Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

АРТИКЛЬ (THE ARTICLE)

Артиклі є основними визначниками іменників і майже завжди вживаються перед ними. В англійській мові існує два артиклі: неозначений а/аn та означений the.

Неозначений артикль а/аn вживається зі злічуваними іменниками в однині, якщо вони згадуються

вперше або якщо йдеться про один предмет:

There is а tree near our house.

Can I have an apple?

Перед іменниками, що починаються з приголосного, вживається артикль а, перед іменниками, що починаються з голосного, вживається an: a book, an umbrella.

Означений артикль the вживається у таких випадках.

1) Зі злічуваними іменниками в однині, якщо вони згадуються не вперше:

They have a car. The car is new.

2) Зі злічуваними іменниками у множині:

The books are on the shelf.

3) 3 незлічуваними конкретними іменниками:

The milk is in the fridge.

1. Fill in a or an.

1) ... table; 2) ... apricot; 3) ... ear; 4) ... chair; 5) ... arm-chair; 6)... cassette; 7)... poem; 8)... envelope; 9)... kitten; 10)... planet; 11) ... ant; 12)... flower; 13)... icecream; 14)... clown; 15)... eye; 16)... puzzle; 17)... uncle; 18)... camera; 19)... horse.

2. Circle the correct item.

1) My friend has got а/the camera. А/the camera is digital. 2) This is a/the house. А/the house is old. 3) Could you giveme а/the pen to write? 4) It is а/the lamp. А/the lamp is on the table. 5) А/the strawberries in the basket are very sweet. 6) А/the milk is in the glass. 7) I see a/the man. А/the man is coming up to the bus stop. А/the man is wearing а/the hat. 8) You have got so many fruit! Can I have а/the peach, please?

3. Divide the nouns into two groups: the group which is used with the article a or the and the group which can be used with the article the.

Birds, bread, lion, photo, children, lemon, sugar, doors, cars, robot, mouse, mice, plate, sweets, trees, garden, soup, balloon, forks, dresses, cup, monkey, cake.

4. Translate into English.

1) У дітей є іграшки. 2) У нього є комп’ютер. Комп’ютер новий. 3) За будинком є сад. Сад великий. 4) У кімнаті були квіти. 5) Жінки взяли документи та вийшли з кімнати. 6) Хлопці отримають листа наступного тижня.

Неозначений артикль а/аn вживається у таких випадках.

1) Після дієслів to be, to have:

My father is a driver.

She has got a house.

2) У словосполученнях «прикметник + іменник», якщо іменник вжито в однині:

This is a funny puppy.

Але: These are funny puppies.

3) 3 назвою професії, якщо йдеться про будь-якого її представника, та з іменниками, що мають узагальнююче значення:

A baker makes bread.

A tiger is stronger than a cat.

4) Коли надається класифікація речей або явищ:

This film is a comedy.

Означений артикль the вживається з такими словами.

1) 3 порядковими числівниками:

Му brother is in the third form.

The first story was funny.

2) 3 найвищим ступенем порівняння прикметників:

This is the longest street in our town.

These seats are the most comfortable in the cinema.

3) 3 назвами музичних інструментів:

Не plays the violin, but he doesn't play the piano.

4) Зі словами country(side), seaside, cinema, theatre, shop, market, beach, police:

My cousins will spend the holidays at the seaside.

5. Explain the use of the articles in the following sentences.

1) Their flat is on the fifth floor. 2) She went to the market in the morning. 3) A nurse takes care of sick people. 4) I’d like to learn to play the guitar. 5) His uncle is a pilot. 6) We have got a nice cottage-house. 7) He is the strongest boy in our class. 8) This girl is a pupil. 9) You bought two tickets to the theatre yesterday. 10) This picture is the most beautiful one I have ever seen.

6. Complete the sentences with the articles a or the.

1) My friend has got... hamster. ... hamster lives in ... big cage. 2) His sister played ... flute at... theatre yesterday. 3)... young woman came into ... shop and bought... cake. 4) Jack explained that... second book was ... detective story. 5) I didn’t know that your father is... ski-instructor. 6) It is well-known that... cheetah is ... fastest animal in the world. 7) Last summer Margaret went to ... seaside and had ... wonderful rest there. 8)... big fireplace was ... first thing she saw in the living-room.

7. Rewrite the sentences and correct mistakes in using articles.

1) It was the nice sunny day and a children went to a beach. 2) Helen was happy to go to a country for her weekend. 3) Mark has got the yacht. A yacht is small but very comfortable. 4) That man is the photographer. 5) A coffee in this cup is hot. 6) My friend played a drum in some popgroup. 7) There are a sweets in this box. 8) It was a most exciting adventure in my life.

