moist». Climate scientists predict that this moister, warmer atmosphere will lead to more storms, and that, on average, these storms (3) ___. They will also bring more rain and, most importantly, more «downpours,» which will cause floods and landslides. The run-off water from these storms will also cause erosion, which (4) ___ and allow deserts to grow.
Climate scientists believe that heavy rain is not the only kind of extreme weather that will be more common on a warmer Earth. They also say that (5) ___ —long periods of very dry weather—more common than they have been in the past. This prediction seems at first to contradict the prediction of increased rainfall: very wet weather and very dry weather are opposites. How could they both be caused by the same thing?
The answer is that just as evaporation removes water molecules from the surface of the ocean, it also (6) ____. In other words, evaporation «dries out» moist soil. And, on land too, the hotter the atmosphere, the more quickly evaporation works. Because of this connection between heat and evaporation, a quite small rise in average temperature can cause especially severe droughts with terrible consequences. Farm crops die. Food prices go up; farmers go bankrupt. In poor countries, people may starve.
A will be bigger and stronger
B global warming will likely make extreme «droughts»
C are suspended everywhere in the atmosphere
D cause quite a lot of damage
E takes water away from land surfaces
F will be more «evaporation» from the Earth’s oceans
G will damage farm land and, in the long-term, destroy forests
Key: 1 F; 2 C; 3 A; 4 G; 5 B; 6 E.
1) Can we predict disasters?
2) What happens to the earth during and after one of the disasters?
3) What can you do to prepare in advance for a disaster?
Ex. 4, p. 109.