8. Complete the joke with the correct articles.

... teacher came into the classroom and said to ... children, «Pupils, I’d like you to be very quiet today. I have got ... terrible headache».

... youngest girl stood up and said to ... teacher, «Why don’t you do what my mum always does in this case?»

«What does your mum do?» wondered ... teacher.

«She sends me to play outdoors», explained ... girl.

9. Translate into English.

1) Кінь сильніший за собаку. 2) Ця вправа найскладніша у підручнику. 3) Вчитель навчає дітей. 4) Перший день канікул був найцікавішим для Тома. 5) У нього є квартира. Квартира невелика, але зручна. 6) Твій друг уміє грати на гітарі? 7) Моя бабуся завжди купує овочі тільки на ринку.

Запам'ятай!

Запам'ятай!

Артикль а/аn також вживається у таких конструкціях.

1) У структурах «such а/аn + прикметник + злічуваний іменник в однині»:

It is such а sunny day.

2) В окличних реченнях, до складу яких входять прикметник та іменник в однині:

What a wonderful view!

3) У словосполученнях in a day, in a week, in a month, in a year у значенні «через», once (twice/three

times...) a day (week/month/year), this is a, there is a, that is a:

You should take this mixture twice a day.

See you in a week! This is a house.

Артикль the також вживається у таких випадках.

1) 3 назвами частин світу: the south, the east, the west, the north.

2) У словосполученнях in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening

(but at night), in the middle, in the centre of, in the corner, to the right, to the left:

He left his home early in the morning.

There is a table in the middle of the room.

10. Circle the correct item.

1) This town is situated in a/the south of a/the country.

2) What a/the beautiful picture you have painted!

3) My cousin promised to phone me in a/the week.

4) The group of tourists arrived in a/the evening.

5) There is a modern hotel in a/the centre of a/the town.

6) She has always dreamt of such a/the wonderful present.

7) «I’ll phone you twice а/the day: in a/the morning and in a/the evening», the woman said to her daughter.

8) There is а/the picture on а/the wall.

11. Complete the sentences with the articles.

1) What... nice dress you have bought!

2) ... postman delivers fresh newspapers in ...morning.

3) My aunt always spends summer in ... south.

4) She was told to take this medicine three times ... day.

5) His brother will return from his business trip in ... week.

6) It was such ... interesting book that Sue was reading all night.

7) There is ... wardrobe to ... right and there is ... bed to ... left.

8) Henry will finish his project in ... month.

12. Complete the joke with the articles.

It was such ... rainy day. ... old woman was hurrying home when she saw ... little girl with two umbrellas. ... first umbrella was right for ... child, but ... second one was too big. «For whom is this big umbrella, young lady?» ... woman asked ... girl. «It’s ... present from ... best friend», answered ... girl. «And who is your best friend?» wondered ... woman. «I don’t know, these words are written on ... handle of ... umbrella», explained ... girl.

Артиклі не вживаються у таких випадках.

1) 3 кількісними числівниками:

Не has got a cat and two kittens.

2) Якщо перед іменником стоїть присвійний або вказівний займенник:

That disc is new.

These are his toys.

3) Якщо перед іменником стоїть іменник у присвійному відмінку або заперечна частка по:

This is ту mother's hat.

There is no park near our house.

13. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets as in the example.

Make necessary changes.

Example: Ron has got a friend. (two) — Ron has got two friends.

1) There is a girl in the yard. (no)

2) That is a car. (his)

3) This is a photo. (five)

4) Mary has got a flower. (seven)

5) Dolly showed a picture to the teacher. (her)

6) There was a TV set in the room. (no)

7) Peter has finished the report. (his)

8) Tony will buy a disc. (three)

14. Complete the sentences with the articles where necessary.

1) I have got... aunt and ... three cousins. I have no ... uncle.

2) There are ... two books on the table. ... first book is ... detective story, ... second is ... historical novel.

3) Bob has got... sister, but he has no ... brothers.

4) ... that girl is ... my cousin.

5) This is ... mobile phone. ... mobile phone is new. This is my father’s ... mobile phone.

6) I don’t know his ... friend.

7) There is no ... letter on the desk. But there are three ... letters on ... coffee table.

8) I don’t think his ... answer was correct.

Артиклі не вживаються у таких випадках.

1) 3 назвами видів спорту, речовин, кольорів:

The dress is blue. Children like chocolate. They like to play football.

2) 3 назвами днів тижня та місяців:

Her birthday is in December.

Frank has tennis trainings on Monday and Wednesday.

3) Зі словами breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper, school, home, work, bed: We have dinner at two o'clock. My parents come home in the evening.

4) 3 іменниками у множині:

He likes reading novels.

5) 3 незлічуваними іменниками, які називають істот, предмети чи речовини як вид чи клас:

Diary products are made of milk.

15. Circle the correct item to fill in the blanks.

1) Sue will be free on ... Thursday.

a) a     b) the    c) —

2) Boris seldom goes to ... cinema.

a) a    b) the    c) —

3) My brother has got... parrot.

a) a    b) the    c) —

4) She always leaves ... home at eight o’clock.

a) a    b) the    c) —

5) They played ... volleyball yesterday.

a) a    b) the    c) —

6) Pam enjoys drinking ... juice.

a) a    b) the    c) —

7) This cake is ... most delicious I’ve ever eaten.

a) a    b) the    c) —

16. Complete the sentences with the articles where necessary.

My ... parents always get up at ... seven o’clock. My ... mother cooks ... breakfast and my ... father walks ... dog in ... yard. I usually have... breakfast at half past... seven. I live not far from ... school. My mother is ... teacher of Music and she works in my ... school, so we often go to ... school together. My mother is ... very good teacher. She can play ... piano, ... violin and ... guitar. She knows a lot about... music and she tells many ... interesting stories about ... composers and ... musicians. ... pupils of our ... school love her ... lessons very much. I also like ... music, but I am really interested in ... sport. I attend ... tennis club and have trainings ... three times ... week: on ... Mondays, ... Tuesdays and ... Fridays. My ... dream is to become ... best tennis player in our ... city and I work hard to make my ... dream come true.

17. Complete the joke with the articles where necessary.

... member of ... military orchestra felt ill and went to see ... doctor. «Let me see your ... throat», said ... doctor. «Oh, you have got ... cold. You should stay in ... bed for ... day or two. Take this ... medicine ... three times ... day and you’ll feel ... better soon». In ... three days ... man came to ... doctor again. «Your ... throat is quite well now», said ... doctor. «Yon can go back to your ... work. By the way, what instrument do you play in ... orchestra?» «I play ... drum, sir», answered ... man.

Вживання артикля the з власними назвами

Артикль the вживається з:

1) Назвами національностей та прізвищами у множині у значенні «родина»:

The Jacksons went to the seaside.

The Swedish prefer fish to meat.

2) Назвами країн у множині та з тими, до складу яких входять слова State, Republic, Kingdom: the United States of America, (the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom).

3) Іменниками, які називають унікальні речі:

The sun is shining and the weather is fine.

4) Назвами титулів, якщо не називаються імена їх носіїв: the President, the Queen.

Артикль the не вживається з:

1) Іменами та прізвищами людей:

Peter Davis is ту classmate.

2) Назвами мов:

Не speaks French and Italian quite well.

3) Назвами країн (Ukraine, Greece), населених пунктів (Berlin, Kyiv), вулиць (Baker Street), парків (Hyde Park).

4) Назвами титулів, які вживаються з іменами або прізвищами їх носіїв: Queen Elizabeth, King Henry VIII, President Kennedy.

- . ... ... .

18. Explain the use or absence of the article with proper names in the following sentences.

1) Sally learns Spanish because she is going to Madrid next summer.

2) The Taylors live in Bridge Street.

3) The speech of the President impressed everybody.

4) I have just read the article about the Dominican Republic.

5) The Moon can be seen at night.

6) Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837.

7) Sheila speaks French so well because she lived in France some years ago.

8) The Germans are punctual and disciplined people.

19. Complete the sentences with the article the where necessary.

1) My friend ... Steve Wilson is fond of travelling. He has already been to ... Japan and ... United States of America and now he is flying to ... Irish Republic.

2) ... Ridleys live in ... High Street.

3) The tourists have visited the palace but they haven’t seen ... Queen.

4) ... weather was rainy and ... sky was covered with dark heavy clouds.

5) Before going to ... China ... Robert took the lessons of ... Chinese.

6) ... King Alfred the Great is considered to be the first king of ... England.

7) The delegation met ... President in the airport.

8) ... Regent’s Park is the home of ... London Zoo and one of the most popular parks for family rest in the city.

20. Complete the text with the articles a/an, fhe where necessary.

Yesterday my ... friend ... Alex Frank phoned me. We haven’t seen each other for ... four years. ... Franks have moved to ... new flat recently and now they live not far from our ... house on ... Oak Street. ... Alex wanted to see me and we met in ... city centre. ... weather was nice so we decided to go to ... park. We chose ... Shade Park as it was very cosy. It was ... Saturday and there were many people in ... park. We talked a lot and then found ... small cafe to have ... cup of coffee. ... Alex told me about his ... life. He was fond of ... sport and ... music. ... Alex played ... basketball and he learned to play ... guitar. I invited ... Alex to visit my ... place to meet my ... parents and my ... younger sister. We agreed to meet in ... week, as we both were busy at... school. We enjoyed our ... meeting greatly.

Артикль the вживається з такими власними назвами.

Артикль the не вживається у таких випадках.

1) 3 назвами річок (the Clyde), морів (the Irish Sea), океанів (the Atlantic Ocean), пустель

(the Sahara Desert), груп островів (the Bahamas), гірських масивів (the Carpathians).

2) 3 назвами кінотеатрів (the Odeori), театрів (the Globe), готелів (the Hilton Hotel), музеїв

(the British Museum), газет (the Telegraph), пароплавів (the Queen Mary).

1) 3 назвами озер (Lake Huron), одиничних островів (Sri Lanka), гірських вершин (Everest), континентів (Africa).

2) 3 назвами університетів (Cambridge University), шкіл (Cedar Grove School), палаців (Buckingham Palace), замків (Holyrood Castle), соборів (St Paul's Cathedral), вокзалів (Paddington Station), аеропортів (Heathrow Airport).

Circle the correct item.

1) We are going to visit ... Australian Museum in Sydney tomorrow.

a) a     b) the     c) —

2) She is staying at... Plaza Hotel.

a) a     b) the     c) —

3) He can speak ... Arabian very well.

a) a     b) the     c)—

4) My father asked me to buy ... Times for him.

a) a     b) the     c)—

5) She attends the swimming-pool three times ... week.

a) a     b) the     c) —

6) They spent their winter holidays in ... Alps.

a) a     b )the     c)—

7) The train has just arrived at ... Ost    Railway Station.

a) a     b)the     c)—

8) Budapest is situated on ... Danube.

a) a     b) the     c) —

9) We enjoyed the tour around ... Lake Superior.

a) a     b) the     c)—

10) ... Oxford University is one of the oldest universities in the world.

a) a     b) the     c) —

22. Complete the sentences with the article the where necessary.

1) ... Jamaica is situated in ... Caribbean Sea.

2) The capital of ... Australia is ... Canberra.

3) My sister has graduated from ... Harvard University.

4) ... Hoverla is the highest peak of ... Carpathian Mountains.

5) We enjoyed the beautiful view of ... Pacific Ocean from ... San Francisco.

6) My friend invited us to ... Royal Theatre to watch the play of some modern ... English dramatist.

7) During the tour around the city the tourists visited ... Museum of Fine Arts, ... King’s Castle, ... St Andrew’s Cathedral and ... Historical Museum.

23. Complete the text with the articles a/an, the where necessary.

Malta

Malta or officially ... Republic of ... Malta is ... developed European country. ... state occupies ... seven islands and is situated in ... middle of ... Mediterranean Sea. But only... three largest islands — ... Malta Island, ... Gozo and ... Comino — are inhabited. Malta is known for its ... mysterious history and ... beautiful temples which are ... oldest free-standing structures on Earth. Malta’s capital city is ... Valletta. There are ... two official languages: ... Maltese and ... English. Malta is ... popular tourist resort due to its ... tropical climate, ... exciting nightlife and ... history, full of legends. There is something in ... islands that everybody will enjoy.

24. Complete the text with the articles a/an, the where necessary.

... world famous author of ... books about Harry Potter, JK Rowling was born in ... England. She studied ... French at ... Exeter University and then worked as ... secretary. When she was ... twenty-six she moved to ... Portugal where she taught ... English and worked on ... story about ... wizard. She returned to ... United Kingdom and has lived in ... Scotland since then. Since ... first Harry Potter book was published she has made her ... living from writing. Today JK Rowling is at ... top of ... best sellers list. She says she has enjoyed writing stories since her ... childhood and she is happy to achieve success after so many ... years of hard ... work.

25. Translate into English.

1) У нього ще ніколи не було такої захоплюючої пригоди. 2) Це був найцікавіший урок з історії. 3) Для того щоб вивчити італійську, Хелен минулого року їздила до Італії. 4) Наступного вівторка вчитель біології поведе нас до музею природи. 5) Брауни вже переїхали до нового будинку і зараз живуть на вулиці Парковій. 6) Моїй сестрі потрібна нова сукня для вечірки. 7) О котрій його брат повертається додому зі школи? 8) Вони вже повернулися з театру і зараз вечеряють. 9) Наталка вже купила квитки на літак, і за тиждень вона летить до Сполучених Штатів Америки. 10) Столиця України розташована на берегах річки Дніпро.





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